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B M 315 003 
















F. <fc R. EL. FLORA OF N. W. 
E. P. I 


THIS book was written primarily on account of the great need for 
some such work in the schools of the Northwest. Geographically it 
covers Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the coastal region of south- 
western British Columbia. 

The usual limited spring flora omits so many plants that the user 
must know beforehand the name of the particular plant whose name 
he is seeking, in order that he may find by the index whether the book 
includes or omits it. This is absurd. Usually there is a species de- 
scription, whose necessary brevity often makes it do equally well for 
a number of species not included. 

In this book the keys are complete so far as they go, except in a very 
few genera of grasses, in which the limits are expressly stated. This 
will enable teachers to hand out for analysis plants they do not them- 
selves know. This is specially desirable in the Northwest, where 
teachers may move to other schools only a hundred miles away and 
find a tremendous change in the flora. It is unreasonable in the 
Northwest to expect teachers of botany to know all the local plants, 
even though they may have specialized in the subject in an under- 
graduate course. 

The distinguishing characteristics of a plant are mostly given in the 
keys. Species descriptions are little more than a repetition of these, 
together with a number of others too general to distinguish anything 
definitely. It is a waste of space to repeat so often in species descrip- 
tions, while omitting so much that is wanted in the keys in an elemen- 
tary flora, since small cost, and therefore small size, is one of the primary 

The persistent and regrettable tendency of taxonomic botanists to 
elevate varieties to specific rank has resulted in the separation of the 
species of many genera on such minute or trifling characteristics that 
in the opinion of the writers it is not advisable in many cases for the 
beginner to go beyond the genus. 

Many of the common cultivated crop plants, the bad weeds, and the 
medicinal plants are indicated by a few words. 

The derivation of the generic name is given after the genus descrip- 
tion. This often helps to associate the name with some characteristic 
of the plants. 




In'tKe cofrimoh names >there is much confusion and duplication. 
We have herein given one common name for each species in so far as 
such are known to us, choosing the one most common or most appli- 
cable when there were several. 

To illustrate the use of the keys let us take the common large-leaved 
maple. Beginning on page (7) with the KEY TO FAMILIES, compare 
A with AA; evidently this maple falls under AA. Compare the 
next letter (C) under AA with its double (CC) ; this maple goes to 
CC, which refers to the KEY TO THE DICOTYLEDONS on page (10). 
There compare A with AA, to find it goes to A ; then the first letter 
(B) under A with its double (BB), tracing it to B, which refers to 
Group 3, p. n. There trace through letters in like manner to the 
family ACERACEAE, page 148. Comparing the plant with the family 
description, whose chief characteristics are in italics, it is found to 
agree. Since there is only one genus (ACER) in this family, no key 
is necessary, and it follows directly. To the right of it is the common 
name of the group, MAPLE. Comparing the plant with the genus 
description, short in this case, it is found to agree. Under it compare 
A with AA, tracing it to A; compare then B, BB, BBB, finding it 
goes to BB. Then follows W. C. E., which gives its distribution 
(see abbreviations, p. 5) ; then follows A. macrophyllum, the scien- 
tific name. In this A. is the abbreviation of the genus name, ACER ; 
and macrophyllum is the species name. " Large-leaved Maple " fol- 
lows, and is the common name of this particular maple. 

That the book is free from errors is not a reasonable hope on account 
of the great amount of detail of fact and arrangement. We would be 
glad to have our attention called to errors that they may be corrected 

in future editions. 

T. C. FRYE, 
GEO. B. R1GG. 








Monocotyledons '34 

Dicotyledons . . 7 

GLOSSARY ... . 239 

INDEX 249 


C. = In the Cascade Mountains. 

E. = East of the Cascade Mountains. 

F. & R. = Frye & Rigg's Northwest Flora ; University Bookstore, Seattle. 
Gr. = Greek. 

Jap. = Japanese. 
L. = Latin, 
p. = page, 
pp. = pages. 

U. = Southwestern Oregon, and not otherwise west of the Cascade 

W. = West of the Cascade Mountains. 








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A. GYMNOSPERMS (CONE BEARERS) Trees or shrubs, evergreen (except Larix), 
cone-bearers (except Taxus and Juniperus) ; leaves either needles or scales ; 
ovules not inclosed in an ovary. 

B. Fruit a red berry; leaves complanate, scattered, needle-like, flat, sharply 
acute or acuminate ; ovule i ; flowers dioecious, solitary, axillary. 

TAXACEAE (p. 29) 

BB. Fruit either a woody cone or a bluish berry ; leaves not agreeing with the 
above in all points ; ovules 2 to several on each scale ; flowers mostly monoecious, 
mostly several grouped together forming cones ; cones usually axillary. 

PINACEAE (p. 29) 

AA. ANGIOSPERMS (OVARY PLANTS) Trees or shrubs or herbs, mostly not 
evergreen ; inflorescence rarely conelike ; leaves rarely needles or scales ; ovules 
inclosed in an ovary. 

C. MONOCOTYLEDONS Herbs or one a vining shrub (Smilax), some leafless and 
floating ; leaves parallel-veined, or the chief veins from the base, or i-veined, or 
none ; flower parts in 3's, rarely in 4*3, never in 5*3 ; wood usually in bundles 
scattered throughout the stem; cotyledon i. 

D. Plants free-floating; body thalloid, without a distinct stem or leaf; roots 

unbranched or none. LEMNACEAE (p. 51) 

DD. Plants not free-floating, or if so having leaves ; leaves usually present ; stem 

present or the leaves tufted at base ; roots present, usually branched. 

E. Leaves narrow, linear or grasslike. GROUP i (p. 7) 

EE. Leaves none, or mere scales, or at least some of them too wide to be linear. 

GROUP 2 (p. 9) 

CC. DICOTYLEDONS Herbs or shrubs or trees, never leafless when floating; 
leaves netted-veined, or the chief veins from the base, or i-veined, or none; 
flower parts rarely in 3's, mostly in 4*3 or s's ; wood usually in a circle or in 
several concentric circles about a central pith; cotyledons 2. 


GROUP 1 Monocotyledons with narrow leaves 

A. Plants growing in salt water near the low-tide line, submerged in the sea; 

leaves 3-20 dm. long, flat or folded lengthwise. NAIADACEAE (p. 34) 

AA. Plants not growing near the low-tide line of the sea, although sometimes 

growing along seashores ; leaves often not as above. 

B. Plants submerged in fresh or saline waters; leaves opposite or whorled, not over 

5 mm. wide. 
C. Leaves toothed at margin, 0.4-2 mm. wide, 8-25 mm. long. 

Naias in NAIADACEAE (p. 34) 


CC. Leaves entire. 
D. Leaves i mm. or less wide, 2-10 cm. long; stipules 2 cm. or less long. 

Zannichellia in NAIADACEAE (p. 34) 
DD. Leaves 2-4 mm. wide, 0.5-1 cm. long; stipules none. 

Philotria in HYDROCHARITACEAE (p. 36) 
BB. Either not water plants, or else the leaves alternate or all basal or none or 

rarely a few of the upper opposite; leaves often more than 5 mm. wide. 
E. Plants submerged or partly floating, but nothing other than the inflorescence 

rising out of the water. 
F. Plant stemless; leaves basal, terete, 1-45 mm. in diameter. 

Lilaea in NAIADACEAE (p. 34) 

FF. Plants with evident stem; leaves mostly flat, less than 1.5 mm. in diam- 
eter if terete. 

G. Leaves either with distinct dilated stipular sheath or with axillary stipules ; 
flowers greenish, 4 to many in an umbel-like or spikelike cluster. 


GG. Leaves with neither dilated sheath nor axillary stipules. 
H. Leaves equitant; flowers 10 or more in a head, monoecious, greenish 
or whitish. SPARGANIACEAE (p. 34) 

HH. Leaves not equitant; flowers 1-2 in a cluster, perfect, bright yellow. 


EE. Plants not submerged nor floating, at least rising out of the water if growing 

in it. 
I. Flowers in a spadix; leaves resembling those of cat-tails. 

Acorus in ARACEAE (p. 51) 

n. Flowers not in a spadix; leaves often not as above. 
J. Flowers surrounded by chaffy bracts or bristles or fine hairs, and no other 

perianth present, or no perianth at all. 

K. Cat-tails; perianth of many fine hairs; flowers in a cylindric spikelike 

cluster 10 cm. or more long and 2-2.5 cm. in diameter. TYPHACEAE (p. 34) 

KK. Not cat-tails; perianth none, or of chaffy bracts, or of stiff usually serrate 

bristles, or of fine hairs (Eriophorum); flowers either not in spikes or the 

spikes smaller. 

L. Perianth of 1-3 chaffy bracts, or of hairs or bristles, or none at all; 
ovary i -celled, i -seeded; stems hollow or not so; flowers often in spike- 

M. Flowers monoecious, each subtended by 3 chaffy bracts; fruits aggre- 
gated into spherical burlike heads; growing along borders of ponds in mud 
or shallow water. SPARGANIACEAE (p. 34) 

MM. Flowers mostly perfect, each subtended by 1-2 chaffy bracts; 
fruits rarely aggregated into spherical burlike heads; often growing on 
dry land. 

N. Leaves 2-ranked; margins of leaf sheath not united; stem hollow in 

nearly all species; fruit a grain. GRAMINACEAE (p. 36) 

NN. Leaves 3-ranked; margins of leaf sheath united; stem solid; fruit 

an akene. CYPERACEAE (p. 50) 

LL. Perianth of 6 similar chaffy bracts; ovary either 3-celled or i-celled 

with 3 parietal placentae, 3 to many seeded; stem not hollow; flowers 

not in spikelets. JUNCACEAE (p. 52) 


JJ. Flowers with green or colored perianth which is not chaff nor hair-like nor 

O. Leaves without petiole, sheathing at base; sheath dilated and projecting 
as stipular points where it joins the blade; ovary superior; perianth small, 
green, not flower-like. JUNCAGINACEAE (p. 35) 

OO. Leaves often petioled, sometimes sheathing at base, but in such case the 
sheath not projecting as stipular points where it joins the blade ; ovary supe- 
rior or inferior; perianth often conspicuous and colored, flower-like even 
when greenish. 
P. Ovary superior; flowers regular. 

PP. Ovary inferior; flowers regular or irregular. 

Q. Leaves equitant; flowers regular; stamens and style not coherent; 

anthers 3. IRIDACEAE (p. 65) 

QQ. Leaves not equitant; flowers irregular; stamens and style coherent; 

anthers 1-2. ORCHIDACEAE (p. 66) 

GROUP 2 Monocotyledons with wide leaves 

A. Plant with a skunk-like odor ; leaves 3-10 dm. long, oval : flowers forming a 
fleshy cone (spadix) 5-15 cm. long, surrounded by a bright yellow leaf (spathe). 

Lysichiton in ARACEAE (p. 51) 
AA. Plant without skunk-like odor; leaves either not oval or smaller; inflorescence 

not as above. 

B. Leaves more than 2, all basal, ovate or oval to triangular-sagittate ; petioles 
rather long; growing in mud or water along ponds. ALISMACEAE (p. 35) 

BB. Leaves not as above in all points. 

C. Plant submerged, although sometimes with floating leaves; flowers in spikes, 
inconspicuous. Potamogeton in NAIADACEAE (p. 34) 

CC. Plant not submerged, although occasionally growing in wet places; flowers 
sometimes in spikes, mostly conspicuous. 
D. Perianth regular ; ovary superior except in IRIDACEAE. 
E. Flowers enveloped by chaffy bracts and without other perianth; bracts of 
the perianth green or brown, less than i cm. long ; plants rushlike or grasslike. 

JUNCACEAE (p. 52) 

EE. Flowers with white or colored corolla or perianth ; perianth not chaffy, 
mostly more than i cm. long; plants mostly not rushlike but often grass- 

F. Ovary superior; leaves mostly not equitant; either stamens 4 or 6, or 
else 3 and also 3 staminodia. 
G. Herbs, without tendrils. 

GG. Climbing shrubs, with stipular tendrils. SMILACEAE (p. 64) 

FF. Ovary inferior; leaves equitant; stamens 3; staminodia none. 

IRIDACEAE (p. 65) 
DD. Perianth irregular; ovary inferior. ORCHIDACEAE (p. 66) 



A. Trees or shrubs (including woody vines). 

B. Leaves opposite. GROUP 3 (p. n) 

BB. Leaves alternate. 

C. Trees. GROUP 4 (p. 13) 

CC. Shrubs. 

D. Leaves compound. GROUP 5 (p. 14) 

DD. Leaves simple. 

E. Branches with spines or prickles; leaves not evergreen. GROUP 6 (p. 14) 
EE. Branches without spines or prickles. 

F. Leaves evergreen. GROUP 7 (p. 15) 

FF. Leaves deciduous. GROUP 8 (p. 16) 

AA. Herbs. 

G. Stems 12 mm. or more thick, very fleshy; leaves represented by conspicuous 
spines. CACTACEAE (p. 155) 

GG. Stems either not so thick or else not fleshy; leaves not mere spines in case the 
stem is fleshy. 
H. Leaves opposite or whorled. 

I. Leaves compound. GROUP 9 (p. 17) 

II. Leaves simple. 

J. Plant prostrate, matted, very prickly; leaves awl-shaped, 6-10 mm. long, 
prickle-pointed, very dense; on sand near the seashore. 

JJ. Not as above in all points. 

K. Plant parasitic on the branches of trees; leaves mere scales or normal, 
thick, mostly olive or whitish green. LORANTHACEAE (p. 78) 

KK. Plants not parasitic on the branches of trees; leaves various, usually 

L. Plant densely hoary with stellate hairs, straight hairs also present; 
leaves ovate, entire, obtuse, at base cuneate or rounded, 1-5 cm. long. 

Piscaria in EUPHORBIACEAE (p. 145) 
LL. Plant not hoary with stellate pubescence; leaves mostly not fitting 

the above. 

M. Leaves in whorls of 3 or more, the whorls scattered along elongated 
stems. GROUP 10 (p. 18) 

MM. Leaves opposite or merely in a basal or a terminal whorl. 
N. Plants submerged or in water or in very wet places; leaves 2 cm. or 
less long, entire; submerged leaves lanceolate or' narrower; floating 
or emersed leaves linear to obovate; plant chickweed-like in appear- 
ance, slender, 5-45 cm. high or long; ovary 4-celled; styles 2. 


NN. Plants not as above in all the vegetative characters. 
O. Stems prickly; flowers in heads; leaves 10-15 cm - long, lanceolate, 
sessile; flower parts in 4's. DIPSACACEAE (p. 215) 

OO. Either stems not prickly or flowers not in heads. 
P. Twining vines with palmately veined and lobed leaves. 

Eumtdus in MORACEAE (p. 76) 
PP. Not vines, or if so leaves not as above. 


Q. Corolla none or of separate petals. 

R. Ovary and fruit superior. GROUP n (p. 18) 

RR. Ovary and fruit inferior. GROUP 12 (p. 20) 

QQ. Corolla of united petals. 
S. Plants with milky juice. 

T. Ovaries distinct but their styles and stigmas united, carpels 

later separating into 2 distinct fruits; stamens mostly monadel- 

phous; pollen united into waxy masses. ASCLEPIADACEAE (p. 181) 

TT. Carpels quite distinct even in flowering; stamens distinct; 

pollen of simple grains. APOCYNACEAE (p. 181) 

SS. Plants without milky juice. GROUP 13 (p. 20) 

HH. Leaves alternate or all basal. 

U: Leaves compound. GROUP 14 (p. 21) 

UU. Leaves simple. 
V. Plants without green color; either white or yellow or red or brown. 

GROUP 15 (p. 23) 

VV. Plants with green color, although also often with other colors present. 
W. Petals none, but calyx often petal-like. GROUP 16 (p. 23) 

WW. Petals present, distinct to base. 
X. Stamens many, at least more than 10 and twice as many as petals. 

GROUP 17 (p. 25) 

XX. Stamens 10 or fewer, or if more not exceeding twice the number of 

petals. GROUP 18 (p. 26) 

WWW. Petals present, more or less united. GROUP 19 (p. 27) 

GROUP 3 Trees and shrubs with opposite leaves 

A. Leaves compound. 

B. Plants vinelike, climbing by their petioles; fruit a head of akenes with plumose 
tails. Clematis in RANUNCULACEAE (p. 95) 

BB. Plants not vinelike, not at all climbing; fruit not as above. 
C. Leaflets entire or very nearly so; fruit i-winged. OLEACEAE (p. 178) 

CC. Leaflets serrate or toothed; fruit either 2-winged or a berry. 
D. Leaflets serrate with close regular equal projections; fruit a berry, not winged. 

Sambucus in CAPRIFOLIACEAE (p. 212) 

DD. Leaflets toothed or lobed with irregular unequal projections; fruit dry, 
2-winged. ACERACEAE (p. 148) 

AA. Leaves simple. 

E. Leaves palmately veined, or with 3 or more large veins from the base. 
F. Vines, climbing by tendrils. VITACEAE (p. 150) 

FF. Not vines, erect or spreading. 
G. Leaves palmately lobed. 
H. Fruit a red drupe, not winged; flowers in cymes ; shrubs 6-30 dm. high. 

Viburnum in CAPRIFOLIACEAE (p. 212) 
HH. Fruit dry, 2-winged; flowers in racemes or fascicles; shrubs or trees. 

ACERACEAE (p. 148) 

GG. Leaves not palmately lobed, although sometimes coarsely dentate. 
I. Leaves acute; stipules none; petals distinct to base; fruit a capsule. 



II. Leaves rounded at both ends; stipules present; petals united at base; fruit 
a drupe. Viburnum in CAPRIFOLIACEAE (p. 212) 

EE. Leaves pinnately veined, with only i large vein from the base. 
J. Plants parasitic on trees; leaves entire, often scalelike. 


JJ. Plants not parasitic; leaves entire or not entire, usually not scalelike. 
K. Leaves densely scurfy at least beneath. ELEAGNACEAE (p. 156) 

KK. Leaves not scurfy. 

L. Plants hoary, 3-6 dm. high, erect; bark ashy-gray, shreddy; leaves 2.5 
cm. or less long, entire, obtuse or retuse, spatulate to obovate. 

Ramona in MENTHACEAE (p. 194) 

LL. Plants not hoary, often taller or vinelike; bark not as above; leaves various. 
M. Leaves scalelike, 2-4 mm. long; plants 3 dm. or less high, erect or 
ascending. Cassiope in ERICACEAE (p. 171) 

MM. Leaves not scalelike, mostly longer; plants various. 
N. Small creeping vine with mint odor. 

Micromeria in MENTHACEAE (p. 194) 
NN. Either not a vine or one without mint odor. 

O. Vines, twining or merely creeping. CAPRIFOLIACEAE (p. 212) 

OO. Not vines, erect or decumbent. 
P. Petals united; leaves entire or coarsely lobed. 

Q. Plants of peat bogs; leaf margin re volute; ovary superior; fruit dry. 

Kalmia in ERICACEAE (p. 171) 
OQ- Not plants of peat bogs; leaf margin plane. 

R. Ovary inferior; stamens all anther-bearing, as many as the corolla 
lobes; either fruit berry-like or plant creeping. 


RR. Ovary superior; anther-bearing stamens i fewer than the corolla 
lobes, antherless stamen i; fruit dry; plant not creeping. 


PP. Petals distinct; leaves entire or serrulate or spinose-toothed. 
S. Twigs conspicuously 4-angled. 
T. Leaves entire, evergreen, obtuse or acutish. 

Garry a in CORN ACE AE (p. 168) 
TT. Leaves serrulate, deciduous, acuminate. 

Euonymus in CELASTRACEAE (p. 147) 
SS. Twigs not 4-angled. 
U. Leaves 3 cm. or more long, entire; stipules minute. 

CORN ACE AE (p. 1 68) 

UU. Leaves 3 cm. or less long, serrulate at least above the middle or 
spine-toothed or rarely quite entire; stipules either none, or large and 

V. .Leaves serrulate above the middle, without conspicuous divergent 
parallel veins; flower parts in 4*5; ovary 2-celled. 

Pachistima in CELASTRACEAE (p. 147) 

W. Leaves either entire or spine-toothed near the apex, with nu- 
merous conspicuous straight parallel veins diverging from the mid- 
vein; flower parts in s's; ovary 3-celled. 

Ceanothus in RHAMNACEAE (p. 149) 


GROUP 4 Trees with alternate leaves 

A. Leaves compound. Sorbus in MALACEAE (p. 132) 

AA. Leaves simple. 
B. Leaves coriaceous, evergreen. 

C. Bark conspicuously reddish, peeling off in great patches; leaves oval or ellip- 
tical, 7-15 cm. long; fruit a red berry. Arbutus in ERICACEAE (p. 171) 
CC. Bark not conspicuously reddish, not conspicuously peeling off; leaves vari- 

D. Leaves oblanceolate, 5-10 cm. long, 12-25 mm. wide, either entire or 

serrate near the tip. MYRICACEAE (p. 73) 

DD. Leaves not oblanceolate, often not as above in size or margin. 

E. Leaves either cuneate-obovate, or else lanceolate and only 1-2.5 cm. long; 

fruit akenes, with hairy tails 5-15 cm. long. Cercocarpus in ROSACE AE (p. 125) 

EE. Leaves not cuneate-obovate, not lanceolate unless more than 2.5 cm. 

long; fruit not akenes, not tailed. 

F. Leaves lanceolate, acute, entire, glabrous on both sides, not scurfy; 
fruit a drupe about 2 cm. long. LAURACEAE (p. 104) 

FF. Leaves either not lanceolate or scurfy beneath if so; fruit dry, a nut 
(acorn) in a cup, or else several nuts in a long prickly involucral cover. 

FAGACEAE (p. 75) 

BB. Leaves mostly herbaceous, deciduous. 

G. Bark plainly splitting around the trunk rather than longitudinally. 
H. Flowers in aments or conelike clusters, sessile; fruits grouped into a dry 
conelike mass; terminal winter buds none. BETULACEAE (p. 73) 

HH. Flowers in racemes or umbels, pedicelled; fruits separate, flesh>, drupes; 
terminal winter buds present. AMYGDALACEAE (p. 134) 

GG. Bark splitting longitudinally. 

I. Staminate flowers in aments and sometimes the pistillate flowers also. 
J. Fruit an aggregate berry, blackberry-like. Morus in MORACEAE (p. 76) 
JJ. Fruit dry, nutlike or conelike. 

K. Fruit a cup containing an acorn; leaves often deeply lobed or cleft; 
primary lateral veins extending into the teeth; winter buds with more 
than 2 scales; terminal winter buds present. FAGACEAE (p. 75) 

KK. Fruits in a conelike or ament-like cluster; leaves in most species 
shallowly if at all lobed; bud scales i to many; terminal winter buds present 
or none. 

L. Primary lateral leaf veins extending into the teeth or lobes; seed a 

winged nutlet; calyx present; bracts thick in fruit. BETULACEAE (p. 73) 

LL. Primary lateral leaf veins arching and uniting within the margins; 

seed hairy; calyx none; bracts thin in fruit. SALICACEAE (p. 70) 

n. Flowers not in aments. 

M. Leaves ovate, somewhat falcate, distinctly oblique at base, coarsely ser- 
rate, 3-veined from the base. Celtis in ULMACEAE (p. 76) 
MM. Leaves not as above in all the characters mentioned. 
N. Fruit dry, wing-margined. Ulmus in ULMACEAE (p. 76) 
NN. Fruit fleshy, not even angular. 

O. Petals 6 mm. or more long; stamens many; leaves usually distinctly 
serrate; winter buds covered with scales. MALACEAE (p. 132) 


OO. Petals 5 mm. or less long; stamens 5; leaves entire or finely serrate; 
winter buds naked; taste of the bark characteristic. 

Rhamnus in RHAMNACEAE (p. 149) 

GROUP 5 Shrubs with alternate compound leaves 

A. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous, spine-toothed at margin, bunched at the stem tips; 

stems not prickly. Berberis in BERBERIDACEAE (p. 103) 

AA. Leaves deciduous or evergreen; the evergreen plants with leaves scattered 

along prickly stems and without spine-toothed leaf margins. 

B. Twigs dark-green, sharply 4-angled, very long; leaflets 3, 2.5 cm. or less long, 
leaves not abundant; fruit a beanlike pod. Cytisus in LEGUMINACEAE (p. 135) 
BB. Twigs not dark-green, not angled; leaves and leaflets various; fruit not bean- 

C. Either vines or else plants, with prickly stems. ROSACEAE (p. 125) 

CC. Not vines; stems not prickly. 
D. Leaflets 7-31; fruit red. 

E. Leaflets 13-31, acuminate; stem simple or very little branched; inflores- 
cence conical, hairy; fruit with red hairs. ANACARDIACEAE (p. 147) 

EE. Leaflets 7-17, acute to obtuse; stem considerably branched; inflorescence 
flat-topped, glabrous; fruit red, glabrous. Sorbus in MALACEAE (p. 132) 

DD. Leaflets 3-7; fruit red or some other color. 

F. Leaflets subulate to linear, sharp-pointed. POLEMONIACEAE (p. 183) 
FF. Leaflets not subulate nor sharp-pointed. 

G. Leaflets 0.4-2.5 cm. long; either the plant silky -villous or the leaflets 
cuneiform. ROSACEAE (p. 125) 

GG. Leaflets 2.5-7.5 cm. long; plant glabrous; leaflets not cuneiform. 


GROUP 6 Shrubs with alternate simple deciduous 
leaves and spiny or prickly branches 

A. Leaves palmately veined. 

B. Twigs 12-25 mm. thick; leaves 15-40 cm. wide; inflorescence terminal, con- 
ical, of very many flowers. Echinopanax in ARALIACEAE (p. 162) 
BB. Twigs 6 mm. or less thick; leaves 7 cm. or less wide; inflorescence lateral and 
few-flowered, or flowers solitary in the leaf axils. 

C. Plant prostrate, creeping. Rubus in ROSACEAE (p. 125) 

CC. Plant erect or spreading. GROSSULARIACEAE (p. 124) 

AA. Leaves pinnately veined or i -veined. 

D. Spines few, very stout, 1.5-5 cm. long; leaves serrate, ovate to obovate, 

2.5-7.5 cm. long. Crataegus in MALACEAE (p. 132) 

D D . Spines more slender, often shorter ; leaves entire, usually narrower and shorter. 

E. Leaves 8-12 mm. long; petals white. Forsellesia in CELASTRACEAE (p. 147) 

EE. Leaves 12-37 nun. long; petals yellow or none. 

F. Flowers in heads; at least the young parts of the plant white- woolly; petals 
yellow. Tetradymia in COMPOSITACEAE (p. 218) 

FF. Flowers not in heads; young parts of the plant often mealy or pubescent 
but rarely white- woolly; petals yellow or none. 


G. Petals yellow, 10-15 mm. long; leaves sometimes lanceolate, mostly 
acicular and about 12 mm. long. Ulex in LEGUMINACEAE (p. 135) 

GG. Petals none; leaves linear to obovate, 12-37 mm. long. 


GROUP 7 Shrubs with alternate simple evergreen leaves 
and without spines or prickles on the branches 

A. Staminate flowers in aments; fruits in an ament-like cluster, or composed of a nut 
(acorn) in an involucral cup, or composed of 1-3 nuts in a very spiny involucral 

B. Leaves oblanceolate, mostly serrate near the tip, not scurfy beneath; fruits in 

an ament-like cluster. MYRICACEAE (p. 73) 

BB. Leaves either not oblanceolate, or else scurfy beneath and the margin entire. 

FAGACEAE (p. 75) 

AA. Flowers not in aments; fruit not as above. 
C. Petals none or distinct to the base. 
D. Sepals 3 or 6; petals 3 or none; leaves with only i chief vein from the base. 

E. Leaves not aromatic, linear-oblong, crowded, obtuse, 4-8 mm. long, revolute 
at margin; stamens 2-4; ovaries 2 to several; drupe 4-6 mm. long; plant 
1-4.5 dm. high. EMPETRACEAE (p. 146) 

EE. Leaves very aromatic, lanceolate-oblong, acute, rounded to acute at base, 
5-10 cm. long, not revolute at margin; stamens 9; ovary i; drupe 20-25 
mm. long; plant 3-21 m. high. LAURACEAE (p. 104) 

DD. Sepals 4-5; petals 4-5 or none. 

F. Petals none; stamens 15-25; fruit an akene, with a hairy tail 5-10 cm. 
long. Cercocarpus in ROSACEAE (p. 125) 

FF. Petals present; stamens 10 or fewer; fruit either fleshy or a capsule, not 

G. Leaves either densely woolly beneath, or with red hairs on the petiole and 
the veins beneath. Ledum in ERICACEAE (p. 171) 

GG. Leaves not woolly beneath, glabrous or nearly so. 

H. Shrub 7.5-30 cm. high; leaves sharply serrate; stamens 10; ovary 

5-celled. Chimaphila in PYROLACEAE (p. 169) 

HH. Shrub taller; leaves entire or serrulate; stamens 4-5; ovary 2-4- 

celled. RHAMNACEAE (p. 149) 

CC. Petals and sepals both present; petals more or less united into i piece. 

I. Ovary inferior; leaves oval to ovate, 2.5 cm. or less long, not densely crowded. 


n. Ovary superior; leaves often not agreeing with the above. 

J. Leaves lanceolate, 7.5-15 cm. long; corolla purple, 1013 mm. long, tubular 

or funnelform. Eriodictyon in HYDROPHYLLACEAE (p. 185) 

JJ. Leaves either not lanceolate or else smaller; corolla not as above in all 

points. ERICACEAE (p. 171) 


GROUP 8 Shrubs with alternate simple deciduous leaves 
and without spines or prickles on the branches 

A. Leaves pinnately or palmately 3-g-parted or -divided; leaf segments subulate or 
linear, sharp-pointed, 8-20 mm. long. POLEMONIACEAE (p. 183) 

AA. Leaves not as above in all points. 

B. Staminate and sometimes also the pistillate flowers in aments. 
C. Ovary superior; pistillate flowers also in aments; flowers monoecious or dioe- 

D. Calyx none; bracts thin in fruit; seed not winged. 

E. Bracts scaly; fruit a i-seeded nutlet, wax-coated or drupelike; seed not 
hairy; winter buds with many scales. MYRICACEAE (p. 73) 

EE. Bracts herbaceous; fruit a many-seeded capsule, neither wax-coated 
nor drupelike; seed hairy; winter buds with only i scale. 

DD. Calyx present; bracts thick hi fruit; seed a winged nutlet. 

CC. Ovary inferior; pistillate flowers few or solitary, not in aments; flowers 


F. Nut in a spineless and either foliaceous or tubular involucre; anther cells 
separate; leaves velvety to the touch. Corylus in BETULACEAE (p. 73) 

FF. Nut either in a spiny or in a cuplike involucre; anthers 2-celled; leaves 
not velvety to the touch. FAGACEAE (p. 75) 

BB. Flowers in heads. COMPOSITACEAE (p. 218) 

BBB. Flowers neither in aments nor in heads, though sometimes in dense spikes. 
G. Leaves palmately veined or 3-veined from the base. 
H. Leaves more or less lobed. 

I. Pistils more than i; fruit either dry or else an aggregate composed of 
the ripened ovaries. ROSACEAE (p. 125) 

n. Pistil only i ; fruit a berry composed of the single ripened ovary. 

HH. Leaves not at all lobed. 

J. Leaves somewhat falcate, very unequal at base, sharply serrate, acute or 

acuminate. ULMACEAE (p. 76) 

JJ. Leaves not falcate, equal at base, often with margin and apex not as 

above. RHAMNACEAE (p. 149) 

GG. Leaves i -veined, or pinnately veined with only i chief vein from the base. 

K. Petals none; leaves entire. 

L. Stipules present; plant not mealy; sepals petal-like or scarious or scale- 
like. POLYGONACEAE (p 79) 
LL. Stipules none; young parts of the plant often mealy; sepals herbaceous. 

KK. Petals present; leaves entire or not. 
M. Ovary superior. 
N. Petals distinct to base. 

O. Stamens many, 25 or more; pistils often more than i. 
P. Fruit i or more dry pods or akenes. ROSACEAE (p. 125) 

PP. Fruit 1-5 fleshy drupes. AMYGDALACEAE (p. 134) 


OO. Stamens 4-10; pistil only i. 

Q. Flowers solitary, terminal or in the axils, red; stamens 10; leaves 
lanceolate, petiole and the veins beneath red-hairy. 

Cladothamnus in ERICACEAE (p. 171) 

QQ. Flowers in clusters, white or blue; stamens 4-5; leaves not as above. 

RHAMNACEAE (p. 149) 

NN. Petals more or less united into i piece. 
R. Ovary and fruit 2-celled; corolla rotate; fruit a red or blue berry. 

Solanum in SOLAN ACE AE (p. 197) 

RR. Ovary and fruit 3-5-celled; corolla campanulate to urn-shaped, 
or when rotate the fruit dry. ERICACEAE (p. 171) 

MM. Ovary inferior. 

S. Petals distinct; twigs not 4-angled nor conspicuously green; stamens 20. 

MALACEAE (p. 132) 

SS. Petals more or less united into i piece; twigs somewhat 4-angled and 
dark-green; stamens 10 or fewer. VACCINIACEAE (p. 174) 

GROUP 9 Dicotyledonous herbs with compound leaves 
either opposite or in whorls 

A. Plants submerged or floating; leaves dissected into capillary or very narrow seg- 

B. Leaves 5-12 in a whorl; leaf segments often with some teeth and thus stag- 
horn-like. CERATOPHYLLACEAE (p. 95) 
BB. Leaves alternate or opposite or not over 4 in a whorl; leaf segments without 
teeth, not stag-horn-like. 

C. Leaf segments all pinnately arranged on the leaf axis; leaves without bladders. 

Myriophyllum in HALORAGIDACEAE (p. 162) 

CC. Leaves repeatedly dichotomous; leaf segments not pinnately arranged on the 
leaf axis; leaves often with bladders. Utricidaria in PINGUICULACEAE (p. 210) 
AA. Plants either not growing in water, or else their leaves divided into wider seg- 
ments or leaflets. 
D. Petals distinct. 

E. Pistils several, in fruit each with a plumose tail 2.5-5 cm. long; leaflets not 
terete; plants often somewhat vining. Clematis in RANUNCULACEAE (p. 95) 
EE. Pistils 1-2, without plumose tail even in fruit. 

F. Leaves sessile, divided into terete fleshy segments from the base, thus ap- 
pearing to be whorled; carpels 5, united; ovary superior, i -celled; sepals 4-6 
mm. long. Spergula in CARYOPHYLLACEAE (p. 90) 

FF. Leaves evidently not whorled; leaf segments not terete; carpels 2, loosely 
connected, each i-celled; ovary inferior; sepals less than 4 mm. long. 


FFF. Leaves pinnately compound, not whorled; leaf segments not terete; carpels 
5, united, each i-celled; ovary superior; sepals 2-8 mm. long. 

Erodium in GERANIACEAE (p. 143) 
DD. Petals united at least at the base. 
G. Ovary superior or mainly so. 

H. Leaves whorled. Pedicularis in SCROPHULARIACEAE (p. 198) 

HH. Leaves opposite. 

F. & R. EL. FL. 2 


I. Style i, 3-lobed at apex; capsule 3-valved, 3-celled; placentae usually 

axial. POLEMONIACEAE (p. 183) 

II. Styles 2, often more or less united at base, sometimes united nearly to 
apex; capsule 2-valved, i-celled; placentae 2, parietal. 

Nemophila in HYDROPHYLLACEAE (p. 185) 
GG. Ovary inferior or mainly so. 
J. Flowers in terminal cymes; stamens 3; leaves 3-5-foliolate. 

Valeriana in VALERIANACEAE (p. 214) 
JJ. Flowers in heads; stamens 4-5; leaves various. COMPOSITACEAE (p. 218) 

GROUP 10 Dicotyledonous herbs with simple leaves in 
whorls of 3 or more scattered along the stem 

A. Stem square; leaves 4-8 in a whorl; fruit very deeply 2-lobed or separating into 

2 distinct carpels. Galium in RUBIACEAE (p. 211) 

AA. Either the stem terete or else the leaves in whorls of 2-3; fruit not deeply lobed, 

not separating into distinct carpels. 
B. Plants growing in water; stem simple; stamen i. 

Hippuris in HALORAGIDACEAE (p. 162) 
BB. Plants of ordinary dry soil; stem normally not simple; stamens 2-10 (in 

Euphorbia only i). 

C. Leaves terete, 8-16 in a whorl; styles 5. Spergula in CARYOPHYLLACEAE (p. 90) 
CC. Leaves flat, 2-6 in a whorl; styles i or 3. 

D. Leaves 4-6 in a whorl, 2.5 cm. or less long, spatulate or oblanceolate; stems 
prostrate; styles 3. AIZOACEAE (p. 86) 

DD. Leaves 2-4 in a whorl, often longer, blade often widest below its middle; 

stems not prostrate (except sometimes in Euphorbia). 
E. Sepals 2-3, distinct; petals 4 or 6, distinct. 

Platystigma in PAPAVERACEAE (p. 104) 
EE. Sepals either none or 4-8 and all somewhat united into i piece; petals 

none or united into i piece. 
F. Corolla present; stamens 4-8. 
G. Leaves in several whorls along an elongated stem. 


GG. Leaves either not in whorls or the whorls merely basal or terminal. 


FF. Corolla none; stamens i or 2 or 3 or 9. 
H. Calyx present; stamens more than i; fruit an akene, 3-angled. 


HH. Calyx none; stamen i; fruit a capsule, 3-celled, terete or nearly 
so. Euphorbia in EUPHORBIACEAE (p. 145) 

GROUP 11 Apetalous or polypetalous dicotyledonous 
herbs with opposite simple leaves and superior ovary 

A. Petals none. 

B. Leaves 2-3-pinnatifid; leaf segments linear to lanceolate; pistils more than i; 
fruit akenes with plumose tails 2.5-3.7 cm. long. 

Clematis in RANUNCULACEAE (p. 95) 


BB. Leaves not dissected; pistil i; fruit without plumose tail. 
C. Plants with milky juice. Euphorbia in EUPHORBIACEAE (p. 145) 

CC. Plants without milky juice. 

D. Plants with stinging hairs; stems mostly simple, erect, 4-angled, 6-21 dm. 
high. Urtica in URTICACEAE (p. 76) 

DD. Plants without stinging hairs; stems not as above in all points. 
E. Seeds several to many. 

F. Sepals 5; leaves entire or nearly so, ovate or narrower; styles or sessile 
stigmas 2-5. CARYOPHYLLACEAE (p. 89) 

FF. Sepals 4; leaves crenate to pinnatifid, often reniform to orbicular; 
styles and stigmas 12. 
G. Stamens 2 or 4; style i ; leaves not wedge-shaped at base. 

Synthyris in SCROPHULARIACEAE (p. 198) 
GG. Stamens 8; styles 2; leaves wedge-shaped at base. 

Chrysosplenium in SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 
EE. Seed i. 

H. Lower leaves 2-lobed, the upper entire; stem weak and slender; styles 
and stigmas 3. Pterostegia in POLYGONACEAE (p. 79) 

HH. None of the leaves 2-lobed; stem stiff or fleshy; styles or stigmas 2. 

AA. Petals present. 

I. Sepals 2; plants without milk juice. PORTULACACEAE (p. 86) 

II. Sepals or calyx segments more than 2, or else plants with milky juice. 
J. Leaves very fleshy, thick. 

K. Stipules none; leaves terete or flattish; carpels distinct at least above, thus 
making the ovary 3-s-lobed. CRASSULACEAE (p. 117) 

KK. Stipules scarious; leaves terete; carpels united to the tip and thus the 
ovary not lobed. Tissa in CARYOPHYLLACEAE (p. 94) 

JJ. Leaves not fleshy, thin or coriaceous. 
L. Leaves entire. 

M. Leaves obovate, scattered along an elongated prostrate or floating stem; 
sepals and stamens 2-4. Elatine in ELATINACEAE (p. 152) 

MM. Leaves not obovate; stems often not as above; sepals and stamens 
usually more numerous. 

N. Leaves all basal; ovary i -celled; placentae 3-4, parietal; sepals and 
petals and stamens 5 each. Parnassia in SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 

NN. Leaves not all basal; ovary i-i8-celled; placentae axial or parietal; 
sepals and petals and stamens not always 5 each. 
O. Sepals 2-3; ovary 3-i8-celled; placentae parietal. 


OO. Sepals 4-6; ovary i-io-celled; placentae axial. 

P. Leaves punctate with immersed pellucid resinous glands, often with 
small black spots; petals yellow, often black-spotted; stamens in 3 sets 
in all but i species. HYPERICACEAE (p. 152) 

PP. Leaves not punctate, not black-spotted; petals not yellow (ex- 
cept in i species of Linum), not black-spotted; stamens not in 

Q. Stem 4-angled. LYTHRACEAE (p. 156) 

QQ. Stem terete. 


R. Leaves all opposite; ovary and capsule i -celled; seed not oily. 


RR. Some of the leaves alternate; ovary and capsule 2-io-celled; 
seed oily. LINACEAE (p. 144) 

LL. Leaves not entire. 

S. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous, ovate to orbicular; flower i, on a scape 

at the summit of the simple stem. Moneses in PYROLACEAE (p. 169) 

SS. Leaves deciduous, herbaceous, narrowed; flowers mostly more than i; 

stem usually branched. 
T. Stipules present; plant glandular- pubescent ; leaves oblanceolate. 

Bergia in ELATINACEAE (p. 152) 
TT. Stipules none; plant not glandular; leaves lanceolate to spatulate. 

LINACEAE (p. 144) 

GROUP 12 Apetalous or polypetalous dicotyledonous 
herbs with opposite simple leaves and inferior ovary 

A. Flowers in heads; heads subtended by a white involucre; involucre bracts 4-6, 

6-17 mm. long; fruit a red berry. Cornus in CORNACEAE (p. 168) 

AA. Either flowers not in heads or else involucre not white when present; fruit not a 

berry, not red. 

B. Flowers in umbels or heads. UMBELLACEAE (p. 163) 

BB. Flowers neither in umbels nor heads. 
C. Flowers in terminal or axillary involucrate clusters. 


CC. Flowers either not in clusters, or the clusters without involucre. 
D. Leaves entire. 

E. Leaves ovate to reniform, all basal, with 3-7 large veins from the base; 

marsh plants. Parnassia in SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 

EE. Leaves narrower, not all basal, with only i large vein from the base; 

habitat various. 

F. Stem 4~5-angled; leaves linear to linear-oblong; calyx tube less than 

i cm. long. LYTHRACEAE (p. 156) 

FF. Stem terete; either the leaves wider than in F or the calyx tube more 

than i cm. long. ONAGRACEAE (p. 156) 

DD. Leaves not entire. 

G. Leaves roundish, abruptly cuneate at base, crenate above; petals none; 

stems repeatedly forked; flowers mostly solitary in the upper forks of the 

stem. Chrysosplenium in SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 

GG. Leaves not fitting the above; petals 2-4; stems simple or pinnately 

branched; flowers in panicles or racemes. ONAGRACEAE (p. 156) 

GROUP 13 Dicotyledonous herbs with opposite simple 
leaves and sympetalous corolla 

A. Ovary superior or mainly so. 
B. Corolla regular or nearly so. 

C. Leaves markedly thick and fleshy; stamens more numerous than the lobes of 
the corolla; pistils several, simple. CRASSULACEAE (p. 117) 


CC. Leaves not markedly thick and fleshy; stamens as many as the lobes of the 
corolla or fewer; pistil i and compound (except possibly in BORAGINACEAE). 
D. Ovary deeply 4-lobed, forming 4 separate or separable nutlets. 

DD. Ovary deeply 2-lobed, separating or separable into 2 fleshy or dry fruits. 


DDD. Ovary not deeply lobed, neither separating nor separable into nutlets. 
E. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous; flowers terminal, solitary, or in a raceme or 
cyme or umbel; ovary and capsule 4-s-celled. PYROLACEAE (p. 169) 

EE. Leaves mostly not evergreen, not coriaceous; flowers not terminal when 

the leaves are evergreen. 

F. Style i ; stigmas 3; capsules-celled. POLEMONIACEAE (p. 183) 

FF. Styles 1-2; stigmas as many as the styles; capsule i-2-celled. 
G. Leaves entire. 

H. Stamens often fewer than the corolla lobes; ovary either 2-celled 

or else i-celled with parietal placentae. SCROPHULARIACEAE (p. 198) 

HH. Stamens as many as the corolla lobes; ovary i-celled; placenta central. 

I. Stamens alternate with the corolla lobes; plant without potato-like 
base. GENTIANACEAE (p. 178) 

II. Stamens opposite the corolla lobes; plant from small potato-like base. 

Trientalis in PRIMULACEAE (p. 175) 
GG. Leaves not entire. 

J. Ovary and capsule i -celled; stamens 5; leaves deeply pinnate-seg- 
mented. Nemophila in HYDROPHYLLACEAE (p. 185) 
JJ. Ovary and capsule 2-celled; stamens 2-5; leaves various. 

BB. Corolla irregular. 

K. Leaves all in a basal whorl. PINGUICULACEAE (p. 210) 

KK. Leaves not all in a basal whorl. 

L. Ovary 2-celled, many-seeded. SCROPHULARIACEAE (p. 198) 

LL. Ovary 4-celled, 4-seeded. 

M. Ovary deeply 4-lobed or -parted; flowers i to many in the leaf axils, or in 
terminal heads or spikes or racemes or panicles. MENTHACEAE (p. 192) 

MM. Ovary 4-celled, terete or nearly so; flowers in terminal solitary or 
clustered spikes. VERBENACEAE (p. 192) 

AA. Ovary inferior or mainly so. 
N. Vinelike, prostrate, evergreen; peduncles 2-flowered. 

Linnaea in CAPRIFOLIACEAE (p. 212) 

NN. Not vinelike, not prostrate, mostly not evergreen; peduncles not 2-flowered. 

O. Stamens 3, distinct; flowers in most species not in heads; calyx 4-toothed or 

-lobed, not a pappus. VALERIAN ACE AE (p. 214) 

OO. Stamens 4-5, their anthers united ; flowers in heads ; calyx in most species a 

pappus. COMPOSITACEAE (p. 2l8) 

GROUP 14 Dicotyledonous herbs with alternate com- 
pound leaves 

A. Plants submerged or floating ; leaves dissected into narrowly linear or filiform 
segments or leaflets. 


B. Leaves often with air bladders; corolla 2-lipped; pistil i. 

Utrkularia in PINGUICULACEAE (p. 210) 

BB. Leaves without bladders; corolla of 5 similar separate petals; pistils several. 

AA. Plants mostly of drier habitat; leaves with wider segments or leaflets. 

C. Petals none or distinct to base. 
D. Ovary superior. 

E. Flowers regular. 
F. Pistils more than i. 

G. Stamens on the calyx though often near its base; stipules usually present. 

ROSACEAE (p. 125) 

GG. Stamens on the receptacle; stipules none. RANUNCULACEAE (p. 95) 
FF. Pistil i. 
H. Leaves ternately or palmately compound. 

I. Leaflets or leaf segments 3-5. 

J. Styles 2; stamens 5 or 10. SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 

JJ. Style i; stamens neither exactly 5 nor 10. 

CAP? ARID ACE AE (p. 1 1 6) 

II. Leaflets or leaf segments more than 10. 

K. Flowers white; sepals 4-6. Eschscholtzia in PAPAVERACEAE (p. 104) 
KK. Flowers yellow; sepals 2. RANUNCULACEAE (p. 95) 

HH. Leaves pinnately compound. 

L. Plants with mustard or turnip taste; stamens usually 6, tetradynamous. 

LL. Plants without mustard or turnip taste; stamens very rarely 6, not 


M. Flowers in spikes or racemes; stigma i; ovary simple; plants of mead- 
ows. ROSACEAE (p. 125) 
MM. Flowers solitary in the leaf axils; stigmas 2-5; ovary compound; 
plants of wet places. LIMNANTHACEAE (p. 146) 
EE. Flowers irregular. 

N. Stamens 5 or 10; pistil i. LEGUMINACEAE (p. 135) 

NN. Stamens 12 to many; pistils very rarely only i. 

O. Sepals 4; plants glandular-pubescent. CAPPARIDACEAE (p. 116) 

OO. Sepals 5 ; plants not glandular. RANUNCULACEAE (p. 95) 

DD. Ovary inferior. 

P. Flowers in compound umbels; ovary 2-celled or the 2 carpels almost separate ; 
fruit dry. UMBELLACEAE (p. 163) 

PP. Flowers in umbels; umbels in simple or compound panicles; ovary 2-5- 
celled; fruit fleshy. Aralia in ARALIACEAE (p. 162) 

CC. Petals more or less united, but sometimes only at their very base. 
Q. Corolla irregular. 

R. Sepals 4-5, more or less united; petals 5; stamens 5 or 9 or 10; pistil simple; 

stipules present. LEGUMINACEAE (p. 135) 

RR. Sepals 2, separate; petals 4; stamens 6; pistil compound; stipules none. 


Q. Corolla regular or very nearly so or none at all. 
S. Ovary superior or mainly so. 
T. Leaflets 3, not spinelike, not spine-tipped; styles or stigmas i or 5. 


U. Leaflets very unequal, the lateral two very much smaller than the ter- 
minal one. Solanum in SOLANACEAE (p. 197) 
UU. Leaflets all three about the same size. 

V. Marsh plants; leaflets oblong to obovate, obtuse; stems 1-2 cm. thick. 

Menyanthes in MENYANTHACEAE (p. 180) 
VV. Not marsh plants; leaflets obcordate; stems less than 5 mm. thick. 


XT. Leaflets more than 3 or spinelike or spine-tipped; styles or stigmas 


W. Stigmas 3; capsule 3-celled. POLEMONIACEAE (p. 183) 

WW. Stigmas 1-2; capsule i-2-celled. HYDROPHYLLACEAE (p. 185) 

SS. Ovary inferior or mainly so; flowers in heads. COMPOSITACEAE (p. 218) 

GROUP 15 Dicotyledonous herbs without green color, 
and with alternate simple leaves or scales 

A. Vines, twining, white or yellow; ovary 2-celled, i-4-seeded; leaves mere minute 

scales or almost none. CONVOLVULACEAE (p. 182) 

AA. Not vines, variously colored; ovary not 2-celled, many-seeded; leaves not 

minute, larger. 

B. Leaves spatulate, covered with long glandular hairs, all basal; plants of peat 
bogs. DROSERACEAE (p. 116) 

BB. Leaves not spatulate, not covered with long glandular hairs, not all basal; 
plants not of peat bogs. 

C. Flowers irregular; stamens didynamous, inserted in the tube of the corolla; 
cells of the ovary i . OROBANCHACEAE (p. 209) 

CC. Flowers regular or nearly so; stamens not didynamous, inserted on the recep- 
tacle; cells of the ovary i or 4 or 5. 

D. Plants reddish, glabrous, 25 mm. or less high; stem not densely covered 
with scales; scales entire; pollen grains in 4's. 

Pyrola in PYROLACEAE (p. 169) 
DD. Not as above in all points; pollen grains simple. 


GROUP 16 Dicotyledonous herbs with alternate simple 
leaves and apetalous flowers 

A. Ovary and fruit superior. 
B. Pistils more than i, distinct. 

C. Plant 1-3.5 rn. high; leaves ovate-lanceolate, pinnately veined, petioled, 
entire, 2-3 dm. long. PHYTOLACCACEAE (p. 86) 

CC. Plants mostly not so high; leaves not as above in all characters. 
D. Stamens on the calyx; stem 2-20 cm. long; leaves rounded, cuneate at 
base, 4-13 mm. long, deeply 3-lobed, lobes 2-4-cleft; stipules large, 2-5- 
cleft. Akhemilla in ROSACEAE (p. 125) 

DD. Stamens on the receptacle; stems often longer; leaves not as above in all 
characters; stipules none, but the base of the petiole often dilated. 



BB. Pistil only i. 
E. Leaves lobed, palmately veined. 

F. Plant 2-20 cm. high, annual; leaves cuneate at base, 4-13 mm. long, deeply 
3-lobed, lobes 2-4-cleft; stipules 2-5-cleft. Alchemilla in ROSACEAE (p. 125) 

FF. Plant often taller, perennial; leaves mostly cordate at base, 13 mm. or 
more long, shall owly lobed; lobes often not entire although not again cleft; 
stipules entire. Heuchera in SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 

EE. Leaves either not lobed or else pinnately veined. 

G. Plant stout, erect, 1-3.5 rn. high; leaves entire, acute or acuminate at 
both ends, 2-3 dm. long; ovary zo-celled; fruit a purple berry. 


GG. Plant mostly not fitting the above; leaves not as above in all points; 
ovary i-5-celled; fruit not a berry, dry. 

H. Plant with a mustard or radish taste. CRUCIFERACEAE (p. 106) 

HH. Plant without a mustard or radish taste. 
I. Seeds 2 or more in each pistil. 

J. Plant with milky juice; ovary and capsule 3-celled; capsule 3- 
seeded. Euphorbia in EUPHORBIACEAE (p. 145) 

JJ. Plant without milky juice; ovary and capsule 2-celled; capsule many- 

K. Plant glabrous; leaves linear to lanceolate; flowers solitary in leaf 

axils. Lythrum in LYTHRACEAE (p. 156) 

KK. Plant white-woolly; leaves lanceolate to ovate; flowers in a dense 

terminal cylindrical spike. Synthyris in SCROPHULARIACEAE (p. 198) 

n. Seed i in each pistil. 

L. Plant densely hoary with stellate hairs, simple ones also present : in dry 
regions east of the Cascades. Piscaria in EUPHORBIACEAE (p. 145) 

LL. Plant without stellate hairs, often with simple ones; in either dry 
or moist regions. 

M. Leaves with sheathing stipules. POLYGONACEAE (p. 79) 

MM. Leaves without stipules. 

N. Either the akene 3-angled in cross section, or else the calyx of 6 
segments. POLYGONACEAE (p. 79) 

NN. Akene or utricle not 3-angled in cross section; calyx never of more 
than 5 segments. 

O. Leaves entire, 3-veined from the base, lanceolate or ovate; stamens 4; 
style i or none. Parietaria in URTICACEAE (p. 76) 

OO. Leaves with not all 3 of the above characters; stamens sometimes 
4; style sometimes i. 
P. Leaves entire; flowers bracted; bracts and sepals scarious. 


PP. Leaves entire or not; either the flowers bractless or the bracts not 
scarious; sepals green or greenish. CHENOPODIACEAE (p. 83) 

AA. Ovary and fruit inferior. 

Q. Leaves pinnately veined or only i -veined, entire or very nearly so. 
R. Leaves linear-setaceous. Howellia in LOBELIACEAE (p. 217) 

RR. Leaves wider. 
S. Stem terete; flowers in cymes; fruit fleshy, drupaceous. 



SS. Stem 5-angled; flowers solitary in the leaf axils; fruit dry, a capsule. 

Ly thrum in LYTHRACEAE (p. 156) 
QQ. Leaves palmately veined, entire or not. 

T. Leaves 4-13 mm. long, cuneate at base, deeply 3-lobed, the lobes 2~4-cleft; 
stipules large, 2-5-cleft; stem 2-20 cm. long. Alchemilla in ROSACEAE (p. 125) 
TT. Leaves longer, either not cuneate at base or not deeply lobed; stipules entire 
or none; stem often longer. 

U. Leaves mostly in a basal tuft; stipules present; flowers in spikes or panicles; 
calyx lobes less than i cm. long; stamens 5; ovary i-2-celled; stem without 
ginger taste. Heuehera in SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 

UU. Leaves from an elongated creeping stem; stipules none; flowers solitary in 
the leaf axils; calyx lobes 2-6 cm. long; stamens 12; ovary 5-celled; stem 
with ginger taste. ARISTOLOCHIACEAE (p. 79) 

GROUP 17 Dicotyledonous herbs with alternate simple 
leaves and polypetalous flowers with numerous stamens 

A. Leaves tubular or pitcher-shaped, 2-6 dm. long. SARRACENIACEAE (p. 116) 

AA. Leaves not tubular nor pitcher-shaped, mostly less than 2 dm. long. 
B. Leaves either peltate or else rounded or ovate, 10 cm. or more wide, entire* 
mostly floating. NYMPHAEACEAE (p. 94) 

BB. Leaves not peltate, often not rounded or ovate, never so wide, often entire, 
mostly not floating. 
C. Leaves entire. 
D. Pistils more than i. 

E. Flowers solitary or scattered; petals with a pit on the inside; calyx of 5-6 
distinct sepals; stamens on the receptacle. RANUNCULACEAE (p. 95) 

EE. Flowers in spikes or panicles; petals without pit; calyx 5-cleft; stamens 
on the calyx tube. Petrophytum in ROSACEAE (p. 125) 

DD. Pistil only i. 

F. Annual; leaves 2-6 mm. long, linear; petals 6; plants 2-5 cm. high. 

Canbya in PAPAVERACEAE (p. 104) 

FF. Annual or perennial; leaves longer, sometimes linear; petals rarely 6; 
plants mostly taller. PORTULACACEAE (p. 86) 

CC. Leaves not entire. 
G. Pistils more than i. 
H. Stamens on the receptacle; sepals distinct; stipules none. 

HH. Stamens on the calyx tube; sepals united at base; stipules present. 

ROSACEAE (p. 125) 
GG. Pistil only i. 

I. Leaves palmately veined; sepals distinct. MALVACEAE (p. 150) 

II. Leaves pinnately veined; sepals united at base. 

J. Stipules adnate to the petiole; stamens 5-10; stigma i. 

Horkelia in ROSACEAE (p. 125) 
JJ. Stipules none; stamens numerous; stigmas 3. LOASACEAE (p. 155) 


GROUP 18 Dicotyledonous herbs with alternate simple 
leaves and polypetalous flowers with few stamens 

A. Peat bog plants; leaves all in a basal rosette, oblanceolate or spatulate, very con- 
spicuously glandular-hairy, red or reddish green; leaf blades not over 2 cm. long. 


AA. Not peat bog plants; leaves not as above in all characters. 
B. Two or more separate pistils to each flower. 

C. Leaves fleshy, pinnately veined or i-veined; pistils the same in number as the 
sepals or the petals. CRASSULACEAE (p. 117) 

CC. Leaves not fleshy, or if so, palmately veined; pistils only rarely the same in 
number as the petals or the sepals. 

D. Leaves either coriaceous and evergreen or else peltate; stamens 5-10, in- 
serted on the calyx tube. SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 
DD. Leaves not coriaceous and evergreen, not peltate; stamens rarely 5 or 10, 
inserted on the receptacle. RANUNCULACEAE (p. 95) 
BB. Only i pistil to each flower. 
E. Leaves palmately veined. 

F. Plants with mustard or turnip taste; pod linear; sepals 4; petals 4; stamens 
6. CRUCIFERACEAE (p. 106) 

FF. Plants without mustard or turnip taste; pod not linear; sepals none or 5; 
petals 5; stamens 5 or 10. 

G. Flowers irregular; i petal spurred. VIOLACEAE (p. 153) 

GG. Flowers regular or nearly so; petals not spurred. 

H. Petals on the receptacle; ovary superior, 5-celled; flowers not in um- 
bels. Geranium in GERANTACEAE (p. 143) 
HH. Petals on the calyx; ovary superior or half inferior, i-2-celled; flowers 
not in umbels. SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 
HHH. Petals on the ovary; ovary inferior, 2-celled; flowers in umbels. 

EE. Leaves pinnately veined. 
I. Ovary superior. 
J. Plants with mustard or turnip taste; sepals 4; petals 4; stamens 6. 


JJ. Plants without mustard or turnip taste; sepals and petals rarely 4; sta- 
mens rarely 6. 

K. Flowers regular or very nearly so, not spurred. 

L. Leaves basal, linear, 2.5-7.5 cm. long, somewhat thick or fleshy; flowers 
in a dense head, reddish; near the seashore. PLUMB AGIN ACE AE (p. 178) 
LL. Leaves not as above in all characters; flowers not in a dense head. 
M. Sepals 2. PORTULACACEAE (p. 86) 

MM. Sepals 3-8. 

N. Leaves coriaceous, evergreen, glabrous. 
O. Carpels 2-4; styles or sessile stigmas 2-4. 

Saxifraga in SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 

OO. Carpels 5; style i; stigmas i or 5. PYROLACEAE (p. 169) 

NN. Leaves not coriaceous nor evergreen, often not glabrous. 
P. Leaves very fleshy. 


Q. Petals 5, yellow; sepals 5. CRASSULACEAE (p. 117) 

QQ. Petals usually not 5, white; sepals usually not 5. 


PP. Leaves not fleshy. 

R. Flowers axillary; stem 5-angled. Lythrum in LYTHRACEAE (p. 156) 
RR. Flowers in clusters; stem terete. 
S. Stamens 5, on the receptacle; ovules 2 in each cell. 

LINACEAE (p. 144) 
SS. Stamens 10, on the calyx; ovules numerous. 

Saxifraga in SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 
KK. Flowers irregular. 

T. Flowers spurred at base. VIOLACEAE (p. 153) 

TT. Flowers not spurred at base. 
U. Leaves entire; petals 3; stamens 6-8; stigmas 1-2; style i; carpels 2. 


UU. Leaves serrate; petals 2 or 4; stamens 5; stigmas 5, sessile; carpels 5. 

II. Ovary inferior. 

V. Flowers in umbels or heads. UMBELLACEAE (p. 163) 

VV. Flowers neither in umbels nor in heads. 
W. Stem 5-angled; sepals and petals usually 6; flowers axillary. 

Lythrum in LYTHRACEAE (p. 156) 

WW. Stem terete; sepals and petals fewer; flowers usually clustered. 
X. Sepals 4; petals 4; stamens 2 or 4 or 8; style i; stigmas i or 4. 

ONAGRACEAE (p. 156) 
XX. Sepals 5; petals 5; stamens 10; styles or sessile stigmas 2-4. 

Saxifraga in SAXIFRAGACEAE (p. 118) 

GROUP 19 Dicotyledonous herbs with alternate simple 
leaves and sympetalous flowers 

A. Ovary superior or mainly so. 
B. Corolla irregular. 

C. Leaves with stipules; corolla not 2-lipped; stamens 10. LEGUMINACEAE (p. 135) 
CC. Leaves without stipules; stamens 5 or fewer. 

D. Leaves all basal, on upper side greasy to touch; corolla spurred at base, 

2-lipped; stamens 2. Pinguicula in PINGUICULACEAE (p. 210) 

DD. Leaves not all basal, not greasy to the touch; corolla not spurred; stamens 

2 or 4 or 5. 

E. Corolla 2-lipped; ovary i-2-celled. SCROPHULARIACEAE (p. 198) 

EE. Corolla not 2-lipped; ovary s-celled. BALSAMINACEAE (p. 148) 

BB. Corolla regular or very nearly so. 

F. Plants twining; leaves none or scattered. CONVOLVULACEAE (p. 182) 

FF. Plants not twining; leaves reniform, palmately veined, crenate, all basal. 

Nephrophyttidium'm MENYANTHACEAE (,p. 180) 
FFF. Plants not twining; leaves not reniform, not palmately veined, rarely 

crenate or all basal. 

G. Leaves fleshy-linear, 2.5-7.5 cm. long, all basal; flowers in dense heads; 
plants not far from the seashore. PLUMBAGINACEAE (p. 178) 


GG. Either leaves not as above in all characters, or else flowers not in heads. 
H. Leaves very fleshy; flowers in cymes, usually yellow. 


HH. Leaves either not fleshy or else the flowers in long narrow spikes. 
I. Leaves all basal; flowers in spikes; corolla scarious, veinless. 

n. Either leaves not all basal or else the flowers not in spikes; corolla not 

scarious, veined. 
J. Ovary deeply 2- or 4-lobed, maturing into 2 or 4 separate or separable 

nutlets. BORAGINACEAE (p. 187) 

JJ. Ovary not deeply lobed, not maturing into separate nor separable 


K. Style 3-cleft at apex; capsule 3-celled. POLEMONIACEAE (p. 183) 

KK. Styles or stigmas 1-2 ; capsule i-2-celled. 

L. Stamens opposite the corolla lobes; ovary i -celled; placenta central; 
style i ; stigma capitate. PRIMULACEAE (p. 175) 

LL. Stamens alternate with the corolla lobes; often differing from the 
above in some of the other characters. 

M. Corolla 20 mm. or more long. SOLANACEAE (p. 196) 

MM. Corolla 16 mm. or less long. 
N. Fruit a berry; inflorescence not scorpoid; style i. 

SOLANACEAE (p. 196) 

NN. Fruit a capsule; inflorescence somewhat scorpoid; styles often 2. 

AA. Ovary inferior or mainly so. 

O. Vine with tendrils. CUCURBITACEAE (p. 216) 

OO. Not a vine; tendrils none. 
P. Flowers not in heads. 

Q. Corolla regular; stamens distinct. CAMPANULACEAE (p. 216) 

QQ. Corolla irregular by not being equally split between the lobes; stamens 

united by their anthers. LOBELIACEAE (p. 217) 

PP. Flowers in heads. COMPOSITACEAE (p. 218) 



Shrubs or trees; not resin-bearing, evergreen. Leaves linear, 
alternate, short-petioled, flat, blue-green, rather sharply pointed. 
Cones or flower-bunches very small. Staminate cones of a few 
scaly bracts. Fruit a fleshy ring almost covering the one hard seed, 
becoming a red berry. W. C. (Gk. toxon = bow ; referring to the use 
of the wood.) Taxus brevifolia (WESTERN YEW) 


Shrubs or trees ; resinous, mostly evergreen. Leaves either needles 
or scales. Ovules and pollen sacs in separate cones. Staminate 
cones consisting of 4 to many scales. Pistillate cones consisting either 
of scales only, or of scales and bracts, usually dry and woody, sometimes 
a bluish berry. Scales bearing i to several ovules (usually 2) on the 
inner surface, woody or papery or fleshy. 

A. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3, not sheathed when in 3*5, scalelike (except 

sometimes in Juniperus) ; cone scales 1 2 or fewer, decussate. 

B. Fruit, a bluish berry; leaves often awl-shaped, often scalelike, often both 
forms on the same plant. JUNIPERUS (p. 30) 

BB. Fruit a dry woody cone; leaves all scalelike. 

C. Leaves 4 in a whorl; cone scales of 3 quite unlike pairs; seeds unequally 
2-winged. U. C. A fine lumber tree. (Gk. leibo = to pour out, kedros = 
the Cedar; probably on account of the strong cedar-like odor.) 

Libocedrus decurrens (INCENSE CEDAR) 

CC. Leaves opposite; cone scales alike or nearly so; seeds equally 2-winged. 
D. Pistillate cones globose, their scales peltate; Staminate cones oblong, their 
scales ovate and not peltate. CHAMAECYPARIS (p. 30) 

DD. Pistillate cones oblong, their scales not peltate; Staminate cones globose, 
their scales peltate. W. C. E. Our best tree for shingles. (Gk. thuia = 
the name of a similar tree.) Thuja plicata (GIANT CEDAR) 

AA. Leaves alternate or in bunches of 2 to many, sheathed at the base if in 2-5- 
leaved bunches, linear, not scalelike (except sometimes in Sequoia) ; cone scales 
more than 12. 

E. Leaves of 2 forms; one form lanceolate, flat, 6-13 mm. long; the other form 
ovate or ovate-oblong, keeled, 5-7 mm. long; seeds 5-7 under each scale. U. 
A fine lumber tree. (Honor of Sequoyah, the Indian name of George Guess, who 
invented the Cherokee alphabet.) Sequoia sempervirens (REDWOOD) 



EE. Leaves of only i form; seeds 2 under each scale. 
F. Leaves solitary. 

G. Branchlets not roughened by persistent leaf bases; bracts either longer than 
the cone scales, or else shorter and the cones erect and their scales dropping 
from the axis. 

H. Leaves flat or 4-sided, often notched at apex; leaf scars circular; mature 
cones erect; scales dropping from the cone axis; bract usually shorter than the 
scales. ABIES (p. 31) 

HH. Leaves flat, never notched at apex; leaf scars transversely oval; mature 
cone pendulous; scales persistent to the cone axis; bracts longer, than the 
scales. W. C. E. The most abundant lumber tree of the Northwest. 
(Gk. pseudos = false; Jap. tsuga = the Hemlock.) 

Pseudotsuga taxifolia (DOUGLAS FIR) 

GG. Branchlets roughened by persistent leaf-bases; bracts shorter than the 
cone scales; cone pedulous; cone scales persistent on the axis. 

I. Leaves if flat with stomates below, with i dorsal resin duct; cone scales 
entire, rounded. TSUGA (p. 31) 

II. Leaves if flat with stomates above, with 2 lateral resin ducts or none; cone 
scales not entire, or if so not rounded. PICEA (p. 32) 

FF. Leaves in bunches of 2 or more. 

J. Leaves in bunches of more than 5, deciduous; bunches not sheathed at base; 
cones solitary; pistillate cones maturing at the end of the first season. 

LARIX (p. 32) 

JJ. Leaves in bunches of 2-5, evergreen; bunches sheathed at base; staminate 
cones clustered; pistillate cones maturing at the end of the second or third 
season. PINUS (p. 32) 


Shrubs or trees. Leaves evergreen, sessile, awl-like or scalelike, opposite 
or in whorls of 3. Flower-bunches and berries small. Staminate flower- 
bunch oblong or ovoid; scales with 2-6 pollen sacs. Fruit a bluish berry, 
globose ; pistillate scales few, opposite or in whorls of 3. Seeds 1-4, bony. 
(Celtic name.) 

A. Leaves in whorls of 3, all awl-shaped; buds scaly; cones axillary; pistillate cones 
with smaller scales at the tip; alpine shrub, prostrate, i m. or less tall. W. C. E. 

J. communis (DWARF JUNIPER) 

AA. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3, often awl-shaped on young plants, but scale- 
like on mature plants; buds naked; cones terminal on short axillary branches; 
pistillate cones with larger scales at the tip; not alpine, erect, shrub or tree, 15 m. 
or less tall. 

B. Leaves very resinous, dark green. E. J. occidentalis (WESTERN JUNIPER) 

BB. Leaves not resinous, often glaucous. W. E. 



Trees. Leaves minute, 4-ranked.' Cones small, monoecious, terminal. 
Staminate cone scales many, 4-ranked, with 2 pollen sacs. Pistillate cones 


closed until mature; scales 4-12, opposite, thick, each with a central point 
or knob. Seeds 2-5. (Gk. chamai = on the ground, kuparissos = a 
cypress ; hence, low cypress.) 

A. Leafy twigs terete or nearly so; bark 2 cm. or less thick; leaves usually without 
glands. W. C. On mountains. C. nootkatensis (ALASKA CEDAR) 

AA. Leafy twigs much flattened; bark 25 cm. or less thick; leaves conspicuously 
glandular. U. A fine lumber tree. C. lawsoniana (PORT ORFORD CEDAR) 


Trees. Leaves linear, often complanate, scattered, flat. Staminate 
cones axillary, oval or oblong-cylindric. Mature pistillate cones ovoid or 
oblong-cylindric ; scales incurved at their wide apex, orbicular or wider, 
deciduous. Lumber trees. (Latin name.) 

A. Most of the leaves of the sterile branches notched at apex. 

B. Bracts conspicuous, reflexed, much exceeding the scales; leaves slightly notched 
at apex, with stomates on both sides, not markedly complanate; winter buds 
ovoid-oblong; sapwood darker than heartwood. W. C. A. nobilis (NOBLE FIR) 

BB. Bracts not projecting beyond the scales; leaves distinctly notched at apex, 
with stomates beneath only, markedly complanate; winter buds globose; sapwood 
lighter in color than heartwood. W. C. E. A. grandis (WHITE FIR) 

AA. Most of the leaves of the sterile branches not notched at the apex. 

C. Leaves of sterile branches flat, often grooved above; cones 6.2-15 cm. long; 
cone scales narrower than 2.5 cm. 

D. Leaves dark-green and shining above, 1.9-3.1 cm. long; cones dark purple; 
cone scales slightly wider than long; bracts of cone scales rhombic or oblong- 
ovate, gradually narrowed into a long tip; bark of old trees 6.2 cm. or less thick. 
W. C. A. amabilis (LOVELY FIR) 

DD. Leaves pale blue-green, 2.5-4.4 cm. long; cones dark purple; cone scales 
longer than wide; bracts of cone scales rounded, with emarginate and long- 
pointed tip; bark of old trees 3.7 cm. or less thick. W. C. E. 

A. lasiocarpa (ALPINE FIR) 

DDD. Leaves pale blue-green, 5-7.5 cm. long on vigorous sterile branches, while 

on others sometimes only 1.9 cm. long; cones purple or green or yellow; cone 

scales much wider than long; bracts of cone scales obovate, with short tip at apex; 

bark of old trees 15 cm. or less thick. U. C. E. A. concolor (SILVER FIR) 

CC. Leaves of sterile branches 4-sided, not grooved above; cones 15-23 cm. long; 

cone scales 2.5-3.7 cm. wide. U. C. A. magnifica (SHASTA FIR) 


Trees. Leaves scattered, often complanate. Cones solitary, monoecious. 
Staminate cones globose. Mature pistillate cones oval to oblong-cylindric ; 
scales thin, suborbicular to ovate-oblong. (Japanese name.) 

A. Leaves complanate, flat, with stomates only on the under surface; cones 1.9- 
2.5 cm. long. W. C. E. A good lumber tree. 

T. heterophylla (WESTERN HEMLOCK) 

AA. Leaves not complanate, convex or keeled above, with stomates on both surfaces; 
cones 1.9-7.5 cm. long. W. C. E. On mountains. 

T. mertensiana (ALPINE HEMLOCK) 



Trees. Leaves mostly not complanate, 4-angled, scattered. Staminate 
cones oblong or oval or cylindric, long-stalked. Mature pistillate cones 
ovoid or oblong-cylindric. Scales thin, obtuse. Good trees for lumber 
and paper. (Latin name.) 

A. Cone scales entire, broadly ovate, rounded at apex; leaves obtuse, somewhat 

flat; branchlets pubescent. U. P. breweriana (WEEPING SPRUCE) 

AA. Cone scales not entire, mostly contracted at both ends; leaves acute or acuminate, 

4-sided or somewhat rounded. 

B. Branchlets pubescent; leaves 4-sided, with stomates on 4 sides; cones about 
5 cm. long; cone scales gradually narrowed to an acute or truncate tip; crushed 
leaves with decided skunklike smell. C. E. P. engelmanni (ENGELMANN SPRUCE) 
BB. Branchlets glabrous; leaves hardly 4-sided, usually with stomates on the upper 
side only; cones 5-10 cm. long; cone scales rounded at tip; crushed leaves with 
little or no skunklike smell. W. P. sitchensis (SITKA SPRUCE) 


Trees with many knoblike branches on their twigs. Leaves 3-4-angled, 
some in bunches of 10 or more on the knoblike branches, others scattered 
on the elongated twigs. Staminate cones globose to oblong. Pistillate 
cones conical to subglobose; scales slightly thickened, suborbicular or 
oblong-ovate. Lumber trees. (Celtic name.) 
A. Leaves 3-angled; branchlets and bud scales pubescent but soon become glabrous; 

cones 2.5-3.7 cm. long. C. E. L. occidentalis (WESTERN LARCH) 

AA. Leaves 4-angled; branchlets and bud scales tomentose; cones 3-7-5 cm. long. 

C. E. L. lyallii (WOOLLY LARCH) 


Trees or shrubs. Staminate cones involucrate. Scales of pistillate cones 
thickened at tip, woody, tipped with a scar or protuberance. Mostly 
lumber trees. (Latin name.) 

A. 2 leaves in a bunch. 

B. Leaves 2.5-7.5 cm. long, all in 2's; cones 1.5-5 cm. long, remaining on the trees 
for 5-30 years. W. C. E. P. contorta (LODGE-POLE PINE) 

BB. Leaves 10-27 cm. long, often some in 3*3; cones 7-5~37-5 cm. long, dropping 
within 2 years. W. C. E. P. ponderosa (YELLOW PINE) 

AA. 3 leaves in a bunch. 

C. Leaves in 2*s or 3*5; cones subterminal, falling within 2 years. (See BB.) 
CC. Leaves all in 3*3; cones lateral, remaining 2 to many years. C. 

P. attenuate (KNOB-CONE PINE) 
AAA. 5 leaves in a bunch. 

D. Cones 3.7-12.5 cm. long (in P. flexilis 7-5~25 cm.), their stalks 2-7 mm. long; 
cone scales with prickles, thick; seeds longer than their wings (except in P. bal- 
fouriana); leaves 2.5-7.5 cm. long; bark whitish where smooth. 

E. Leaves 2.5-3.7 cm. long, persistent for 10-12 years; old bark divided into 
isodiametric plates; cones 8.7-12.5 cm. long, opening at maturity; prickles of 
cone scales on back and not at very tip, pointing away from cone axis. U. 

P. balfouriana (FOXTAIL PINE) 


EE. Leaves 3.7-6.2 cm. long, persistent for 5-8 years; old bark divided into elon- 
gated plates; cones 3.7-7.5 cm. long, not opening at maturity; prickles of cone 
scales at tip, pointing toward cone tip. C. P. albicaulis (WHITE-BARK PINE) 

EEE. Leaves 3.7-7.5 cm. long, persistent for 5-6 years; old bark divided into 
isodiametric plates; cones 7.5-25 cm. long, opening at maturity; prickles of cone 
scales at very tip, pointing toward cone tip. C. E. P. flexilis (LIMBER PINE) 
DD. Cones 15-45 cm. long, their stalks 12-75 mm. long; cone scales with obsolete 
prickles or none, thin; seeds shorter than their wings; leaves 3.7-10 cm. long; bark 
green where smooth (or whitish in P. monticola). 

F. Cones 1.2-2.8 dm. long; seed ^ as long as its wing; old bark 3.7 cm. or less 
thick, broken into isodiametric plates; smooth younger bark whitish. W. C. E. 

P. monticola (WESTERN WHITE PINE) 

FF. Cones 3-4.5 dm. long; seed ^ as long as its wing; old bark 7.5 cm. or less thick, 
broken into elongated plates; smooth younger bark greenish. C. 

P. lambertiana (SUGAR PINE) 

Y. & R. EL. FL. 3 




Perennial ; roots fibrous ; stems simple, terete. Leaves alternate, 
linear or strap-shaped, sheathing at base, flat, more or less convex 
on the back, parallel-veined. Flowers in terminal spikes (cat-tails}, 
the staminate above the pistillate. Staminate flowers among hairs ; 
stamens 1-7. Perianth of several delicate silky hairs. Ovary 
stalked ; style long. Seed i. Marsh plants. (Gk. typha = the cat- 
tail.) Only the following genus. (F. & R. p. 30.) TYPHA (CAT-TAIL) 


Roots fibrous; stems erect or immersed and floating. Leaves 
linear, alternate, equitant below or flat, sheathing at base. Flowers 
sessile or peduncled, in heads, staminate heads above the pistillate. 
Perianth of 3-6 chaffy scales. Stamens mostly 5. Pistils i, or 2 
with united styles and ovaries. Seed i. Marsh plants. (Gk. 
sparganon = a band ; referring to the ribbon-like leaves.) Only the 
following genus. (F. & R. p. 30.) SPARGANIUM (BUR-REED) 


Aquatic or marsh herbs, mostly immersed, with rootstocks. Leaves 
alternate or opposite, sometimes all basal; blade rarely toothed or 
none; reduced leaves various in shape. Flowers perfect or uni- 
sexual, variously arranged. Perianth none, or of 4-6 distinct seg- 
ments, or membranous and tubular or cup-shaped. Stamens 1-2 
or 4-6. Ovary 'superior ; carpels 1-6. Family too difficult for 
beginners, hence key only to genera. (F. & R. pp. 3i~34-) 

A. Growing in fresh water, or in salt marshes, but not in open tidewater. 
B. Leaves flat, or in a few species terete but then never more than 1.5 mm. in 

diameter; stem elongated. 

C. Leaves alternate, often wide, more than 25 mm. long when linear; pistil i. 
D. Leaves all linear, all alternate; stamens 2; fruit stalked. (Honor of 
H. B. Ruppius, a German botanist.) Ruppia (DITCH GRASS) 



DD. Often with some wide leaves, often the upper leaves opposite; stamens 4; 

fruit sessile. (See F.) 

CC. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3, all linear, 8-25 mm. long; pistils more 
than i. 

E. Leaves not spiny; pistils 2-10. 

F. Flowers perfect, in spikes or clusters; stamens more than i. (Gk. potamos 
= a river, geiton = a neighbor; from the habitat.) 

Potamogeton (PONDWEED) 

FF. Flowers monoecious, axillary; stamen i. E. (Honor of G. G. Zanni- 
chelli, a botanist of Venice.) Zannichellia palustris (HORNED PONDWEED) 
EE. Leaves spiny on the margins or back or both; flowers solitary in the leaf 
axils; pistil i. (Gk. naias = a water nymph; from the habitat.) 


BB. Leaves terete, 1-4.5 mm. in diameter, all basal; stem not elongated. W. 
(Meaning not determined.) Lilaea subulata 

AA. Growing along tide-water shores from i m. above low tide to 2 m. below it ; not 
in salt marshes. 

G. Plants growing on muddy bottom; leaves 3-15 mm. wide. W. (Gk. zoster 
= a belt; referring to the leaves.) Zostera marina (EEL-GRASS) 

GG. Plants growing mostly in rock crevices; leaves 4 mm. or less wide. (Gk. 
phyllon = a leaf; + spadix; inflorescence inclosed in leaf base.) 

Phyllospadix (SEA BASKET-GRASS) 


Perennial marsh herbs. Leaves rushlike; blades terete or half 
terete at least near their base. Flowers perfect, in spikes or 
racemes. Perianth 3~6-parted, in 2 .very similar series. Stamens 
3-6, on the base of the perianth. Carpels 3-6, more or less 
united until maturity. Fruit a capsule or follicle. Seeds 1-2 
in each carpel. Difficult family. Key mostly only to genera. 
(F. & R. p. 34-) 

A. Leaves all basal; flowers many, bractless, in a spike or spikelike raceme; 
anthers oval; stigmas plumose. (Gk. treis = 3, glochis = point; some species 
have 3-pointed fruits.) Triglochin (ARROW GRASS) 

AA. Stem leafy; flowers few, bracted, in loose racemes; anthers linear; stigmas 
papillose or slightly fimbriate. W. C. E. (Honor of J. and J. J. Scheuchzer, 
Swiss botanists.) Scheuchzeria palustris 


Aquatic or marsh herbs, annual or perennial. Leaves basal; 
petiole long, sheathing at base; blade flat, several-ribbed, often 
with spreading or deflexed lobes. Scapes erect or floating. Flowers 
perfect or unisexual, regular, whorled, borne in terminal racemes 
or panicles. Calyx of 3 persistent green sepals. Corolla white 


or pink, of 5 deciduous imbricate petals. Stamens 6 or more. 
Fruit a head or whorl of separate flat or turgid akenes. Difficult 
family. Key only to genera. (F. & R. p. 35.) 

A. Leaves not sagittate, although sometimes cordate at base; flowers in compound 
panicles, perfect; akenes in a whorl ; receptacle depressed. (Celtic alis = water; 
from the habitat.) Alisma (WATER PLANTAIN) 

AA. Leaves sagittate; flowers in whorls or 3 near the top of the scape, monoecious 
or dioecious; akenes in a head; receptacle convex to globose. (L. sagitta = an 
arrow; referring to leaf form.) Sagittaria (WAPATO) 


Perennial; submerged, with stem elongated. Leaves whorled, 
sessile, pellucid, i-veined, oblong or ovate-oblong, usually obtuse, 
5-10 mm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, margin usually minutely dentic- 
ulate or serrulate. Flowers very rare. W. E. Only the follow- 
ing species. (Gk. phyllon = a leaf, treis = 3; the leaves are often 
in 3's.) Philotria canadensis (WATER WEED) 


Herbs, annual or perennial; stems terete, usually hollow, their 
joints closed. Leaves sheathing, with scarious ring (ligule) 
where blade joins sheath; sheath usually split to base on side oppo- 
site the blade. Inflorescence various, but its elements composed 
of flower groups (spikelets) of i to many flowers. Spikelets com- 
posed of 0-2 basal flowerless bracts (glumes) , above which are other 
bracts usually in pairs (the outer = lemma, the inner = palet) 
and each pair inclosing a flower or an abortive one. Lemma and 
glume often awned. Palet with back to axis (rachilla) of spikelet, 
opposite its lemma and often rolled up in it. Stamens 1-6, usually 
3; anthers versatile. Styles 1-3, usually 2 and lateral; stigmas 
plumose or hairy. Fruit i -seeded, a grain. A difficult family. 
The key is to species usually only when of economic importance. 
(F. & R. pp. 36-74.) 

A. Grain in corn-ear-Jike cluster. MAYDEAE (p. 37) 

AA. Grain not in corn-ear-like cluster. 

B. Spikelets i -flowered, rarely 2-flowered, terete or dorsally flattish (laterally in 
Oryzeae) ; imperfect flower below in the 2-flowered spikelets. 
C. Glumes 1-2; spikelets terete or dorsally flattened, i-2-flowered. 
D. Glumes indurated; lemma and palet of fertile flower hyaline; stamen i. 


DD. Glumes membranous; lemma and palet of fertile flower indurated; 
stamens 3. PANICEAE (p. 38) 


CC. Glumes none; spikelets much laterally flattened, i -flowered. 

ORYZEAE (p. 38) 
BB. Spikelets i- to many-flowered, more or less laterally flattish; imperfect flower 

uppermost (except HieroMoe) in spikelets of 2 or more flowers. 
E. Spikelets not in rows. 

F. Spikelets i -flowered, in racemes or spikes or panicles. 
G. Spikelets with 2 sterile lemmas just above the glumes. 

PHALAREAE (p. 38) 
GG. Spikelets without sterile lemmas just above the glumes. 

AGROSTEAE (p. 38) 

FF. Spikelets 2- to many-flowered, in racemes or panicles. 
H. Glumes usually longer than the first flower; i or more of the lemmas 
awned on the back or between the teeth of the bifid apex. AVENEAE (p. 41) 
HH. Glumes shorter than the first flower; lemma either awnless, or with i to 
several terminal straight or merely divergent awns. FESTUCEAE (p. 43) 
EE. Spikelets in 2 rows. 

I. Spikelet-rows on same side of rachis, forming i-sided spikes. 


II. Spikelet-rows on opposite sides of rachis, forming balanced spikes. 

HORDEAE (p. 47) 

MAYDEAE (Corn Tribe). Stem solid. Spikelets unisexual. Stami- 
nate and pistillate flowers separate on the same plant. Lemma and palet 
thinner than the glumes. W. E. (L. zea = spelt.) We have only 
the following. Zea mays (COMMON FIELD-CORN) 

ANDROPOGONEAE (Sugar-cane Tribe). Spikelets 1-3 at each joint 
of the rachis, sessile or short-pedicelled, usually 3-flowered. Glumes 2, 
thicker than the lemmas. Lemma often hyaline, often awned, the lower 
often empty and glumelike. Palet usually shorter than its lemma, some- 
times none. Stamens 1-3. Stigma plumose. Grain unfurrowed, free. 
Here belongs also Saccharum officinarum (Sugar Cane). 

A. Spikelets in a spikelike panicle, in 2 's, all fertile; lemma awnless; stamens 1-2. E. 

Imperata hookeri (WESTERN BLADE GRASS) 

AA. Spikelets in a loose, somewhat spreading panicle, in 3's, lateral 2 sterile, central i 
fertile; lemma awned; stamens 3. SORGHUM (p. 37) 


Plant 0-30 dm. high. Leaves long, wide, flat. Spikelets in a large 

terminal panicle, in pairs at its nodes or in 3's at the ends of its branches, 
i sessile and perfect at each node. Glumes shining. Lemma hyaline, 

awned. Palet hyaline or none. Stamens 3. W. (Sorghi = the name 
in India.) 

A. Cornlike, annual. E. Cultivated for molasses. S. vulgare (SORGHUM) 

AA. Grasslike, perennial. W. A hay grass. S. halapense (JOHNSON GRASS) 


PANICEAE (Millet Tribe). Spikelets in spikes or racemes or panicles, 
falling off singly from the ultimate branches ; fertile spikelet with i terminal 
pistillate flower, with or without a staminate one below it. Glumes rarely 
awned, the awn straight. Lemma and palet firmer than the glumes, un- 
awned in most. Stamens 3, rarely fewer. Grain inclosed, free, unfurrowed. 

A. Spikelets in i -sided spikes or spikelike racemes. 
B. Lemmas not awned; glumes not spiny-hispid, hence spikes or spikelike racemes 

not bristly. 

C. Annual; lower glume very small; lemma with hyaline margin, not inrolled. 
W. E. A bad weed in cultivated fields. (Gk. syn = with, therismos = crop; 
hence crop-making.) Syntherisma sanguinale (CRAB GRASS) 

CC. Perennial; glumes equal or nearly so; lemmas without hyaline margin, in- 
rolled. E. (Gk. paspalos = millet.) Paspalum distichum (JOINT GRASS) 
BB. Sterile lemma awned; glumes spiny-hispid, making the spikelike racemes 
somewhat bristly. W. E. (Gk. echinos = a hedgehog, chloa = grass; referring 
to the bristling awns.) Echinochloa crusgalli (BARNYARD GRASS) 
AA. Spikelets in open panicles, or if in a spikelike panicle this not i-sided. 
D. Spikelets without an involucre of bristles, in an open panicle. (Latin name of 
the Italian Millet.) Panicum (PANIC GRASS) 
DD. Spikelets with an involucre of bristles, clustered in a single dense terminal 
spikelike panicle. W. E. (Gk. chaeta = a bristle, chloa = grass; referring to 
the bristly spikes.) Chaetochloa viridis (GREEN FOXTAIL) 

ORYZEAE (Rice Tribe). Perennial. Spikelets laterally flat, in a loose 
panicle, with i terminal unisexual or perfect flower inclosed by a lemma and 
a palet ; lemma boat-shaped, awnless, clasping the palet by a pair of strong 
marginal veins, palet i-veined. Glumes none. Stamens 3. Grain fur- 
rowed. Oryza saliva, cultivated rice, is in this tribe. Only the follow- 
ing species. W. E. (Gk. omalos = resemblance, kenchros = millet ; hence 
millet-like.) Homalocenchrus oryzoides (RICE CUT-GRASS) 

PHALAREAE (Canary-grass Tribe). Leaf blades flat. Spikelets of 
i perfect flower with 2 sterile or staminate lemmas below it and falling 
attached to it. Palet o-2-veined, inclosed in fertile lemma. Stamens 2-3. 
Stigmas plumose. Grain unfurrowed, inclosed, free. 

A. Spikelets in spikelike or headlike clusters. 

B. Glumes equal; sterile lemmas awnless; stamens 3; plant not sweet-scented. 
(Gk. phalaros = brilliant; referring to the shining seed.) 

Phalaris (CANARY GRASS) 

BB. Glumes unequal, lower about $ the upper; sterile lemmas awned; stamens 2; 
plant markedly sweet-scented. W. (Gk. anthos = a flower, xanthos = yellow.) 
Anthoxanthium odoratum (SWEET VERNAL GRASS) 
AA. Spikelets in loose panicles. 

C. Plant not sweet-scented; spikelets i-flowered; sterile lemmas subulate. (See B.) 
CC. Plants strongly sweet-scented; spiklets 3-flowered, the lower 2 flowers stami- 
nate; staminate lemmas boat-shaped. (Gk. hieros = holy, chloe = grass; in 
Europe strewn before church doors on saints' days.) Hierochloe (HOLY GRASS) 

AGROSTEAE (Timothy Tribe). Spikelets with i perfect flower. 
Rachilla sometimes prolonged beyond the palets into a naked or plumose 


bristle. Glumes 2 (none in Coleanthus), subequal or unequal, usually as 
long as the lemma or longer. Palet veinless or 2-veined, but i-veined in 
Cinna and wanting in some species of Agrostis. Grain unfurrowed. 

A. Plants 2-8 cm. high; glumes none; spikelets hardly i mm. long. W. (Gk. 
koleos = a sheath, anthos = a flower; inflorescence much inclosed in upper leaf.) 

Coleanthus subtilis (MOSS GRASS) 

AA. Plants taller; glumes present; spikelets longer. 
B. Inflorescence a dense spikelike (Timothy-like) cluster. 

C. Lower glume 4-6 times as long as the lemma not considering awn, and at least 
a half longer than the upper glume; glumes awnless; lemma-awn termina.'., 3-5 
mm. long. U. (Gk. gastros = stomach, eidos = like; glume is swollen at base.) 

Gastridium lendigerum (NIT GRASS) 
CC. Not as above in all characters. 
D. Lemma with a terminal awn 0.510 mm. long. 

E. Lemma with a tuft of hair at base as long as the lemma. (Honor of H. 
Muhlenberg, an American botanist.) Muhlenbergia (DROPSEED) 

EE. Lemma without a tuft of hair at base. (Gk. polys = many, pogon = 
beard.) Polypogon (BEARD GRASS) 

DD. Lemma awnless or with a dorsal awn. 

F. Lemma with a tuft of hair at base. (Gk. kalamos = a reed, agrostis = a 
grass.) Calamagrostis (REED GRASS) 

FF. Lemma without a tuft of hair at base, though often ciliate on the keel. 
G. Glumes not conspicuously compressed-keeled; inflorescence distinctly lobed 
and raceme-like. (Gk. agros = a field; from the habitat.) 

Agrostis (BENT GRASS) 
GG. Glumes conspicuously compressed-keeled; inflorescence a dense terete 

spike not or hardly lobed. 

H. Lemma with a dorsal awn 2-16 mm. long ; glumes united for J- their 
length at base. (Gk. alopex = a fox, oura = a tail; referring to the spike.) 

Alopecurus (FOXTAIL GRASS) 

HH. Lemma awnless; glumes not united. PHLEUM (p. 41) 

BB. Inflorescence either plainly a panicle or if spikelike the spikelets distant, and 

thus the spike not dense. 

I. Lemma with a terminal awn 0.3-20 cm. long; glumes sometimes awned. 
J. Lemma of fertile flower thin, membranous. (See E.) 
JJ. Lemma of fertile flower firm, hardened. 

K. Lemma awn 3-branched. (L. arista = an awn.) Aristida (3-AWNED GRASS) 
KK. Lemma awn not branched. 

L. Lemma awn twisted, persistent. STIPA (p. 40) 

LL. Lemma awn not twisted, deciduous. ORYZOPSIS (p. 40) 

n. Lemma awnless or with a dorsal awn 1.2 cm. or less long; glumes awnless. 
M. Lemma with a tuft of hair at base. 

N. Glumes with awns 2-5 mm. long, about equal; lemma 3-veined. (See E.) 
NN. Glumes awnless. 

O. Lemma i-veined; lower glume J-f as long as the upper. E. (Gk. kalamos 
= a reed; Vilfa = another genus of grasses; hence a reedlike Vilfa.) 

Calamovilfa longifolia (SAND GRASS) 

OO. Lemmas-veined; lower glume f to equaling the upper. (See F.) 
MM. Lemma without hairs at base. 
P. Palet half as long as its lemma or shorter, often none; glumes exceeding the 

lemma; stamens 3. (See G.) 

PP. Palet over half as long as its lemma ; glumes not exceeding the lemma 
(except in Cinna latifolia). 


Q. Seed tightly inclosed by the ovary; stamen i; lemma with a very small 
dorsal awn. (Gk. kinna = some kind of a grass.) Cinna (INDIAN REED) 

QQ. Seed loosely inclosed by the ovary; stamens 2-3; lemma awnless. 
(Gk. spora = a seed, ballein = to cast forth; the grain is deciduous.) 

Sporobolus (DROPSEED) 


Perennial, tufted. Leaves often rolled up. Spikelets in a terminal 
panicle. Glumes persistent, keeled, unawned or rarely with a slender awn. 
Lemma narrow, rigid, convolute, with callus at base, awned ; callus bearded ; 
awn terminal, twisted, geniculate. Palet 2-veined. Stamens 3. Grain 
cylindric, included, often burying itself in the soil by the twisting and un- 
twisting of the awn. In dry soil. Range grasses. (Gk. stupe = tow ; 
from the towlike plumes of some species.) 

A. Awn 7.5-20 cm. long. 

B. Glumes 20-30 mm. long including the point, s-veined; lemma without crown of 
hairs at apex. E. S. comata (NEEDLE GRASS) 

BB. Glumes 16-20 mm. long, 3-veined; lemma with crown of hairs at apex. E. 

S. setigera (BEAR GRASS) 
AA. Awn 5 cm. or less long. 

C. Awn only slightly pubescent or scabrous. 

D. Callus acute or acuminate, about i mm. long. 
E. Panicle 15-35 cm. long; lemma and its callus 6-7 mm. long; palet as long as 

the lemma. 

F. Sheaths smooth; awn 3.5-6 cm. long. E. S. nelson! 

FF. At least the lower sheaths pubescent; awn 2-3 cm. long. E. S. williamsii 
EE. Panicle 5-12 cm. long; lemma and its callus about 4 mm. long; palet J as 
long as the lemma. W. C. E. S. columbiana 

DD. Callus obtuse, very short. E. S. lemmoni 

CC. Awn plumose. 
G. Ligule i mm. long or less. 
H. Sheaths pubescent. 
I. Awn smooth or rough but not pubescent. E. 


n. Awn pubescent to the second bend. E. S. elmeri 

HH. Sheaths glabrous. E. S. occidentalis (WESTERN NEEDLE GRASS) 

GG. Ligule 2-4 mm. long. E. S. thurberiana 


Perennial, tufted. Spikelets in a narrow lax few-flowered panicle; 
rachilla not prolonged beyond the palet. Glumes persistent, convex on the 
back, obtuse or abruptly acute. Lemma wide, obtuse-truncate, terminat- 
ing in an awn ; awn deciduous, simple, more or less bent near the base. 
Palet 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Grain oblong-ellipsoid, free. (Gk. oryza = 
rice, opsis = form.) 

A. Lemma densely covered with conspicuous long white hairs; panicle loose; not 

B. Leaf blade smooth; lemma narrowly elliptic; awn 8-12 mm. long. E. 

O. bloomer! 


BB. Leaf blade scabrous; lemma broadly oval; awn 3-5 mm. long. E. A good 

range grass. O. cuspidata (INDIAN MILLET) 

AA. Lemma hairs when present not dense nor conspicuous; panicle narrow (except 

O. kingii); alpine (except O. kingii). 

C. Awn of lemma 3-4 mm. long. C. E. O. exigua (SMALL MOUNTAIN RICE) 

CC. Awn of lemma 10-15 mm. long. 
D. Alpine; rays of panicle bearing 2-4 spikelets each; lemma smooth. E. 

O. hendersoni 

DD. Not alpine; rays of panicle bearing 1-2 spikelets each; lemma with short 
hairs on lower half. E. O. kingii 


Perennial, erect. Leaf blades flat. Spikelets flat, in a dense cylindric 
or ovoid spike. Glumes almost equal, membranous, compressed-keeled, 
i-3-veined, abruptly pointed, the keel projecting as a point or awn. Lemma 
shorter and wider than the glumes, thin, hyaline, truncate or denticulate, 
awnless, 5-veined, inclosing the palet. Palet nearly equaling the lemma, 
narrow, hyaline. Stamens 3. Grain ovoid, free. (Gk. phleos = some 
kind of reed.) 

A. Spikes 1.5-3 cm. long; awn of glume 2 mm. long; plant 2-6 dm. high. W. C. E. 


AA. Spikes 3-17 cm. long; awn of glume i mm. long; plant 4-10 dm. high. W. E. 
One of the best and most common hay grasses. P. pratense (TIMOTHY) 

AVENEAE (Oats Tribe). Spikelets in either open or spikelike panicles, 
2 to several flowered. Rachilla produced beyond the upper lemma (except 
in Aira). Glumes 2. Lemma with tuft of hair at base, some in each spikelet 
awned (except Trisetum muticum) ; awn either dorsal or near the apex be- 
tween the lobes. Palet 2-keeled. Stigmas plumose. 

A. Plants 2 dm. high or less; spikelets 2-flowered, both perfect; rachilla jointed below 
the glumes, not prolonged beyond the upper flower. (Gk. aira = a deadly weapon; 
applied to a poisonous Darnel.) Aira (HAIR GRASS) 

AA. Plants mostly taller; spikelets 2- to several-flowered, sometimes only i perfect 
when only 2; rachilla jointed above the glumes (except in Holcus), prolonged be- 
yond the upper flower. 

B. Plants densely soft-whitish-hairy; spikelets falling off entire; rachilla jointed 

below the glumes; spikelets 2-flowered, the lower perfect, the upper staminate; 

awn of second flower hooklike. W. E. A common grass especially west of the 

Cascades, often cut for hay. It often crowds out other and better hay grasses 

and then becomes a weed. Sometimes wrongly called " Mesquite." (Gk. holkos 

= some kind of grass.) Holcus lanatus (VELVET GRASS) 

BB. Plants not densely soft-whitish-hairy; spikelets falling off in parts; rachilla 

jointed above the glumes; spikelets 2- to several-flowered (2 only in Arrhenatherum, 

which has the perfect flower above); awns not hooklike. 

C. Spikelets i cm. long or less. 

D. Spikelets 8-10 mm. long; lemma awned from near the base; spikelets only 
2-flowered; upper flower perfect or pistillate, the lower staminate. W. (Gk. 
arren = masculine, ather = an awn; only the staminate flowers are awned.) 

Arrhenatherum elatius (TALL OAT-GRASS) 


DD. Spikelets either less than 7 mm. long or else lemma awned from the middle 
or above it; spikelets 2 to many flowered; upper flower sometimes staminate or 
abortive, the others perfect. 

E. Lemma keeled, obtuse or truncate, erose at tip, awn arising at or below the 
middle. DESCHAMPSIA (p. 42) 

EE. Lemma convex, acute or shortly bifid, not erose, awn none or arising above 
the middle. TRISETUM (p. 42) 

CC. Spikelets over i cm. long. 
F. Perennial; awn of lemma between the teeth at apex; grain glabrous. 

DANTHONIA (p. 43) 
FF. Annual or perennial; awn of lemma dorsal; grain hairy. AVENA (p. 43) 


Tufted. Spikelets 2-3-flowered, shining, in a terminal panicle. Glumes 
keeled, the sides thinly scarious. Lemma membranous or nearly hyaline, 
4-veined, obtuse or truncate, 2-4 toothed, awned ; awn fine, dorsal, arising 
at or below the middle. (Honor of J. C. A. Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, a 
French botanist.) The ist and 2d are good range grasses. 

A. Some of the flowers projecting beyond the glumes; awn very slightly or not at 

all projecting beyond its lemma. W. E. D. caespitosa (TUFTED HAIR-GRASS) 

AA. Flowers not projecting beyond the glumes; awn projecting beyond its lemma 

once the lemma length or more. 
B. Perennial; glumes 3-6 mm. long; awn either less than 6 mm. long or straight, or 


C. Leaf blade flat; awn hardly or not at all projecting beyond the glumes; glumes 
i-veined, 4.5-6 mm. long; plants 1.5-4 dm. high. W. C. E. 

D. atropurpurea (MOUNTAIN HAIR-GRASS) 

CC. Leaf blade rolled up; awn projecting beyond the glume at least } the glume 
length; glumes 3-veined, 3-4 mm. long; plants 3-12 dm. high. W. C. E. 

BB. Annual; glumes 6-8 mm. long; awn 6-12 mm. long, geniculate. E. 

D. calycina (OAT-LIKE HAIR-GRASS) 


Perennial, tufted. Spikelets 2-5-flowered, in a panicle. Glumes keeled, 
the first the shorter, the second nearly as long as the spikelet. Lemma 
keeled, acute or shortly bifid, awned; awn attached above the middle, 
dorsal or at the base of the cleft (sometimes none in T. muticum), usually 
twisted at base and more or less bent. Grain smooth, unfurrowed, inclosed, 
free. (L. tres = 3, seta = a bristle; lemma has i awn and 2 sharp teeth.) 
The 3rd and 5th ar good forage grasses. 

A. Glumes almost equal; lemma acute, awnless or with awn about i mm. long or 

B. Glumes 6-7 mm. long; spikelets 3-flowered. E. 

BB. Glumes 3-5 mm. long; spikelets 2-flowered. E. 

T. wolfil (WOLF'S FALSE OAT) 

AA. Glumes unequal, the first -f as long as the second; lemma cleft at apex, awn 
4-12 mm. long. 


C. Panicle dense, 5-12 cm. long; plant 1.5-6 dm. high; spikelets 5-6 mm. long. 

W. C. E. T. spicatum (NARROW FALSE OAT) 

CC. Panicle not dense, 12-20 cm. long; plants 3-12 dm. high; spikelets 6-8 mm. 


D. Leaf sheath glabrous; lemma 5-6 mm. long, awn arising below the cleft. 

W. C. E. T. cernuum (NODDING FALSE OAT) 

DD. Leaf sheath pubescent; lemma 6-7 mm. long, awn arising at the cleft. 

W. C. E. T. canescens (SILVERY FALSE OAT) 


Spikelets solitary or in a raceme or panicle. Glumes narrow, keeled, 
acute, awnless, usually as long as the spikelet. Lemma rounded on the 
back, awned, with 2 firm scarious terminal lobes ; awn twisted, bent, arising 
between the lobes. Grain glabrous, free. (Honor of Etienne Danthoine, 
a French botanist.) The ist and 3rd are good range grasses. 

A. Spikelets in a narrow close panicle, ascending. 

B. Callus elongate, densely hairy. W. C. E. D. intermedia (SMALLER OAT-GRASS) 
BB. Callus very short, with a few short hairs. W. E. D. pinetorum 

AA. Spikelets solitary or spreading in a loose panicle. 

C. Spikelets 3-10; leaf sheath only slightly hairy; apex of lemma with 2 teeth 2-3 
mm. long. E. D. calif ornica (CALIFORNIA OAT-GRASS) 

CC. Spikelets 1-4; leaf sheath quite hairy; apex of lemma with 2 awl-like teeth 

3-10 mm. long. 
D. Spikelets usually 2-4; lemma abruptly narrowed, 6-8 mm. long. W. C. 

D. americana 

DD. Spikelets usually only i; lemma not abruptly narrowed, 8-10 mm. long. E. 

D. unispicata (MOUNTAIN OAT-GRASS) 


Annual or perennial. Spikelets few-flowered, rarely i-flowered, in a loose 
panicle ; rachilla hairy under the lemma. Glumes scarious at least at the 
apex, lanceolate, nearly equal. Lemma smaller than the glumes, rounded 
on the back, 5-n-veined, 2-cleft at the apex, awned; awn dorsal, twisted. 
Palet narrow, 2-toothed. Stamens 3. Grain deeply grooved. (The Latin 

A. Lemma awn 2-4 cm. long, abruptly bent near the middle, arising near middle of 

lemma. W. E. Sometimes cut for hay. A. fatua (WILD OATS) 

AA. Lemma awn 2 cm. or less long, not or hardly abruptly bent, arising f way up 


B. Annual; spikelets 20-25 mm. long, 2-3 -flowered; glumes g-n-veined. W. E. 

This is common cultivated oats, one of our best grain crops. A. sativa (OATS) 

BB. Perennial; spikelets 10-15 mm. long, 3-6-flowered; glumes 3~5-veined. E. 

A. striata (PERENNIAL OATS) 

FESTUCEAE (Blue-grass Tribe). Inflorescence a panicle, spikelike 
or spreading. Spikelets 2- to many-flowered, very rarely i -flowered ; glumes 
keeled, acuminate to obtuse, shorter than the first lemma. Lemma entire 
to 3-cleft, awnless; awns terminal, rarely dorsal. Palet 2-keeled. 


A. Lemma with 1-3 veins. 

B. Rachilla with long hairs which exceed the lemma in length; plants tall, reedlike. 

E. (Gk. phragmites = growing in hedges; referring to its hedgelike growth 

along ditches.) Phragmites communis (REED) 

BB. Rachilla glabrous or with short hairs which do not equal the lemma in length; 

plants not reedlike. 

C. Plant 1-2 dm. high; stems dichotomously branched; leaves crowded in dense 
tufts at the nodes or ends of the stems; stigma with short hairs on all sides. E. 
(Honor of Gen. William Munro, an English agrostologist.) 

Munroa squarrosa (FALSE BUFFALO-GRASS) 
CC. Most species taller; stems not dichotomously branched; leaves not in dense 

tufts along the stem; stigma plumose. 

D. Glumes nearly equal in length, but very unlike in form, the first narrowly 
linear and i -veined, the second broadly obovate and obtuse and 3-veined. 
(Honor of Amos Eaton, an American botanist). Eatonia 

DD. Glumes unequal in length, but similar in form. 

E. Lemmas acute or awned, the veins converging in the tip. W. E. A good 
range grass. (Honor of G. L. Koeler, a German botanist.) 

Koeleria cristata (JUNE GRASS) 

EE. Lemma obtuse, the veins parallel and not converging in the tip. 
F. Panicle narrow; spikelets 3-so-flowered; rachilla not jointed; lemma decid- 
uous; palet persistent. (Gk. er = spring, agrostis = a grass.) 

Eiagrostis (MEADOW GRASS) 

FF. Panicle open; spikelets 2-flowered; rachilla jointed; lemma and palet 
both deciduous. E. (Gk. katabrosis = an eating; because glumes and 
lemma have margins roughened as if gnawed.) 

Catabrosa aquatica (WATER WHORL-GRASS) 
AA. Lemma with 5 or more veins. 

G. Spikelets nearly sessile, in dense i-sided clusters at the ends of the few panicle 
branches. W. E. A very good early range grass. (Gk. dactylos = a finger; 
referring to the thick spreading panicle branches.) 

Dactylis glomerata (ORCHARD GRASS) 

GG. Spikelets not in dense i-sided clusters at the ends of the panicle branches. 
H. Spikelets as wide as long, somewhat heart-shaped. U. (Gk. briza = a 
grain similar to rye.) Briza minor (QUAKING GRASS) 

HH. Spikelets much longer than wide, not heart-shaped. 

I. Keels of the palet with a distinct crest or winglike appendage. (Gk. pleuron 
= side, pogon = beard; referring to the ciliate keels of the palet.) 

Pleuropogon (PLEUROPOGON) 
n. Keels of the palet not winged. 
J. Lemma somewhat keeled on the back. 

K. Lemma 2-toothed at apex, very rarely awnless; stigma arising below apex 

of ovary. BROMUS (p. 46) 

KK. Lemma acute or obtuse, not 2-toothed, not awned; stigma arising at apex 

of ovary. 

L. Glumes wii.h 1-3 veins. POA (p. 45) 

LL. Glumes with 5 or more veins; salt-'marsh plant. W. E. (Gk. distichos 
= 2-ranked; referring to the flattish inflorescence.) 

Distichlis spicata (SALT GRASS) 

JJ. Lemma rounded on the back, not at all keeled. 

M. Upper lemmas of spikelet sterile, club-shaped or hooded. (L. mel = honey; 
it was formerly the name of Sorghum which has a sweet pith.) 


MM. Upper lemmas of spikelet either perfect, or else narrow and abortive but 
not club-shaped nor hooded. 


N. Lemma 2-toothed at apex, mostly awned from just below the apex; stigmas 

arising below apex of ovary. BROMUS (p. 46) 

NN. Lemma not 2-toothed at apex; lemma awn none or at the very apex; 

stigmas arising at apex of ovary. 

O. Lemma acute, often awned, not scarious at apex; lemma veins not promi- 
nent. FESTUCA (p. 45) 
OO. Lemma obtuse, awnless, scarious at tip. 

P. Lemma prominently s-g-veined; style present; lodicules united. 
(Gk. glykeros = sweet; referring to the taste of the grain.) 

Glyceria (MANNA GRASS) 

PP. Lemma obscurely 3-veined; style none; lodicules separate. (Honor 
of B. Puccinelli, an Italian botanist.) Puccinellia (SPEAR GRASS) 


Spikelets 2-io-flowered ; panicle usually loose and spreading, rarely narrow 
and spikelike. Glumes acute or obtuse. Lemma delicately scarious- 
margined, mostly scarious-tipped, usually surrounded by a few woolly hairs. 
Palet 2-toothed. (Gk. poa = grass, or fodder in general.) A very diffi- 
cult and numerous genus. Only 7 of the most useful ones are given, and 
the key separates only those. (F. & R. pp. 57-61.) 

The wild ones are range grasses. 

A. Lemma with long spider-weblike hairs at base. 

B. Stem flat, 2-edged; panicle 1-4 cm. long, flat; lower glume 3-veined. W. E. 

A common lawn grass. P. compressa (CANADA BLUE-GRASS) 
BB. Stem terete; panicle 5-10 cm. long, not flat; lower glume i-veined. W. C. E. 

Common pasture and lawn grass. P. pratensis (KENTUCKY BLUE-GRASS) 
AA. Lemma without spider-weblike hairs at base. 

C. Lower glume i-veined. E. P. sandbergii 
CC. Lower glume 3-veined. 

D. Stems coarse, 6-10 dm. high; plant glaucous. 

E. Leaves rolled up; glumes and lemmas unequal. E. P. laevigata 
EE. Leaves flat or folded; glumes and lemmas nearly or quite the same length. 

E. P. nevadensis (NEVADA BLUE-GRASS) 

DD. Stem not coarse, 2-7 dm. high. 

F. Panicle loose, its branches spreading or ascending. E. P. wheeler 
FF. Panicle dense, its branches erect or very short. 

P. buckleyana (BUNCH REDTOP) 


Spikelets 2- to many-flowered, in racemes or panicles ; flowers perfect or 
the upper one staminate. Glumes keeled, equal or unequal, the lower 
i-3-veined, the upper 3~5-veined. Lemma 5-veined. Stamens 1-3. 
Grain glabrous. (L. festuca = a stalk or straw ; hence applied to a straw- 
like grass growing in barley.) Mostly range grasses. Only 6 of the most 
important are given, and the key separates only those. (F. & R. pp. 62-64.) 

A. Annual; stamens i or 2. 

B. Spikelets 8-i3-flowered. F. octoflora (SLENDER FESCUE) 

BB. Spikelets i-4-flowered. F. microstachys (SMALL FESCUE) 

AA. Perennial; stamens 3. 


C. Awn as long as the lemma or longer. (See E.) 
CC. Awn shorter than the lemma or none. 
D. Leaves narrow, involute; plants usually tufted. 
E. Leaf blades quite smooth; young shoots arising outside the leaf sheath. 

F. rubra (RED FESCUE) 
EE. Leaf blades scabrous at margin or in their upper portion; young shoots 

arising within the leaf sheath. 

F. Panicle rays not cushioned at base; spikelets 5-7.5 mm. long; lemma 3-3.5 

mm. long. F. ovina (SHEEP FESCUE) 

FF. Panicle rays cushioned at base; spikelets 8-12 mm. long; lemma 6-7 mm. 

long. F. viridula 

DD. Leaves flat, wide; plants not densely tufted. F. elatior (TALL FESCUE) 


Leaves flat or nearly so. Spikelets many, 5~i5-flowered; glumes un- 
equal, acute, the lower i-3-veined, the upper 3-9-veined. Lemma 5-9- 
veined, awnless or awned from just below the tip. Palet keels ciliate. 
Stamens 3. Stigmas arising below the hairy cushionlike top of the ovary. 
Grain adherent. (Gk. broma = food ; Bromus was first the name of a wild 
oat.) A large genus of forage grasses of which only 10 of the most im- 
portant are given, and the key separates only those. (F. & R. pp. 65-67.) 

A. Lemma awn 0-16 mm. long. 
B. Lemma glabrous or merely scabrous. 
C. Spikelets strongly flattened. 

D. Lemma 6-8 mm. long; glumes scabrous toward the apex. W. E. Becomes 
a weed in wheat. B. secalinus (CHESS) 

DD. Lemma 14-16 mm. long; glumes smooth. (See HH.) 
CC. Spikelets terete or nearly so. 

E. Leaf sheath glabrous. W. E. B. inermis (HUNGARIAN BROME) 
EE. Leaf sheath pubescent. 

F. Panicle dense, erect. (See I.) 

FF. Panicle loose, spreading. W. E. B. racemosus (UPRIGHT CHESS) 

BB. Lemma hairy. 
G. Spikelets much flattened. 

H. Lemma awn 0-7 mm. long. W. E. B. marginatus 

HH. Lemma awn more than 7 mm. long. W. E. B. carinatus 

GG. Spikelets terete or nearly so. 
I. Lemma awn 6-8 mm. long; lower glume 3-veined. W. E. 

B. hordeaceus (SOFT BROME) 

n. Lemma awn 10-16 mm. long; lower glume i-veined. 
J. Annual; leaves and sheaths pubescent; lemma s-veined. E. 

B. tectorum (DOWNY BROME) 

JJ. Perennial; kaves and sheaths glabrous or pilose; lemma 7-veined. W. C. E. 

B. eximus 

AA. Lemma awn 17-25 mm. long. W. E. B. sterilis 

AAA. Lemma awn 35-65 mm. long. W. E. B. maximus 

CHLORIDEAE (Bermuda-grass Tribe). Spikelets i- to several- 
flowered, in spikes or racemes; spikes i-sided, digitately or racemosely 
arranged, rarely solitary. Lemma usually keeled, either entire and unawned 
or else toothed and with 1-3 straight awns. Grain unfurrowed, free. 


A. Spikelets 6-14 mm. long; lower glume about J as long as the upper including awn- 
point if present. 

B. Plants 3-18 dm. high; lemma obtuse or emarginate, not awn-pointed, i-veined, 
no sterile lemma above the first flower. (Gk. spartine = a cord; referring to the 
tough slender leaves.) Spartina (CORD GRASS) 

BB. Plants 1.5-4.5 dm. high; lemma 3-pointed, each point with a short awn, 3-5- 
veined, with 1-3 sterile lemmas above the first flower. E. (Honor of C. Boutelou, 
a Spanish agriculturist.) Bouteloua oligostachya (GRAMA GRASS) 

AA. Spikelets 2-4 mm. long; lower glume f to once as long as the upper. 

C. Spikes all or nearly all from the tip, widely spreading when mature; rachilla 
jointed above the glumes. 

D. Perennial; spikelets i-flowered, 2 mm. long. W. E. An excellent pasture 

grass, but a weed in fields. (Gk. kyon = a dog, odons = a tooth; the i-sided 

spike suggested a row of dog teeth.) Cynodon dactylon (BERMUDA GRASS) 

DD. Annual; spikelets several-flowered, 3-4 mm. long. W. E. (Ceres, the 

Greek goddess of the harvests, was worshiped in the town of Elusin.) 

Eleusine indica (YARD GRASS) 

CC. Spikes scattered along a common axis, rather closely applied to this axis; rachilla 
jointed below the glumes. E. (Honor of J. Beckmann, a German botanist.) 

Beckmannia erucaeformis (SLOUGH GRASS) 

HORDEAE (Barley Tribe). Leaf blade with a more or less well- 
marked pair of auriculate appendages at the base. Inflorescence a spike, 
with i or more spikelets at each joint of the rachis ; rachis zigzagged, chan- 
neled. Spikelets sessile in the alternate notches of the rachis, i- to many- 
flowered. Glumes awnless or awned or none. 

A. Spikelets solitary at each joint of the rachis. 

B. Spikes 4 mm. or less wide; spikelets i-flowered. U. C. (Honor of F. Lamson- 
Scribner, an American agrostologist.) Scribneria bolanderi (THREAD HEAD) 

BB. Spikes 5 mm. or more wide; spikelets 3- to several-flowered. 
C. Spikelets placed with edge to the rachis; glumes i, or in the terminal spikelet 2. 

LOLIUM (p. 48) 

CC. Spikelets placed with flat side to the rachis; glumes 2. 

D. Lemma with distinct callus at base, falling at maturity with the grain; grain 

adherent to the palet. AGROPYRON (p. 48) 

DD. Lemma without a distinct callus, persisting after the grain has fallen; grain 

free from the palet. 

E. Glumes subulate, i-veined. W. E. Cultivated for its grain. (Celtic 
sega = a sickle; hence a grain for cutting.) Secale cereale (RYE) 

EE. Glumes lanceolate or ovate. 3- to many-veined. W. E. Cultivated 
for grain. Our best source of flour. (L. tritum = rubbed or ground; because 
it was ground into flour. ) Triticum vulgare (WHEAT) 

AA. Spikelets 2 or more at each joint of the rachis, but often some sterile. 
F. Spikelets 3 at each joint of the rachis, sterile or i -flowered. HORDEUM (p. 49) 
FF. Spikelets 2-3 at each joint of the rachis, 2- to many-flowered. 
G. Glumes entire; rachis continuous, rarely breaking into pieces when mature. 
(Gk. elyeln = to roll up; in some species the spike is somewhat enwrapped by the 
leaf sheath.) Elymus (WILD RYE) 

GG. Glumes 2- to many-parted or -cleft; rachis jointed, readily falling into pieces 
when mature. (Gk. sitas = wheat or grain; likely because the plants hav 
wheatlike heads.) Sitanion (BRISTLY WILD RYE) 



Leaves, flat. Spikelets in a simple terminal spike, several-flowered, 
sessile alternate; rachis somewhat zigzag; rachilla jointed between the 
flowers. Glume i except in the terminal spikelet, opposite the rachis. 
Lemma rounded on the back, 5-y-veined, obtuse to awned. Palet 2-keeled. 
Stamens 3. Grain smooth, adherent. (Latin name.) 

A. Perennial; glumes shorter than the spikelet (less the awns); leaf sheaths shorter 
than the internodes. W. An early range grass. 


AA. Annual; glumes equaling or exceeding the spikelets (less the awns); leaf sheaths 
longer than the internodes. W. Seed slightly poisonous to man. 

L. temulentum (DARNEL) 


Perennial; stem erect, simple. Spikelets in a spike, closely sessile. 
Glumes narrower than the lemma, acute or awned. Lemma rounded on 
the back or slightly keeled above. 5~7-veined, obtuse to awned at apex. 
Palet 2-keeled, bristly ciliate on the keels. Grain pubescent at apex. 
Range grasses. (Gk. agros = field, pyros = wheat; they were weeds in 

A. Plants densely tufted; lemma not hairy. 
B. Glume awns 1-2.5 cm. long; glumes 4-6 mm. long. 

C. Herbage pubescent; spike dense. E. A. saxicola 
CC. Herbage glabrous; spike loose. E. A. flexuosum 

BB. Glume awns either none or more than i cm. long. 

D. Some of the lemma awns longer than their lemmas. 

E. Glumes exceeding the lower lemma (less the awns); lemma awns erect, not 
at all divergent. E. A. richardsonl 

EE. Glumes shorter than the lower lemma (less the awns) ; lemma awns diver- 
gent or widely spreading. 
F. Glumes attenuate into a scabrous awn. 

G. Spikes 4-7 cm. long; rachis readily breaking at joints; glumes 5-8 mm. 
long (less the awn). C. E. A. scribneri 

GG. Spikes 10-25 cm. long; rachis not readily breaking at joints; glumes 
10-14 mm. long (less the awn). E. A. gmelini 

FF. Glumes awnless. E. A. spicatum (WHEAT BUNCH-GRASS) 

DD. Lemma awns shorter than their lemmas or none. 
H. Spikelets flattened. (See FF.) 
HH. Spikelets terete or nearly so. 
I. Lower glume 3-veined. 

J. Leaves 3.5-9 cm. long; glumes scabrous on the keel. E. A. brevifolium 
JJ. Leaves 7.5-20 cm. long; glumes scabrous on the margin. E. A. biblorum 
H. Lower glume s-veined. 
K. Spikes 3-10 cm. long; glumes mostly widest above their middle. E. 

A. violaceum 
KK. Spikes 8-20 cm. long; glumes mostly widest below their middle. E. 

A. tenerum 
AA. Plants not tufted, stems from creeping rootstocks. 


L. Lemma hairy. 

M. Lemma villous; spike rather dense. 

N. Spikelets s-7-flowered. E. A. subvillosum 

NN. Spikelets 7-ia-flowered. E. (See PP.) 

MM. Lemma puberulent; spike long and not dense. E. A. lanceolatum 

LL. Lemma not hairy. 

O. Leaves smooth beneath, pubescent above. W. E. Rhizomes medicinal. A 
bad weed in cultivated fields. A. repens (COUCH GRASS) 

OO. Leaves rough on both sides. 
P. Spikelets 4-7-flowered. (See KK.) 
PP. Spikelets 7-i3-flowered. W. E. A. occidentalis (BLUE JOINT) 


Leaves flat. Spikelets in spikes, 2-3 together at a joint of the rachis, 
sessile or short-stalked, often only i fertile in a cluster, i-flowered, awned, 
lateral ones usually imperfect and short stalked. Glumes setaceous to 
narrowly lanceolate, rigid, persistent. Lemma lanceolate, rounded on the 
back, obscurely 5-veined above, usually awned. Palet shorter than the 
lemma, 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Grain hairy at tip, grooved, adherent. 
(Latin name for barley.) 

A. Only the central spikelet of each group fertile. 

B. Flower of the central spikelet plainly stalked; glumes ciliate. W. E. The 
barbed seeds get into the wool of sheep and into the eyes and throats of animals, 
sometimes even killing them. H. murinum (WALL BARLEY) 

BB. Flower of the central spikelet sessile; glumes not ciliate. 
C. Heads exclusive of awns about 5 mm. wide. 

D. Lemma awn of central spikelet 3.5-6 cm. long, of the lateral spikelets over 
half the lemma. W. E. The beards collect in the mouths of cattle, caus- 
ing ulcers and even death. H. jubatum (SQUIRREL-TAIL GRASS) 
DD. Lemma awn of the central spikelet 1.8-3 cm. long, of the lateral spikelets 

over half the lemma. 

E. Blades and sheaths of leaves glabrous. W. E. H. caespitosum 

EE. Blades and sheaths of leaves pilose. E. H. comosum 

DDD. Lemma awn of the central spikelet 0.4-1.2 cm. long, of the lateral spikelets 

not over half the lemma. 

F. Lateral spikelets with perfect flowers. E. H. boreale 

FF. Lateral spikelets with imperfect flowers. 
G. All of the glumes of each cluster tapering from the base. 
H. Leaf blades finely pubescent; inner glumes of the lateral spikelets about 
twice as long as the outer. U. H. gussoneanum 

HH. Leaf blades scabrous; both glumes of the lateral spikelets about the 
same width. W. E. H. nodosum (WILD BARLEY) 

GG. 3-4 of the glumes of each cluster widest above the base. 

I. Leaves rough above, smooth beneath; spikes 4-6 times as long as wide. E. 

H. pusillum (LITTLE BARLEY) 

II. Leaves smooth on both sides; spikes 2-3 times as long as wide. U. 

H. geniculatum (SEA BARLEY) 
CC. Heads exclusive of awns about 10 mm. wide. E. Cultivated for grain. 

H. distichon (2-ROw BARLEY) 
AA. All 3 spikelets of each group fertile. W. E. Cultivated for grain. 

H. hexastichon (6 ROW BARLEY) 

F. & R. EL. FL. 4 



Herbs, annual or perennial; rhizomes present; stems 3-angled 
or terete, mostly solid. Leaves attenuate, mostly basal; sheaths 
not split. Flowers in spikes or spikelets, small, perfect or monoe- 
cious or dioecious, in the axils of scales; scales imbricate, 
chaffy; spikes again variously grouped unless solitary. Peri- 
anth none or of mere bristles or scales. Stamens usually 2-3, 
hypogynous; anthers basifixed. Ovary i -celled; ovule i; style 
2-3-cleft. Fruit an akene, lens-shaped or somewhat 3-angled, 
membranous or crustaceous or bony. A difficult family. Keys 
only to the genera. (F. & R. pp. 74-89.) 

A. Akenes not inclosed in a saclike structure; flowers perfect; spikelets all alike. 
B. Spikelets more or less flat; scales in 2 opposite rows. 

C. Stem nearly naked; leaves mostly basal; perianth none. (Gk. kupeiros = 
the ancient name for these plants.) Cyperus (CYPERUS) 

CC. Stem with 3 distinct rows of leaves; leaves mostly on the stem; perianth of 
6-9 bristles. W. (Gk. duo = 2, leichen = a scale; the scales of the spikelets 
are in 2 ranks.) Dulichium arundinaceum (DULICHIUM) 

BB. Spikelets terete; scales imbricated all round. 

D. Akenes not crowned with the bulbous base of the style. 
E. Spikelets not a cottony mass. 

F. Perennial; perianth of 06 bristles. One of these is 5. occidentalis (Tule), 
whose stems are used for the interior of cheap life preservers. (The Latin 
name of the Bulrush.) Scirpus (BULRUSH) 

FF. Annual; perianth of a single hyaline scale between the rachilla and the 
akene. (Gk. hemi half, karphos = chaff; because this genus has only 
i inner scale while most related genera have 2 or more.) 

Hemicarpha (HEMICARPHA) 

EE. Spikelets each a white to brown cottony head of hairs 1-3 cm. wide. (Gk. 
erion = wool or cotton, phoros = bearing; referring to the cottony spikes.) 

Eriophorum (COTTON GRASS) 

DD. Akenes crowned with the persistent bulbous base of the style. 
G. Stem leafless; spikelets solitary, terminal ; perianth bristles usually present, 
0-12. (Gk. elos = a marsh, chairo = to rejoice; because it grows in wet 
places.) Eleocharis (SPIKE RUSH) 

GG. Stem leafy at least at base; spikelets more than i, in an involucrate umbel. 
H. Akene 3-angled; perianth bristles none. U. (Gk. stenos = narrow, 
phyllon = a leaf; on account of the very narrow leaves.) 

Stenophyllus capillaris (HAIR SEDGE) 

HH. Akene lens-shaped; perianth bristles Q-IS, downwardly barbed. W. 

(Gk. rhynchos = a snout, spora = a seed ; referring to the long-beaked 

akene.) Rhynchospora alba (WHITE BEAK-RUSH) 

AA. Akenes inclosed in a saclike structure; flowers monoecious; spikes mostly of 

2 kinds. (Gk. keirein = to cut; referring to the sharp leaf -edges.) 

Carez (SEDGE) 



Herbs, perennial, large. Leaves large, simple. Flowers crowded 
on a spadix; spathe surrounding spadix, usually conspicuous. 
Perianth of 4 or 6 green sepals. Stamens 4 or 6, opposite the 
sepals. Fruit usually berry-like. 

A. Leaves 7-45 cm. wide, netted-veined, with skunklike smell; spathe yellow. 
W. C. E. (Gk. lysis = a loosening, chiton = a mantle; referring to the loosening 
spathe.) Lysichiton camtschatcense (SKUNK CABBAGE) 

AA. Leaves 2.5 cm. or less wide, parallel-veined, without skunklike smell; spathe 
green. E. Rhizome medicinal. (The ancient name.) 

Acorus calamus (SWEET FLAG) 


Minute, stemless, floating, merely i or more flattened or spherical 
multicellular green bodies either with roots hanging from the 
under side or without them. Flowers extremely rare. Fruit a 
utricle. Floating on ponds or lakes. 

A. Thalloid shoots i-5-veined, with o-i rootlet; rootlets without vascular tissue. 

LEMNA (p. 51) 

AA. Thalloid shoots 7-i5-veined, with 2-10 rootlets; rootlets with central vascular 
cylinder. W. E. (Gk. spira = a cord, delos = evident; from the threadlike 
roots.) Spirodela polyrhiza (LARGE DUCKWEED) 


Thalloid shoots with many needle-shaped crystals in the cells. (Gk. 
limne = a swamp; referring to the habitat.) 

A. Thalloid shoots long-stalked at base, broadly oar-shaped, 6-10 mm. long, 12 or 
fewer connected. L. trisulca (FAIRY PADDLE) 

AA. Thalloid shoots sessile, elliptic-oblong, 2.5-4 mm. long, 5 or fewer connected. 



' Herbs, low; stems creeping or ascending or floating. Leaves 
grasslike. Flowers subtended by a leaflike spathe, perfect, mostly 
irregular; solitary, small, yellow. Perianth free from the ovary, 
corolla-like, 6-parted; segments linear; tube threadlike. Stamens 
3, unequal, on the tube. Ovary fusiform; style i; stigma 3-lobed. 
Fruit a many-seeded capsule. E. In water or bogs. (Gk. helera = 
different, anther a = anther ; ours and some other species have 2 forms 
of anthers.) Heteranthera dubia (MUD PLANTAIN) 



Annual or perennial, grasslike or rushlike. Inflorescence 
various. Flowers small, regular, hypogynous, persistent. Sepals 
3, glumaceous. Petals 3, similar to the sepals. Stamens 6 or 
rarely 3; anthers introrse. Pistil 3-carpous, either i-celled or 
3-celled; ovary superior; stigmas 3. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, 
3-valved. Seeds 3 to many, small. Difficult family. Key 
only to the genera. (F. & R. pp. 90-94.) 

A. Leaf sheaths open; leaves never hairy, mostly not flat nor grasslike; capsule 
i-celled or 3-celled, many-seeded; placentae parietal or axial. (L. jungere = 
to bind; ropes were made by twisting together some species.) Juncus (RUSH) 

AA. Leaf sheaths closed; leaves often with a few large hairs, flat, grasslike; cap- 
sule i-celled, 3-seeded; placenta basal. (Juncus = a genus of rushes; Gk. 
eidos = like; hence, rushlike.) Juncoides (WOOD RUSH) 


A. Leaves not grasslike, either wider or mere scales. 

B. Leaves mere scales; plants very much branched, ultimate branchlets thread- 
like. Asparagus in CONVALLARIACEAE (p. 62) 
BB. Leaves not scales; branching not profuse; branches not threadlike. 
C. Stems scapose or none, or leaves only from near base. 
D. Leaves only 2 or 3. 

E. Perianth 25-75 rnm. long; perianth segments about equal in width ; 
stamens 6. Erythronium in LILIACEAE (p. 55) 

EE. Perianth 6-9 mm. long; inner perianth segments narrower than the outer; 
stamens 3. Scoliopus in CONVALLARIACEAE (p. 62) 

DD. Leaves more than 3. 

F. Plant with bulb, glabrous; leaves 12 or more times as long as wide; fruit a 
capsule. Camassia in LILIACEAE (p. 55) 

FF. Plant with rhizome, hairy at least on the inflorescence; leaves 3-5 times as 
long as wide; fruit a berry. Clintonia in CONVALLARIACEAE (p. 62) 

CC. Stems leafy, not merely so at base. 
G. Petals very unlike the sepals in form or size or color. 
H. Leaves 3 in a whorl at the top of the stem, ovate or wider. 

Trillium in CONVALLARIACEAE (p. 62) 
HH. Leaves more than 3, not in a whorl, lanceolate or narrower. 

Calochortus in LILIACEAE (p. 55) 
GG. Petals and sepals alike or very nearly so. 

I. Flowers not white, or if so 42 mm. long or longer. JJ in LILIACEAE (p. 56) 

II. Flowers greenish white, 2-23 mm. long. 

* These families are so poorly distinguished that it is easier to trace most of the 
genera direct. However, there is also a key to the genera under each family. 


J. Leaves 1-3. Unifolium in CONVALLARIACEAE (p. 62) 

JJ. Leaves more than 3. 

K. Flowers in a terminal raceme or panicle; stem not branched. 
L. Style i ; fruit a berry; stem 2-9 dm. high. 

Vagnera in CONVALLARIACEAE (p. 62) 
LL. Styles 3; fruit a capsule; stem 6-30 dm. high. 

Veratrum in MELANTHACEAE (p. 53) 

KK. Flowers either in a terminal umbel or else axillary; stem usually 
branched. See EE in CONVALLARIACEAE (p. 62) 

AA. Leaves grasslike, narrow. 

M. Plant with onion-like odor and taste. Allium in LILIACEAE (p. 55) 

MM. Plant without either onion-like odor or taste. 
N. Stem none, or scapose, or leafy only near the base. 
O. Plant with rhizome. 

P. Plant stemless; flowers in a sessile umbel; bracts of the inflorescence leaf- 
like, about twice as long as the flower and its stalk. 

Leucocrinum in LILIACEAE (p. 55) 

PP. Plant with stem 15-90 cm. high; flowers in a terminal raceme or panicle ; 
bracts of the inflorescence not leaflike, shorter than the flower and its stalk. 

See C in MELANTHACEAE (p. 53) 
OO. Plant with bulb or corm. 

Q. Flowers in an umbel. See BB in LILIACEAE (p. 55) 

OQ. Flowers in an elongated raceme or panicle. 

R. Styles 3; capsule septicidal. See CC in MELANTHACEAE (p. 53) 

RR. Style i; capsule loculicidal. See E in LILIACEAE (p. 55) 

NN. Stem not scapose, leafy and not only so at the base. 

S. Leaves very many, 50 or more, very tough and rigid, serrulate; plant with 

rhizome. Xerophyllum in MELANTHACEAE (p. 53) 

SS. Leaves few, 20 or fewer, not particularly tough nor rigid, entire; plant with 

bulb or corm. See H in LILIACEAE (p. 55) 


Herbs, erect, perennial, with rootstocks or rarely with coated 
bulbs; stem leafy. Leaves wide or grasslike, parallel-veined but 
often reticulate between the large veins. Flowers solitary or in a 
raceme or a panicle, regular. Perianth segments 6, distinct or 
nearly so, usually persistent. Stamens 6. Ovary 3-celled, superior 
or partly inferior; styles 3, distinct or somewhat united. Fruit a 
capsule, mostly septicidal, rarely loculicidal. Seeds several to 
many, often tailed. 

A. Leaves narrow, linear; plants glabrous (except Tofieldia in part). 
B. Leaves few, 25 or fewer, not rigid, not rough-margined; inflorescence bracted. 
C. Stems with rhizomes; anthers 2 -celled; leaves equitant. 
D. Perianth segments oblanceolate; pedicels bracted near the flower; fila- 
ments naked; anthers round- cordate; capsule ovate, 3-beaked, septicidal. 

TOFIELDIA (p. 54) 


DD. Perianth segments lanceolate; pedicels bracted near the middle; fila- 
ments woolly; anthers linear; capsule oblong, attenuate upward, loculicidal. 
U. (An anagram of Anthericum, from Greek anther ikos, the supposed name of 
the Asphodel.) Narthecium californicum (BOG ASPHODEL) 

CC. Stems from bulbs; anthers cordate or reniform, i-celled; leaves not equi- 


E. Flowers nodding, yellowish purple; perianth segments acuminate, glandless. 

W. C. (Gk. stenos = narrow, anthos a flower; referring to the narrow 

perianth segments.) Stenanthium occidentale (STENANTHIUM) 

EE. Flowers erect, white or yellowish; perianth segments acute or blunter, 

with 1-2 glands just above the narrowed base. ZYGADENUS (p. 54) 

BB. Leaves many, 50 or more, rigid, rough-margined; inflorescence bractless; 

anthers 2-celled; stem from a rhizome. W. C. E. (Gk. xeros = dry, phyllon 

= a leaf ; the leaves are not juicy.) Xerophyllum tenax (BEAR GRASS) 

AA. Leaves wide, lanceolate to broadly elliptic; stem and inflorescence pubescent; 

inflorescence bracted; anthers i -celled; stem from a rhizome. 

VERATRUM (p. 55) 


Slender, mostly tufted, with rootstock. Stems simple, leafy only at base. 
Leaves 2-ranked, equitant, linear, grasslike. Flowers in a terminal 
bracted spike or raceme, perfect, usually involucrate by 3 bractlets on the 
pedicel. Perianth persistent; segments 3-veined, white or greenish. 
Stamens equaling the perianth. Capsule septicidal, 3-lobed, beaked by 3 
persistent styles. In mountain marshes. (Honor of a Mr. Tofield, a 
little-known English botanist.) 

A. Involucre bracts united f or more of the distance to the apex; perianth segments 

2-4 mm. long; capsule widest below the middle. W. C. E. T. intermedia 

AA. Involucre bracts united 5 or less of the distance to the apex; perianth segments 

about 6 mm. long; capsule widest above the middle. C. T. occidentalis 


Stem leafy, from a coated bulb. Leaves linear. Flowers white or 
yellowish, perfect or polygamous, in a terminal glabrous panicle or raceme. 
Perianth segments similar, with 1-2 glands just above the narrowed base. 
Stamens free. Styles 3, distinct. Capsule 3-lobed, the compartments not 
diverging. (Gk. zygos = a yoke, adenos a gland ; because some species 
have glands oneach perianth segment.) The 2d and 3rd are known to be 
poisonous to cattle. The others are so nearly like them that all are under 

A. Perianth segments 8-14 mm. long. 

B. Glands not obcordate; perianth segments 10-14 mm. long; leaves 12-24 mm. 

wide. U. Z. douglasii 

BB. Glands obcordate; perianth segments 8-10 mm. long; leaves 4-12 mm. wide. 

W. E. Z. elegans 

AA. Perianth segments 2-8 mm. long. 


C. Stem leaves not sheathing; racemes usually simple; perianth segments 4-8 mm. 
long; capsule 8-12 mm. long. W. C. E. Z. venenosus (DEATH CAMAS) 

CC. Stem leaves usually sheathing; racemes usually panicled; perianth segments 
2-4 mm. long; capsule 12-24 mm. long. W. C. E. Z. paniculatus 


Tall. Leaves wide, strongly veined, plicate. Flowers in a terminal 
pubescent panicle, rather large, the lower mostly staminate only. Perianth 
segments similar. Stamens free. Capsules sessile, membranous, 3-beaked 
by the persistent diverging styles, septicidal. Seeds flat, margined or winged. 
(L. vere = true, ater = black ; referring to the root.) Poisonous, specially 
the roots. 

A. Flowers green; panicle drooping; perianth segments 8-15 mm. long. W. C. E. 

Medicinal plant. V. viride (GREEN HELLEBORE) 

AA. Flowers white; panicle erect; perianth segments 15-20 mm. long. W. C. E. 

V. californicum (WHITE HELLEBORE) 


Herbs, perennial, with bulbs or corms or rarely with a rhizome, 
stems scapose or leafy, mostly simple. Flowers perfect, regular, 
mostly conspicuous. Perianth segments 6, distinct or united; 
mostly alike in color and form (not in Calochortus}. Stamens 6, 
or 3 of these replaced by staminodia, on the perianth or the recep- 
tacle. Styles none (Calochortus), or united partly or wholly. 
Stigmas i or 3. Ovary 3-celled, superior. Fruit a capsule, 
loculicidal (septicidal in Calochortus). 

A. Perianth segments plainly united ; inflorescence with scarious bracts ; leaves linear. 
B. Plants with rhizomes; perianth salverform, white, tube very narrow, segments 
several-veined; pedicels not jointed; anthers circinate when dry. E. Be- 
lieved to be poisonous to sheep. (Gk. leukos = white, krinon = a lily; the white 
flower is lily-like.) Leucocrinum montanum (LEUCOCRINUM) 

BB. Plants with coated bulbs; perianth not salverform, mostly not white, seg- 
ments i-veined; pedicels jointed; anthers not circinate. 
C. Perianth funnelform, not saccate at base, various in color. 

HOOKERA (p. 58) 

CC. Perianth broadly tubular, 6-saccate at base, deep scarlet with yellowish lobes. 
U. C. (Honor of J. C. Brevoort, of New York.) 

Brevoortia idamaia (Ida May's Fire Crackers) 

AA. Perianth segments distinct, or slightly united at base (some species of Allium); 
leaves various; plants from scaly or solid bulbs. 

D. Odor onion-like; flowers in a terminal umbel, on a scapose stem; inflorescence 
subtended by a whorl of 2-5 scarious bracts which are distinct or united. 

ALLIUM (p. 56) 

DD. Odor none or not onion-like; flowers not in umbels, or if so stems not scapose; 
inflorescence not subtended by a whorl of scarious bracts. 


E. Inflorescence distinctly a raceme or panicle, with scarious bracts; pedicels 

jointed; anthers versatile. 

F. Stem simple; inflorescence a raceme; perianth segments 3-7- veined, 17-30 

mm. long. CAMASSIA (p. 61) 

FF. Stem branched; inflorescence a raceme or panicle; perianth segments 


G. Stem-leaves few; perianth segments 5-10 mm. long, apparently i-veined 
but closely 3-veined; style short. Mountain plants, not common. (Gk. 
schoenos = a reed, /mow = a lily; apparently referring to the reed-like stems.) 

* Schoenolirion 

GG. Stem leaves rather numerous; perianth segments 16-20 mm. long, 
plainly 3-veined; style long. U. C. (Gk. chloros = green, gala milk; 
from the greenish white juice.) Chlorogalum pomeridianum (SOAP-ROOT) 

EE. Inflorescence not distinctly racemose, with foliaceous bracts or none; pedi- 
cels not jointed; anthers basifixed (except in Lilium). 
H. Perianth segments all alike; capsule loculicidal; style present. 

I. Leaves only 2, basal, wide; capsule 3-angled. ERYTHRONIUM (p. 60) 

II. Leaves more than 2, not all basal. 

J. Perianth segments 0.8-1 cm. long, white; stem 5-13 cm. high; leaves 
grasslike, not in a whorl, basal ones exceeding the stem: capsule 3-angled. 
W. C. E. (Probably in honor of A. J. Lloyd, an English surveyor and natu- 
ralist. Lloydia serotina (WHITE -FLOWERING GRASS) 
JJ. Perianth segments 2.5-10 cm. long, mostly not white; stem mostly 
higher; leaves mostly not grasslike, often in whorls, not exceeding the 
stem; capsule 6- angled. 

K. Perianth segments oblanceolate; nectary a linear groove; bulb scales 

lanceolate. LILIUM (p. 58) 

KK. Perianth segments lanceolate; nectary a shallow pit; bulb scales 

wider than lanceolate, very thick. FRITILLARIA (p. 59) 

HH. Outer perianth segments smaller then the inner, greenish; capsule sep- 

ticidal; style none. CALOCHORTUS (p. 60) 


Perennial, mostly with coated bulbs, with onion-like odor. Leaves 
basal, linear or lanceolate. Pedicels not jointed. Perianth segments 
nearly equal, lanceolate to linear, i-veined, more or less gibbous at base. 
Stamens 6, on the base of the perianth ; anthers versatile. Ovary sessile, 
subglobose; style filiform. Capsule obtusely 3-lobed. Seed obovoid, 
wrinkled. Many flavor milk when eaten by cattle. The cultivated onion 
is A-. cepa. (A Latin name for Garlic.) 

A. Perianth segments acute or blunter. 

B. Perianth shorter than the stamens; bulb coat not reticulate. W. C. A. cernuum 
BB. Perianth longer than the stamens. 
C. Perianth twice as long as the stamens. 
D. Ovary plainly 6-crested at the summit; bulb coat not reticulate. W. E. 

A. crenulatum 

*F. &R. p. 98. 


DD. Ovary obscurely crested or ridged. 

E. Bulb coat reticulate; umbel nodding; flowers white; perianth 8 mm. long. 

E. A. collinum 

EE. Bulb coat not reticulate; umbel not nodding; flowers red or white; perianth 

10 mm. long. E. A. tolmiei 

CC. Perianth 15 times as long as the stamens or shorter; bulb coat reticulate in 

some species. 
F. Leaves longer than the scape; perianth segments acute or obtuse, not apicu- 

late; bulb ovoid. 
G. Spathe of 2 bracts. 

H. Leaves about 4 mm. wide; bracts of the spathe acuminate; pedicels 8-16 

mm. long; perianth segments acute, entire. E. A. watsoni 

HH. Leaves less than 2 mm. wide; bracts of the spathe acute; pedicels 2-4 mm. 

long; perianth segments obtuse, delicately denticulate. E. A. simillimum 

GG. Spathe of 3 bracts. U. A. tribracteatum 

FF. Leaves shorter than the scape; perianth segments acute or apiculate. 

I. Perianth segments entire, not cuspidate. 

J. Bulb ovoid; bulb coat not fibrous; scape 1-2 dm. high; bracts of the spathe 
8-10 mm. long, acute. E. A. madidum 

JJ. Bulb oblong; bulb coat fibrous; scape 2.5-3.3 dm. high; bracts of the 
spathe 12-21 mm. long, acuminate, C. E. A. geyeri 

II. Inner perianth segments serrulate, abruptly cuspidate. (See M.) 
AA. Perianth segments acuminate. 

K. Scape terete or nearly so. 
L. Inner perianth segments serrulate. 

M. Perianth segments i the stamen-length or less, their tips recurved. W. C. E. 

A. acuminatum 
MM. Perianth segments twice the stamen-length, almost straight. U. E. 

A. bolanderi 

LL. Perianth segments entire. 
N. Ovary not crested; bulb coat not reticulate. 

O. Flowers dark red; scape 17-37 cm. high; bulb ovate. E. A. douglasii 

OO. Flowers rose color; scape 30-60 cm. high; bulb oblong. E. Grown in 
gardens for the edible tops. A. schoenoprasum (CHIVES) 

OOO. Flowers white to pinkish; scape 2.5-10 cm. high; bulb ovate. E. 

A. macrum 

NN. Ovary crested; bulb coat reticulate in some species. 

P. Umbels few-flowered; bulb coat obscurely or not at all reticulate; scape 7.5- 
20 cm. high; bracts of spathe acuminate; flowers white or rose color. E. 

A. nevii 

PP. Umbels many-flowered. 

Q. Bracts of the spathe abruptly acute; scape 15-50 cm. long; flowers white 
or rose color. C. E. A. attenuifolium 

QQ. Bracts of the spathe acuminate. 

R. Scape 10-30 cm. long; flowers pink or crimson; bulb coat reticulate. E. 

A. serratum 
RR. Scape 25-63 cm. long; flowers white or rose color; bulb coat fibrous. 

(See JJ.) 

KK. Scape flattened, somewhat 2-edged (somewhat 3-angled below in A. vali- 

S. Scape 30-75 cm. long, longer than the leaves; stamens exserted. C. A. validum 
SS. Scape 5-15 cm. long, as long or shorter than the leaves; stamens included. 
T. Perianth segments 15-17 mm. long, serrulate. U. A. falcifolium 

TT. Perianth segments 6-12 mm. long, entire. 
U- Perianth segments very little longer than the stamens. E. A. anceps 


UU. Perianth segments nearly twice as long as the stamens. 
V. Ovary not crested, ite cells shortly apiculate. E. A. cusickil 

W. Ovary 6-crested. E. A. pleianthum 


Perennial ; corms with fibrous membranes, coated ; stem scapose. Leaves 
narrow. Flowers blue or purple or white or yellow, solitary or in a bracted 
umbel, on jointed pedicels. Stamens either 6, of which i is opposite each 
perianth segment and more or less united with it; or only 3, the 3 outer 
replaced by staminodia. Style persistent, about equaling the anthers; 
stigmas 3, short, divergent. Capsule ovate-oblong. Seeds angled. 
(Honor of J. Hooker, an English botanist.) 

A. Stamens with anthers 3, alternating with 3 antherless staminodia; anthers basi- 

fixed; capsule subsessile. 

B. Scapes 7-25 cm. high; pedicels 12-100 mm. long; capsules about 6 mm. long. 

W. H. coronaria (HARVEST FOOL'S ONION) 

BB. Scapes 30-120 cm. high; pedicels 2-6 mm. long; capsule about 10 mm. long. 

C. Scapes 6-12 dm. high, smooth; umbel often elongated into a dense short raceme; 

staminodia deeply cleft, projecting beyond the anthers; seeds usually i in each 

cell. W. C. H. pulcheUa (OOKOW) 

CC. Scape 3-6 dm. high, somewhat scabrous; umbel never elongated; staminodia 

entire, obtuse, about equaling the anthers; seeds several in each cell. U. 

H. multiflora 
AA. Stamens with anthers 6; anthers versatile (except in H. capitata); capsule stipi- 

tate (except in H. capitata). 
D. Perianth blue or purple or white. 
E. Perianth lobes from slightly longer to much shorter than the tube; perianth 

usually blue or purple, but sometimes white. 
F. Stamens in 2 rows. 
G. Filaments of the inner row of stamens narrow; flowers dark blue. E. 

H. douglasii 

GG. Filaments of the inner row of stamens broad; flowers light blue. 
H. Perianth lobes nearly as long as the tube. W. E. H. howellii 

HH. Perianth lobes much shorter than the tube. E. H. tricolor 

FF. Stamens in one row. 

I. Perianth 1.2-2 cm. long, the lobes slightly longer than the tube; pedicels 

1-12 mm. long. U. C. H. capitata 

n. Perianth 2.5-3 cm. long, the lobes slightly shorter than the tube; pedicels 

12-50 mm. long. U. H. bridgesii 

EE. Perianth lobes more than twice as long as the tube; perianth white, with 

green midveins; stamens in 2 rows. W. E. H. hyacintha 

DD. Perianth yellow, with blue midveins; stamens in 2 rows. U. H. hendersonl 


Bulbs scaly; stems leafy, simple. Leaves flat, sessile, whorled or 
scattered, netted-veined but the chief veins from the base. Flowers in 
bracted racemes or umbel-like clusters, usually large ; pedicels not jointed, 
with foliaceous bracts. Perianth funnelform. Stamens 6, hypogynous, 
included; anthers versatile, extrorse. Stigma 3-lobed. Capsule sessile, 


erect. L. longiflomm is the Easter Lily ; L. tigrinum is the Tiger Lily. 
(Latin name.) 

A. Flowers orange-yellow or reddish, mostly conspicuously spotted. 
B. Flowers nodding; perianth segments 3-3-7-5 cm. long; capsule oblong, 2.5-4 

cm. long. 

C. Leaves oblanceolate, acute; perianth segments 3.7-5 cm. long, 8-12 mm. wide; 
anthers yellow; capsule short-oblong, 2.2-2.8 cm. long. W. C. 

L. parviflorum (WILD TIGER-LILY) 

CO. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, sharply acuminate; perianth segments 5-7.5 cm. 
long, 12-18 mm. wide; anthers red; capsule narrowly oblong, 3-7~4 cm. long. 
W. C. I*- pardalinum (WILD TIGER-LILY) 

BB. Flowers erect or nearly so; perianth segments 2.5-3.8 cm. long; capsule sub- 
globose, 1.2-2 cm. long. C. L. parvum (SMALL LILY) 
AA. Flowers white or purplish or pale yellow or red, finely spotted or spotless. 
D. Flowers dull purplish red outside, bright red and dotted with maroon inside. U. 

L. bolanderi (RED LILY) 
DD. Flowers white or pale lilac, becoming tinged with rose or purple when old, 

mostly dotted with purple or brown. 

E. Flowers horizontal, finely dotted with purple; perianth segments 7-S-io cm. 

long; anthers 10-12 mm. long. U. C. L. washingtonianum (WASHINGTON LILY) 

EE. Flowers erect or ascending, somewhat dotted with brown; perianth segments 

4-7.5 cm. long; anthers 4-6 mm. long. U. L. rubescens (BROWN-SPOTTED LILY) 


Bulb scaly ; stem simple, leafy. Leaves flat, sessile, whorled or scattered. 
Flowers usually large, either solitary, or in a raceme or subumbellate cluster 
with foliaceous bracts. Perianth funnelform or campanula te. Stamens 6, 
hypogynous, included; anthers versatile, extrorse. Stigma 3-lobed or 
-cleft. Capsule sessile. (L. fritillus = a dice box ; referring to the spots 
on the flower.) 

A. Flowers yellow, sometimes with a slight purplish tinge, not spotted; stigma 

shortly 3-lobed; capsule obtusely angled. E. F. pudica (YELLOW RICE-ROOT) 

AA. Flowers brownish purple, more or less spotted with green; stigmas 3, linear; 

capsule acutely angled (except F. camtschatcensis). 
B. Flowers distinctly mottled; capsule acutely angled. 
C. Leaves mostly scattered; capsule merely acute-angled. 
D. Leaves 6-20, linear, not glaucous; stamens about 8 mm. long. C. E. 

F. atropurpurea 

DD. Leaves 2-4, oblong-lanceolate, glaucous; stamens about 12 mm. long. U. 

F. glauca 

CC. Leaves in i to 3 whorls, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate; capsule broadly 
winged. W. C. E. F. lanceolata (WHORLED RICE-ROOT) 

BB. Flowers obscurely mottled; capsule obtusely angled. W. C. 

F. camtschatcensis 

AAA. Flowers yellow outside, yellow and spotted with scarlet inside; stigmas 3, 
linear; capsule obscurely angled. U. F. recurva 



Low, from membrane-coated corm; stem scapelike. Leaves flat, 
smooth, tapering at base. Flowers large, solitary or in a terminal raceme. 
Perianth segments lanceolate, deciduous, mostly revolute, the inner usually 
with a callous tooth on each side of the base and a groove in the middle. 
Stamens 6, hypogynous. Stigma 3-lobed or -cleft. Capsule nearly sessile, 
obovoid, membranous. (Gk. erythros = red ; because some European 
species have reddish flowers.) 

A. Leaves mottled. 
B. Flowers somewhat purple specially on the inside, often with some white or yellow. 

C. Perianth segments acuminate, white or pinkish rose outside, golden orange 
deepening to purple on the inside; anthers bright yellow. W. E. revolutum 

CC. Perianth segments obtuse, dark purple at base, bordered with yellow above; 
anthers brownish. U. E. hendersoni 

BB. Flowers white or yellow or pink, without purple. 

D. Inner perianth segments with neither auricles nor scales at base; stigmas 
faintly lobed; leaves acute. U. E. howellii 

DD. Inner perianth segments with scales and sometimes with auricles at base; 

stigmas plainly lobed or segmented. 

E. Leaves acute; outer perianth segments acuminate, 3.5-5 cm. long; stigmas 

distinct. W. E. giganteum 

EE. Leaves obtuse; outer perianth segments obtuse, 2.5-3.2 cm. long; stigmas 

united by their edges. U. E. citrinum 

AA. Leaves not mottled. 

F. Flowers white, orange at base, often pinkish when old; outer perianth segments 

acuminate. W. C. E. montanum 

FF. Flowers bright yellow, whitish at base; outer perianth segments obtuse. 

G. Anthers white; flowers 2.5-3.2 cm. long. W. C. E. E. parviflorum 

GG. Anthers purple; flowers 3.7-7.5 cm. long. E. E. grandiflorum 


Perennial, from coated bulb; stem simple or branched, leafy. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate, only i basal, many-veined, those on the stem clasping. 
Flowers in a terminal bracted raceme. Sepals 3, lanceolate, greenish. 
Petals 3, cuneate-obovate, wide, variously colored. Stamens 6, on the base 
of the perianth segments, included; anthers linear. Stigmas 3, sessile, 
recurved, persistent. Capsule sessile, elliptic to oblong, thin, 3-angled or 
-winged, mostly septicidal. (Gk. kalos = beautiful, chortos = grass. 
The leaves are grasslike.) 

A. Flowers pink or purplish or lavender, sometimes of a different color at base. 
B. Petals acute or acuminate. 

C. Petals 3.5-5 cm. long; anthers obtuse, 8-12 mm. long. 

D. Petals purple, hairy $ way up inside. E. C. macrocarpus 

DD. Petals pale blue, hairy only J way up inside. E. C. cyaneus 

CC. Petals 1.2-1.7 cm. long; anthers acuminate, about 4 mm. long. U. 

C. maweanus 


BB. Petals obtuse to truncate. 
E. Petals denticulate. 

F. Sepals ovate-lanceolate; petals often with a purple spot on each side of the 
scale; anthers obovate; capsule nodding. U. C. uniflorus 

FF. Sepals narrowly lanceolate; petals with a purple band above the gland; 
anthers ovate; capsule erect. E. C. longibarbatus 

EE. Petals entire. 

G. Sepals 3.2-4 cm. long, hyaline-margined on i side; anthers obtuse, 12-17 mm. 
long. E. C. nitidus 

GG. Sepals 1.2-2.1 cm. long; anthers acute, 4-8 mm. long. 

H. Sepals hyaline-margined on i side; petals white with dark base, with short 

hairs inside; petal gland transversely oblong; capsule erect. W. C. howellii 

HH. Sepals not hyaline-margined; petals yellowish purple, with long hairs 

inside; petal gland rounded; capsule nodding. W. C. C. tolmiei 

AA. Flowers white or yellowish, usually darker at base. 

I. Sepals 3.2-4 cm. long, hyaline-margined on i side; petals with an indigo spot 

near the center. E. C. nitidus 

n. Sepals 2.5 cm. long or shorter, either hyaline-margined on both sides or on neither; 

petals without spot other than gland (except C. elegans). 

J. Petals narrowly ovate, acute; pod erect. C. E. C. lyallii 

JJ. Petals broadly rhombic-ovate or broadly obovate, obtuse to rounded (except 

C. maweanus). 
K. Sepals somewhat yellowish inside; anthers obtuse; capsule erect. C. E. 

C. nuttallii (SEGO LILY) 

KK. Sepals not yellowish inside; anthers acuminate; capsule nodding. 
L. Petals yellowish at least in part. 

M. Petals thinly hairy on the inside, gland naked; sepals without pit at base 

inside; anthers acuminate. E. C. apiculatus 

MM. Petals densely hairy on the inside, gland more or less covered by a scale. 

N. Sepals with purple pit at base inside; anthers long-acuminate; stem 1.5- 

2 dm. high; leaf 3-8 mm. wide. C. C. subalpinus 

NN. Sepals without pit; anthers abruptly acuminate; stem 2-4 dm. high; 

leaf 8-12 mm. wide. W. C. purdyi 

LL. Petals without yellow color. 

O. Petals acute, white or tinged with rose, sometimes purplish at base; anthers 

without hook at tip; capsule acute to obtuse. U. C. maweanus 

OO. Petals obtuse, white or greenish, sometimes with a purple spot at base; 

anthers without hook at tip; capsule rounded at apex. U. E. C. elegans 

OOO. Petals obtuse, white or greenish, without purple; anthers with hook at 

tip; capsule narrowly beaked. C. C. lobbii 


Perennial, with scaly bulb; stem scapose. Leaves usually basal, flat. 
Flowers blue to white. Perianth segments persistent. Stamens 6, on the 
base of the perianth, shorter than the perianth ; anthers introrse, versatile. 
Style filiform, apex slightly 3-lobed, its base persistent. Capsule sessile, 
3-lobed and 3-angled, 3-valved. (The Indian name was Camas or Qua- 
mash.) The Indians gathered the bulbs for food. 

A. Perianth irregular; segments 3-s-veined, inner segments short-clawed at base, 
outer segments narrower and clawless; leaves 6-16 mm. wide; bracts of the inflo- 
rescence subulate. W. E. Q. quamasl* 


AA. Perianth regular. 
B. Leaves 12 mm. or less wide. 

C. Bracts of the inflorescence lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. 

D. Flowers blue or white; perianth segments usually 7-veined; capsule conspic- 
uously veined. W. C. C.leichtlinU 
DD. Flowers blue; perianth segments usually 5 -veined; capsules not conspicu- 
ously veined. E. C. suksdorfii 
CC. Bracts of the inflorescence filiform-subulate. U. C. howellii 
BB. Leaves 13-37 mm. wide; perianth segments 3~5-veined. E. C. cusickii 


Herbs, erect, perennial, with rhizomes, never with bulbs nor 
corms; tendrils none. Leaves either wide or scalelike, simple, 
alternate or whorled or basal; wide leaves parallel-veined or with 
chief veins from the base. Flowers regular, perfect, variously 
arranged. Perianth segments 6 or rarely 4, distinct or partly 
united; tube 6-lobed or -toothed. Stamens 4 or 6, hypogynous or 
on the perianth. Ovary i-3-celled, superior; styles i or 3 ; stigma 
2-3-lobed or entire. Fruit a fleshy berry or rarely a capsule. 
Seeds few to many. 

A. Leaves minute, scalelike; stem much branched; ultimate branchlets thread- 
like. W. E. Cultivated for its edible shoots. (The Greek name for similar 
plants.) Asparagus officinale (.ASPARAGUS) 

AA. Leaves large, foliaceous, wide; stems simple or sparingly branched; branchlets 
not threadlike. 

B. Leaves not 3, or if so not in a whorl on the stem; flowers either more than i 
or not terminal (except Clintonia) ; none of the perianth segments dark green. 
C. Perianth segments alike; fruit a berry; leaves more than 2 (except. Unifolium) ; 
stem plainly above ground (except Clintonia). 

D. Leaves all basal, gradually narrowed to a petiole; leaf blade widest above 
the middle. CLINTONIA (p. 63) 

DD. Leaves alternate and scattered along an elongated stem, or only i, either 
without petiole or abruptly petioled; leaf blade widest below the middle. 
E. Leaves 1-3, with slender petiole; perianth segments 4; stamens 4; ovary 
2-celled; stem simple. W. C. (L. unus = i, folium = a leaf; because 
sterile plants usually have only i leaf.) 

Unifolium bifolium (WILD LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY) 
EE. Leaves more than 3, sessile or very nearly so; perianth segments 6; 

stamens 6; ovary 3-celled. 

F. Flowers many, in a terminal raceme or panicle; stem simple; leaves not 

oblique at base; berry i-3-seeded. VAGNERA (p. 63) 

FF. Flowers few, in a terminal umbel; stem branched; leaves somewhat 

oblique at base; berry 3- to many-seeded. DISPORUM (p. 63) 

FFF. Flowers few, axillary, solitary or 2 on a forked peduncle; stem simple or 

branched; leaves not oblique at base; berry many-seeded. 



CC. Perianth segments unlike; fruit a capsule; leaves 2; stem hardly rising 

above the ground. U. C. (Gk. scolex = a worm, pous = a foot; referring to 

the wormlike scape.) Scoliopus hallii (TWIN-LEAP) 

BB. Leaves 3, in a whorl near the stem tip; flower i, terminal; perianth of 3 

dark green and 3 brighter colored segments. TRILLIUM (p. 64) 


Leaves all basal. Peduncle elongated, scapelike. Flowers white or red. 
Perianth segments 6, equal. Stamens 6 ; anthers versatile. Fruit a berry, 
smooth. (Honor of DeWitt Clinton, a former governor of New York.) 

A. Flowers i or rarely 2; perianth white, 16-24 mm. long; peduncle shorter than the 

leaves. W. C. E. C. uniflora 

AA. Flowers many; perianth deep rose, 8-14 mm. long; peduncle longer than the 

leaves. U. C. andrewsiana 


Stem scaly below, leafy above. Leaves wide, alternate. Perianth 
segments distinct, white or greenish white. Stamens on base of perianth ; 
anthers introrse. Ovary sessile ; cells 2-ovuled ; stigma obscurely 3-lobed. 
(Probably in honor of M. Wagner, a German traveler and naturalist.) 

A. Inflorescence a raceme, 3-2o-flowered; flowers 6-10 mm. long; perianth shorter 
than the stamens. 

B. Leaves spreading, flat; racemes 3~9-flowered; perianth twice as long as the 
stamens; rhizome slender. W. C. E. V. sessilifolia 

BB. Leaves ascending, folded; raceme 6-2o-flowered; perianth less than i$ times 
as long as the stamens; rhizome stout, fleshy. E. V. stellata 

AA. Inflorescence a panicle, many-flowered; 'flowers 2 mm. or less long; perianth 
longer than the stamens. 

C. Leaves acuminate, the lower ones with a very short petiole, not clasping. W. E. 

V. racemosa (WILD SPIKENARD) 
CC. Leaves acute, all sessile, more or less clasping. W. C. E. V. amplexicaulis 


Stem branched, scaly below, leafy above. Leaves somewhat oblique. 
Flowers rather small, in a terminal few-flowered umbel. Perianth segments 
distinct. Stamens hypogynous; anthers extrorse. Ovary sessile; cells 
mostly 2-ovuled; stigmas i or 3. (Gk. dis = double, spora = a seed; 
because the cells of the ovary are 2-ovuled.) 

A. Leaves rounded or slightly cordate at base, not clasping; stigma 3-cleft. 

B. Plant much branched; perianth segments 12-22 mm. long; stamens about f 
as long as the perianth; berry short-beaked, nearly smooth except at beak, 3-6- 
seeded. W. C. D. smithii 

BB. Plant sparingly branched; perianth segments 12-14 mm. long; stamens about 
equaling the perianth; berry not beaked, papillose, 3~i8-seeded. E. D. ma jus 
AA. Leaves mostly cordate at base (except D. trachyandrum) , at least the lower mostly 
clasping; stigma entire. 

C. Leaves averaging about 3.7-5 cm. long; stamens more than f as long as the 
perianth; filaments elongated, longer than the anthers. 


D. Leaves long-acuminate; pedicels woolly-pubescent; stamens about if times 

as long as the perianth; berry acutish. W. C. E. D. oreganum 

DD. Leaves acute or short-acuminate; pedicels not woolly-pubescent; stamens 

about equaling or shorter than the perianth; berry beaked or obtuse. 
E. Leaves deeply cordate at base; stamens about equaling the perianth; ovary 
pubescent, obtuse. U. D. hooker! 

EE. Leaves rounded to cordate at base; stamens about f as long as the perianth; 
ovary glabrous, with short stout beak. U. D. trachyandrum 

CC. Leaves averaging about 2.5 cm. long; stamens J as long as the perianth; fila- 
ments very short, much shorter than the anthers. U. D. parvifolium 


Stem leafy. Flowers axillary, solitary or 2 on a forked peduncle. Peri- 
anth segments distinct. Stamens on base of perianth. Ovary sessile; 
stigma entire to 3-cleft. (Gk. streptos = twisted, pous = foot ; because 
the peduncles are bent or twisted about the middle.) 

A. Flowers rotate. C. S. streptopoides 
AA. Flowers narrowly campanulate. 

B. Leaves glaucous beneath, strongly clasping at base; flowers greenish white; 

stigma entire. W. C. E. S. amplexifolius 

BB. Leaves green on both sides, not clasping, but sessile; flowers rose-purple; 

stigma 3-cleft. W. C. E. S. roseus 


Glabrous; rhizome short, tuber-like; stem short, simple, with scarious 
sheaths at base. Leaves netted- veined, but the chief veins from the base. 
Sepals lanceolate, persistent. Stamens 6, hypogynous. Ovary 3~6-angled 
or 3-6-lobed, 3-celled; styles 3. Fruit a capsule, 3-celled or imperfectly 
i-celled, berry-like. Seeds many. (L. trilix = triple ; because leaves 
and flower parts are in 3*5.) 

A. Flowers sessile. 

B. Leaves sessile, mottled; petals whitish; sepals obtuse; anthers white. W. 

T. chloropetalum (MOTTLED TRILLIUM) 

BB. Leaves long-petioled, usually not mottled; petals brown-purple; sepals acute; 
anthers dark purple. E. T. petlolatum (PURPLE TRILLIUM) 

AA. Flowers with peduncle 2.5-7.5 cm. long. 

C. Ovary 3-lobed or -angled; leaves oblong. U. T. rlvale 
CC. Ovary 6-angled; leaves rhombic-ovate. W. C. E. T. ovatum 


Shrubby or herbaceous, climbing. Leaves alternate, wide, 
netted-veined, petioled, with stipular tendrils. Flowers small, 
dioecious, in axillary umbels; yellowish or greenish. Perianth 
segments 6, similar, distinct. Stamens mostly 6; filaments 
ligulate; anthers basifixed, introrse. Ovary superior, 3-celled 
or rarely i -celled; style very short or none; stigmas 1-3. Fruit 


a berry, globose, small. Seeds 1-6. (Gk. smile = a grater; from 
the prickly-rough stems of some.) U. C. Smilax californica (SMILAX) 


Herbs, perennial. Leaves equitant, sheathing, 2-ranked, sword- 
like or linear, evergreen or withering in the fall. Inflorescence 
subtended by the spathelike bracts. Flowers showy, perfect, 
regular. Perianth petal-like, 6-cleft; segments in 2 series, wither- 
ing-persistent. Stamens 3, on the base of the j outer perianth 
segments; anthers extrorse. Ovary 3-celled, inferior. Fruit a 
capsule, 3-lobed or angled, loculicidal. Seeds few to many. 

A. Perianth 30-60 mm. long, white or blue; styles petal-like; style branches 
opposite the anthers. IRIS (p. 65) 

AA. Perianth 6-17 mm. long; styles filiform; style branches alternate with the 

B. Flowers blue, rarely whitish; filaments united to the top. 


BB. Flowers not blue, rarely whitish; filaments united only at base. 
C. Flowers yellow, with veins or stripes of black or brown or orange; scape 
broadly 2-winged. HYDASTYLUS (p. 66) 

CC. Flowers from whitish to bright purplish-red; scapes compressed but not 
winged. W. E. (Meaning not determined.) 

Olsynium grandiflorum (PURPLE STAR-GRASS) 


Rhizome horizontal. Flowers in a forked corymb, or only i ; spathe- 
bracts 2 or more, the inner scarious. Perianth segments clawed; outer 
obovate, spreading or recurved; inner narrower, erect; tube extending 
somewhat above the ovary. Anthers beneath the arching style-branches. 
Style 3-parted; base adnate to the perianth tube; branches thin, tip a 
wide 2-parted crest. Seeds many. (Gk. iris = the rainbow ; referring 
to the colors of the flowers.) 

A. Flowers blue or purple. 

B. Stem leafless; bracts largely scarious; perianth tube 6-8 mm. long. W. E. 

I. missouriensis 

BB. Stem leafy; bracts green, not scarious. 

C. Leaves 8-16 mm. wide; flowers 2-3; perianth tube 12-15 mm. long; capsule 
3.8-4.2 cm. long. U. I. douglasiana 

CC. Leaves 3-5 mm. wide; flower i; perianth tube less than 10 mm. long; 
capsule 1.7-2.5 cm. long. W. I. tenax 

AA. Flowers white or yellow, sometimes striped or blotched with other colors. 
D. Leaves not evergreen; bracts 2.5-5 cm. long. 

E. Plant i-flowered; flower white; outer perianth segments 5-7 cm. long; capsule 
oblong. (See CC.) 

F. & R. EL. FL. 5 


EE. Plant 2-flowered; flowers white, blotched and striped with yellow and purple; 
outer perianth segments 3~3-5 cm. long; capsule globose. C. I. tenuis 

DD. Leaves evergreen; bracts 5-7.5 cm. long. 

F. Flowers yellow; perianth tube less than 2.5 cm. long, funnelform; spathe bracts 
short-acuminate. U. I. bracteata 

FF. Flowers white to yellow, with blue veins; perianth tube 5-7.5 cm. long, fili- 
form; spathe bracts long-acuminate. U. I. chrysophylla 


Tufted, slender; stem 2-edged or -winged. Leaves grasslike. Flowers 
in a terminal umbel, or only i, mostly blue; spathe bracts 2, green or 
purplish, erect. Perianth segments spreading, alike, mostly aristulate. 
Filaments united at least at base. Stigmas filiform. Seeds 9-12. Mostly 
in wet grassy places. (Gk. sisyrinchion = the name of some Flaglike plant.) 

A. Inner bracts exceeding the flowers. 

B. Stem 2-3 mm. wide; perianth 12-14 mm. long, deep blue, with orange yellow 
eye. W. S. littorale 

BB. Stem 1-1.5 mm. wide; perianth 7-10 mm. long, light blue, without eye. C. 

S. sarmentosum 
AA. Inner bracts not reaching the tips of the flowers. 

C. Perianth 4-7 mm. long, white or pale; leaves and stem 0.5-1 mm. wide. E. 

S. septentrionale 

CC. Perianth 10-22 mm. long, dark blue; leaves and stem i mm. or more wide 

(except 5. occidental). 

D. Stem usually 2-branched. W. S. biramium 
DD. Stem always simple. 

E. Outer spathe bracts 3-7 cm. long. W. E. S. macounii 

EE. Outer spathe bracts 1.8-3.8 cm. long. W. E. S. occidental e 


Black to purplish when dry ; stem simple, scapose. Leaves linear, wider 
at base, somewhat equitant. Spathe bracts 2, inclosing membranous 
scales ; perianth segments not aristulate nor emarginate. Anthers versatile. 
Capsule more or less 3-angled. (Gk. hydor = water, stylos = a style ; 
application not clear.) 

A. Perianth 8-10 mm. long; leaves 1-3 mm. wide, mostly very dark in drying; anthers 
2-2.5 mm. long. W. H. borealis 

AA. Perianth 12-18 mm. long; leaves 2-5 mm. wide, mostly not very dark in drying; 
anthers 3-4 mm. long. W. H. brachypus 


Herbs, perennial. Leaves parallel-veined, flat. Flowers in a 
spike or a raceme or solitary, very irregular. Perianth superior, 
of 6 segments: outer segments 3, alike or nearly so ; 2 of the inner 
segments alike; the third (lip) unlike the other 2, often quite 
different, usually larger. Stamens adhering to the style and form- 


ing a column; perfect anthers 1-2. Ovary inferior; stigma con- 
cave, upper margin often a beak. Capsule dehiscent, usually 
3-celled and loculicidal. Seeds very many, minute, mostly spindle- 

A. Plants without green herbage, often reddish, saprophytic or parasitic. 

B. Stems white; flowers white, spurless.* C. E. (Gk. cephaln = a head, 
anthera = anther.) Cephalanthera austinae (SNOW ORCHID) 

BB. Stems more or less purplish; flowers white or reddish, spurred. 

AA. Plants with ordinary green herbage, not saprophytic nor parasitic. 

C. Leaf i; flower i; plant bulbous. W. E. (Honor of the Greek goddess 
Calypso, who once held Ulysses captive.) Calypso bulbosa (CALYPSO) 

CC. Leaf more than i ; flower usually more than i ; plants mostly not bulbous. 
D. Fertile anthers 2; lip an inflated sac. CYPRIPEDIUM (p. 67) 

DD. Fertile anther i; lip not saclike (except Epipactis). 
E. Leaves 2. 

F. Leaves near middle of stem, opposite. LISTERA (p. 69) 

FF. Leaves basal, alternate. 

G. Leaves orbicular; flowers spurred; lip 12 mm. long. W. C. E. (Gk. 
lysis = a loosening; application doubtful.) Lysias orbiculata 

GG. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to oblong; flowers spurless; lip 5 mm. long, 
yellowish green. E. (Gk. liparos fat or shining; referring to the 
smooth leaves.) Liparis loeselii (SPURLESS ORCHID) 

EE. Leaves more than 2. 
H. Flower spurred; spur 2 mm. or more long. 

I. Stem leaves abruptly reduced to bracts; leaves withering at flowering; 
lateral sepals with base adhering to claw of lip; tubers rounded; spike 
spirally twisted. PIPERIA (p. 68) 

II. Stem leaves gradually reduced to bracts; leaves not withering until fruit 
is formed; lateral sepals free; tubers elongated, rootlike; spike not spirally 
twisted. LIMNORCHIS (p. 68) 

HH. Flowers spurless. 

J. Leaves without whitish spots or lines; flowers in a dense spike which is 
somewhat spiral; lip not distinctly saclike at base, with a hornlike projec- 
tion on each side near base. SPIRANTHES (p. 69) 
JJ. Leaves with whitish spots or lines; flowers in a loose spike or raceme 
which is not at all spiral; lip saclike at base, without projections near base. 
K. Stem leafy at least below; perianth strongly purple-veined. W. E. 
(The Greek name.) Epipactis gigantea (HELLEBORINE) 
KK. Leaves all basal; perianth not purple- veined. W. C. E. (L. per = 
through, amium = love; on account of reputed medicinal properties.) 

Peramium decipiens (RATTLESNAKE PLANTAIN) 


Glandular-pubescent. Leaves large, wide, many-veined, sheathing at 
base. Flowers in a leafy raceme or solitary, large, showy. Sepals spreading, 
separate, or 2 of them united under the lip. Petals' similar to the sepals 


but usually narrower; column with an anther at each side, with petal-like 
stamen at tip. Pollen masses 4. Stigma disklike, obscurely 3-lobed. 
(Gk. kypris = Venus, pedilon = a shoe; the corolla is slipper-like.) 

A. Stem with more than 2 leaves; lip 1.4 mm. or more long, color not as in AA. 
B. Lip white to rose, veined with purple. 

C. Flowers 1-3; sepals narrowly linear-lanceolate, brownish ; lip 3-5 cm. long. 
C. E. C. montanum (LARGE LADY'S-SLIPPER) 

CC. Flowers 1-20; sepals widely oval, greenish yellow; lip 1.7-2.1 cm. long. 
U. C. C. calif ornicum 

BB. Lip bright yellow, 1.5-3 cm. long; flowers 1-3. E. 

C. parviflorum (YELLOW LADY'S-SLIPPER) 

AA. Stem with 2 nearly opposite leaves near its middle and i small lanceolate bract 
above them; lip 8-13 mm. long, greenish yellow, with brown or purplish margins. 
E. C. fasciculatum (BROWN LADY'S-SLIPPER) 


Stem leafy-bracted. Flowers small, greenish white, in a terminal spike. 
Sepals and petals i~3-veined. Pollen masses 2, parallel. Stigma a small 
beak between the anther cells. (Meaning not determined.) 

A. Spur slightly longer than the lip. W. C. E. P. unalaskensis 

AA. Spur 2-3 times as long as the lip. 

B. Leaves withering at flowering time; spike 10-30 cm. long; upper sepals lanceo- 
late. W. C. E. P. elegans 
BB. Leaves withering before flowering time; spike 4-10 cm. long; upper sepals 
ovate. W. P. michaeli 


Stem leafy. Flowers small, greenish or white, in a terminal spike. Sepals 
and petals 3~7-veined, free, spreading; lip entire. Pollen masses 2, parallel. 
Stigma beak without appendages. (Gk. limne = a swamp or pool, 
orchis = the old Greek name of some of these plants.) 

A. Flowers green or purplish. 

B. Spur only $-$ as long as the lip; lip linear; spike long, 1-3 dm., not dense; 
flowers purplish. W. C. E. L. stricta 

BB. Spur equaling or exceeding the lip; lip lanceolate; spike short, dense; flowers 
green. C. E. L. viridiflora 

AA. Flowers white or whitish. 

C. Lip linear; spike not dense. 

D. Lower leaves oblanceolate, obtuse; upper leaves lanceolate, acute; lateral 
sepals lanceolate, acute; lip 6-8 mm. long. C. E. L. sparsiflora 

DD. Leaves all linear to linear-lanceolate, acute to acuminate; lateral sepals ovate, 
acuminate; lip 12 mm. long. U. L. aggregata 

CC. Lip lanceolate; spike lax or dense. 

E. Spur shorter than the lip, or very little longer; flowers 12-14 mm. long. W. C. E. 

L. dilatata 
EE. Spur J-i longer than the lip; flowers 15-20 mm. long. W. C. E. 

L. leucostachys 



Erect; roots fleshy-fibrous or tuberous. Stem leafy. Flowers small. 
Upper sepals cohering to the petals. Lip dilated, spreading. Pollen 
masses i pair. In wet places. (Gk. speira = a coil, anthos = a flower ; 
referring to the spirally twisted racemes.) 

A. Perianth about 8 mm. long; lip much dilated at apex, basal swellings small. 

W. C. E. S. romanzoffiana 

AA. Perianth about 6 mm. long; lip little dilated at apex, basal swellings large. 

W. C. E. S. porrifolia 


Small. Leaves nearly opposite, sessile. Flowers in a terminal raceme, 
spurless, greenish or madder-purple. Sepals and petals nearly alike, free. 
Lip longer than the sepals, 2-lobed or 2-cleft at summit. Pollen masses 
i pair. Stigma with a somewhat rounded beak. In dense damp woods. 
(Honor of M. Lister, an English naturalist.) 

A. Raceme glabrous or nearly so; lip 2-cleft to about the middle, about 4-5 mm. long. 

W. C. E. L. cordata 

AA. Raceme densely glandular-pubescent; lip 2-lobed or merely retuse, the divisions 

less than the distance to the base. 

B. Leaves rounded to truncate at base; petals 3-4 mm. long; lip 5 mm. long; 

capsule ovoid. W. C. L. caurina 

BB. Leaves cordate to reniform at base; petals 4-6 mm. long; lip 9 mm. long; 

capsule obovoid. C. E. L. convallarioides 


Saprophytes or root parasites ; roots coral-like, branched ; stems scapose, 
simple. Leaves sheathlike, membranous, white to red, without green. 
Flowers in a terminal raceme, more or less showy. Lateral sepals united 
at base into a short spur or a swelling. Petals about as long as the sepals, 
i~3-veined ; lip i-3-ridged ; pollen masses 2 pairs. In dense woods. 
(Gk. korallion = coral, riza = a root; on account of the knotted, fungus- 
covered roots.) 

A. Sepals and petals 6-8 mm. long; spur present. 

B. Sepals and petals 3-veined; spur prominent; capsule oblong-cylindric. 
C. Lip crenulate, with 2 lobes at base; spur wholly adnate to the ovary. W. C. E. 

C. multi flora 

CC. Lip not crenulate, with or without 2 basal lobes; spur free for its apical half. 

W. C. C. mertensiana 

BB. Sepals and petals i-veined; spur very short, wholly adnate to the ovary; lip 

2-toothed or 2-lobed above the base; capsule oblong-elliptical. E. C. corallorhiza 

AA. Sepals and petals 12-17 mm. long, 3-veined; spur none. W. E. C. striata 



Trees or shrubs; bark bitter. Leaves simple, alternate. 
Flowers of both sexes in aments, dioecious, naked. Stamens long, 
i to many. Pistil i; ovary i-celled; stigmas 2, simple or 2-4-cleft. 
Fruit a capsule, 2-4-valved. Seeds many, with a tuft of hairs at 
one end; hairs long, silky, mostly white. 

A. Ament scales entire; stamens i-io; flowers with 1-2 glandlike projections at 
base; buds with only i bud scale. SALIX (p. 70) 

AA. Ament scales lacerate or sharply serrate at tip; stamens 4-60; flowers with a 
cuplike disk at base; buds with more than i bud scale. POPULUS (p. 72) 


Trees or shrubs. Leaves short-petioled. Staminate aments dense; 
stamens i-io, usually 2. Ovary sessile or short-stalked; stigmas 2, entire 
to 2-clef t. Capsule mostly 2-valved. (Celtic sal = near, Us = water ; 
referring to the usual habitat.) 

A. Ament scales pale yellow, deciduous. . 

B. Trees, with furrowed bark; leaves closely serrulate; stamens 2-9. 
C. Leaves without glands where petiole joins blade. 

D. Leaves deep green beneath when mature, narrowly lanceolate to linear- 
lanceolate; stipules semicordate; stamens 3-5. E. Leaves medicinal. 

S. nigra (BLACK WILLOW) 

DD. Leaves pale or glaucous beneath, even when mature. 

E. Leaves narrowly lanceolate or linear-lanceolate; stipules narrow; twigs strik- 
ingly long and pendulous; stamens 2; cultivated. W. E. 

S. babylonica (WEEPING WILLOW) 
EE. Leaves lanceolate or broadly lanceolate; twigs not strikingly long; stamens 


F. First few leaves at base of twigs plainly widest below the middle of the 
blade; stipules reniform; petioles slender, nearly terete. E. 

S. amygdaloides (PEACH WILLOW) 

FF. First few leaves at base of twigs mostly widest at or above the middle of 
the blade; stipules ovate; petioles wide, plainly grooved. W. C. E. 

S. laevigata (SMOOTH WILLOW) 
CC. Leaves with glands where petiole joins blade. W. C. E. 

S. lasiandra (GLAND WILLOW) 
BB. Shrubs or trees, with unfurrowed bark; leaves remotely serrulate or entire; 

stamens 2. 

G. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate; blade widest below the middle, entire or 
remotely denticulate; pistillate aments 10-20 mm. wide. 



H. Leaves canescent or silky at least beneath; pedicel of capsule 0-0,7 mm. 

I. Stigma short and thick; stipules none; twigs glabrous. 

J. Capsule glabrous; leaves canescent on both surfaces or silky-tomentose 
beneath, rarely on both sides on very vigorous shoots. W. E. S. exigua 

JJ. Capsule pubescent; leaves appressed-silky on both sides. E. 

S. argophylla (SPOTTED WILLOW) 

II. Stigma long and slender; stipules present, acute, deciduous; twigs hoary- 
pubescent. W. S. sessilifolia (SILVER-LEAF WILLOW) 

HH. Leaves glabrous on both sides; pedicel of capsule 0.5-1.5 mm. long. E. 

S. fluviatilis (SANDBAR WILLOW) 

GG. Leaves elliptical to oblanceolate; blade widest at or above the middle, rather 
closely denticulate; pistillate aments 7-8 mm. wide. W. E. 

S. melanopsis (DUSKY WILLOW) 
A.A. Ament scales not pale yellow, mostly brown to black, at least the tip darker, 


K. Aments sessile, or their peduncles naked or merely with bracts. 
L. Leaves glabrous beneath; stipules present; capsule glabrous. 
M. Leaves glaucous, or at least distinctly pale beneath. 
N. Most of the leaf blades widest below the middle. W. E. 

S. cordata (HEART WILLOW) 

NN. Most of the leaf blades widest above the middle. 

O. Bracts below the ament oblanceolate; scales long-hairy, obtuse or rounded. 
W. E. S. piperi 

OO. Bracts below the ament lanceolate; scales glabrous, acute. E. 

S. mackenziana 

MM. Leaves deep green on both sides, never pale beneath. 

P. Leaves elliptic-oblong to oblong; ament peduncles 1-2 mm. long; stipules 

ovate to lanceolate. E. S. pseudomyrsinites 

PP. Leaves ovate to obovate; ament peduncles 2.5-4 mm. long; stipules lunate 

to broadly ovate. E. S. pyrifolia (PEAR WILLOW) 

LL. Leaves either hairy beneath or else stipules none; capsule hairy. 

Q. Leaves densely silvery-hairy beneath; style elongated; capsule silvery-hairy. 

R. Twigs densely covered with a bluish bloom, glabrous, brownish; stipules 

none or on vigorous shoots lanceolate. C. E. S. subcoerulea 

RR. Twigs not dense with bloom, either yellow or hairy; stipules none or on 

vigorous shoots lunate or reniform. 

S. Stamens 2; twigs yellow, glabrous; staminate aments 1.2-2.5 cm. long, 

their scales acute. E. S. bella 

SS. Stamen r; twigs brownish, hairy; staminate aments 2.5-5 cm. long, their 

scales obtuse. W. C. E. S. sitchensis (SITKA WILLOW) 

QQ. Leaves often hairy beneath but not silvery-hairy; style short (except in 

S. phylicifolia); capsule pubescent or tomentose but not silvery-hairy. 
T. Leaves glabrous on both sides, margin not revolute; style 1-1.5 mm. long. 
C. S. phylicifolia (TEA-LEAVED WILLOW) 

TT. Leaves either hairy beneath or else margin revolute; style 0-0.3 mm. 
U. Tall shrubs, 3-15 m. high, not alpine; leaves 2.5-15 cm. long; aments stout, 

2.5-7.5 cm. long; capsule 7-9 mm. long. 
V. Capsule pubescent; scales black. W. C. E. 

S. scouleriana (SCOULER WILLOW) 
W. Capsule tomentose; scales yellow. W. 

S. hookeriana (HOOKER WILLOW) 

UU. Low shrubs, less than i m. high, alpine; leaves 0.7-4.5 cm. long; aments 
not particularly stout, less than 2.5 cm. long; capsule 2.5-5 mm. long. 


W. Stems ascending, 30-90 cm. high; leaves long-hairy beneath, 3-4.5 cm. long, 

2-3.5 cm. wide, obscurely crenulate; aments 3-3.5 cm. long. E. S. vestita 

WW. Stems creeping, 3-10 cm. high; leaves glabrous beneath, 0.7-2.5 cm. 

long, 0.4-1.5 cm. wide, entire; aments 1-2 cm. long. 

X. Leaves 15-25 mm. long, 10-15 mm - wide; aments 1-2 cm. long, many- 
flowered. C. S. saximontana 
XX. Leaves 7-12 mm. long, 4-8 mm. wide; aments 0.5-1 cm. long, 3-6- 
flowered. C. S. nivalis 
KK. Aments on leafy peduncles. 

Y. Shrubs 1.5 m. or less high (except S.lemmoni, S. bardayi, and 5. macrostachya); 
ament scales wider than linear, obtuse or acute, brown or gray -brown or black, 
not reddish at tip; capsule peduncle 2-5 mm. long. 

Z. Stipules present, rather large on vigorous shoots (except S. wolfii); stigma entire. 
a. Leaves lanceolate; scales of aments black. E. S. lemmoni 

aa. Leaves either ovate-lanceolate or else widest at or above the middle of the 

blade; scales of aments not black. 

b. Leaves glabrate above, glabrous and glaucous beneath, crenate or serrulate. 
W. C. E. S. barclayi (BARCLAY WILLOW) 

bb. Leaves quite hairy on both sides, not glaucous beneath. 
c. Stipules large, ovate. W. C. E. S. commutata 

cc. Stipules small or none. 
d. Twigs ash-colored, hairy; pistillate aments 2.5-5 cm. long. E. 

S. macrostachya 

dd. Twigs yellow-brown, glabrous; pistillate aments 1-2.5 cm. long. C. E. 

S. wolfii 

ZZ. Stipules none or very small; stigma not entire. 

e. Erect shrubs, bog plants, alpine or low-land, 4 dm. or less high; mature leaves 

mostly 3-6 cm. long. W. C. E. S. myrtilloides (BOG WILLOW) 

ee. Depressed or creeping shrubs, rock plants, alpine, less than i dm. high ; 

mature leaves mostly 1-3 cm. long. 
f. Leaves 2-4 cm. long, pale beneath, broadly elliptic to obovate. E. 

S. petrophila (ROCK WILLOW) 

ff. Leaves 1-1.2 cm. long, deep green or slightly pale beneath, narrowly ellip- 
tic to obovate. C. S. tenera (SMALL-LEAVED WILLOW) 
YY. Shrubs 2-5 m. high; ament scales linear-oblong, acute, tawny, reddish at 

tip; capsule peduncle 0-1.5 mm. long. 

g. Leaves elliptical -oval; peduncle of ament 2-5 mm. long; twigs without bloom. 

E. S. bebbiana (BEBB WILLOW) 

gg. Leaves linear-oblanceolate; peduncle of ament 1.5-2.5 mm. long; twigs with 

bloom. W. E. S. geyeriana (GEYER WILLOW) 


Trees ; bud scales resinous. Leaves wide, petioled ; stipules minute, 
fugaceous. Disk cup-shaped, oblique. Staminate aments dense, pendu- 
lous; stamens 6-40. Pistillate aments sometimes raceme-like: ovary 
sessile; style short; stigmas 2-4, entire or 4-lobed. Seed hairs often very 
long and conspicuous. (L. populus = the common people ; planted in 
public places by the Romans.) 

A. Petiole strongly flattened laterally. 

B. Tree not strikingly narrow for its height; branches spreading, their angle with 
the stem more than 45; leaves ovate to suborbicular, short-pointed. W. E. 

P. tremuloides (ASPEN) 


BB. Tree strikingly narrow for its height; branches nearly erect, their angle with 
the stem less than 45; leaves broadly deltoid, abruptly acuminate. W. E. 
Common shade-tree. P. dilatata (LOMBARDY POPLAR) 

AA. Petiole terete or channeled, scarcely or not at all flattened laterally. 
C. Leaves persistently and densely white-tomentose beneath, 3~5-lobed or irregularly 
dentate. W. Common shade-tree. P. alba (SILVER-LEAF POPLAR) 

CC. Leaves glabrous or nearly so when mature, crenate or crenulate. 
D. Petiole 2.5-5 cm. long; leaves mostly ovate-lanceolate, rounded or subcordate 
at base; capsule 3-valved. W. E. Wood used in making paper. 

P. trichocarpa (COTTONWOOD) 

DD. Petiole 0.6-1.3 cm. long; leaves mostly lanceolate, rounded or obtuse at base; 
capsule a-valved. E. P. angustifolia (NARROW-LEAVED COTTONWOOD) 


Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, simple, resinous-dotted. 
Flowers in aments, monoecious or dioecious, naked, only i in the axil 
of each scale. Stamens 4-8, on the receptacle; anthers ovate, 
2-celled. Ovary i -celled, subtended by 2-4 bractlets; style 
very short; stigmas 2, linear. Fruit a small drupelet. Seed i. 
Only the following genus. 


Leaves oblanceolate, dentate. Staminate aments oblong or nearly 
cylindric. Pistillate aments ovoid or subglobose. Fruit globose or ovoid, 
waxy. (Gk. myrike = the name of the Tamarisk.) 

A. Shrub, 0.3-2 m. high; leaves deciduous, 2-5 cm. long; staminate aments 12-21 
mm. long. W. M. gale (SWEET GALE) 

AA. Tree, 3-6 m. high; leaves evergreen, 5-10 cm. long; staminate aments 6-10 mm. 
long. W. M. californica (WAX MYRTLE) 


Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, petioled, simple; stipules 
fugaceous. Flowers monoecious or rarely dioecious, in aments or 
headlike clusters; staminate aments pendulous; pistillate aments 
spikelike or headlike or budlike. Flowers 1-4 in each scale axil; 
perianth membranous or none, entire or 2-4 toothed; stamens 
2-10; style 2-cleft or divided. Fruit a nut or samara, flat or ovoid- 
globose, mostly i -celled and i -seeded. 

A. Leaves densely stiff-hairy making them velvety to the touch; pistillate inflores- 
cence budlike, 5-10 mm. long; fruit a nut, i cm. or more in diameter, solitary 
or 2-3 in a group, each inclosed in a leafy involucre; shrub. W. C. E. (Gk. 
korys = a helmet; referring to the involucre.) Corylus californica (HAZEL) 

AA. Leaves not densely stiff-hairy nor velvety to the touch; pistillate inflorescence 
amentlike or conelike; fruits small, many grouped together in cones or aments, 
without involucre; shrubs or trees. 


B. Bark often cracking in the direction of the tree circumference; lenticels elon- 
gated in the direction of the tree circumference; winter buds covered by imbricate 
scales; stamens 2, bifid; pistillate aments solitary; scales of pistillate aments 
thin, 3-lobed. BETULA (p. 74) 

BB. Bark cracking up and down the tree or not at all; lenticels not elongated in 
the direction of the tree circumference; winter buds inclosed by 2 scales; sta- 
mens 4, not bifid; pistillate aments or cones in racemes; scales of pistillate aments 
or cones thick, entire or erose or 5-toothed. ALNUS (p. 74) 


Shrubs or trees. Leaves serrate or dentate, sometimes also lobed. Flowers 
in aments, expanding before the leaves ; aments monoecious. Staminate 
flowers about 3 in each scale axil, subtended by 2 bractlets ; scales entire ; 
perianth membranous, usually 4-toothed; filaments 2-cleft, each fork 
bearing i pollen sac. Pistillate flowers 1-3 on each scale; perianth none; 
ovary sessile ; styles 2. Fruit a nutlet or samara, small, flat. (The Latin 

A. Branchlets not or very little warty-glandular. W. C. E. 

B. occidentalis (WESTERN BIRCH) 
AA. Branchlets very much warty-glandular. 

B. Shrub or small tree, 3-12 m. high; leaves sparsely pubescent; body of the fruit 

much narrower than the wings. E. B. microphylla (ROCKY-MOUNTAIN BIRCH) 

BB. Shrub, 1-3 m. high; leaves glabrous; body of fruit as wide or wider than the 

wings. W. C. E. B. glandulosa (PEAT-BOG BIRCH) 


Shrubs or trees. Leaves dentate or serrate, sometimes also slightly lobed. 
Flowers in aments ; aments monoecious. Staminate aments fascicled, long- 
cylindric ; flowers 3 or 6 on each scale ; perianth mostly 4-parted. Pistillate 
aments oval or elliptic; flowers 2-4 on each scale; perianth none; ovary 
sessile; styles 2. Fruit flat. (The Latin name.) 

A. Leaves doubly dentate or serrate, or more or less lobed and serrate; stamens 4. 

B. Teeth of leaves almost equilateral triangles; tip of tooth almost a right angle, 
often with a gland; mature pistillate ament or cone 12-25 mm. long; leaves rusty- 
pubescent beneath at least on the veins. W. C. A. oregona (RED ALDER) 

BB. Teeth of leaves rather narrow; tip of tooth acuminate or narrowly acute, 
without gland; mature pistillate ament or cone 8-15 mm. long. 

C. Winter buds 12-13 mm. long, acuminate; leaves somewhat brown-hairy along 
the veins beneath; stipules oblong to spatulate, 6-7 mm. long; pistillate aments 
inclosed during the winter. W. C. E. A. sinuata (LATE ALDER) 

CC. Winter buds 6-9 mm. long, obtuse; leaves without brown hairs; stipules 
ovate, 12-13 mra - long; pistillate aments naked during the winter. C. E. 

A. tenuifolia (MOUNTAIN ALDER) 

AA. Leaves simply serrulate, not at all lobed; stamens 1-3; mature pistillate ament 
or cone 8-13 mm. long. E. A. rhombifolia (WHITE ALDER) 



Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, petioled, simple, pinnately 
veined; stipules deciduous or none. Flowers monoecious, small. 
Staminate flowers in aments or heads; perianth 4-y-lobed; stamens 
4-20. Pistillate flowers solitary or in clusters, each cluster of i or 
more subtended by an involucre of bracts which become a cup or bur; 
perianth 4-8-lobed, adnate to the ovary; ovary 3-y-celled; styles 
as many as the ovary cells. Fruit 1-3 nuts. Seed i. 

A. Leaves serrate or dentate or entire, not lobed; filaments many times as long 

as the anthers; pistillate flowers on the bases of the staminate aments. 
B. Leaves entire, coated beneath with yellow persistent scales; involucre inclosing 
1-3 nuts, very prickly with branched prickles. C. E. (Castania is the genus 
of the chestnut; Gk. opsis = like; hence chestnut-like.) 

Castanopsis chrysophylla (CHINQUAPIN) 

BB. Leaves entire or serrate or dentate, without scales beneath; nuts solitary; 

involucre covering only the base of the nut, not prickly or at least the prickles not 

branched. W. (Perhaps from L. pascere = to feed; on account of the food 

in the acorns.) Pasania densiflora (CHESTNUT OAK) 

AA. Leaves often deeply lobed but in some serrate or entire; filaments not longer 

than the anthers; pistillate flowers not on the staminate aments; fruit a single nut 

(acorn), partly inclosed in a scaly cup which is not prickly. QUERCUS (p. 75) 


Shrubs or trees. Leaves deciduous or evergreen. Staminate flowers in 
aments, i on each scale ; aments slender, many-flowered : perianth mostly 
6-lobed : stamens 6-12. Pistillate flowers solitary: perianth adherent to 
the ovary : ovary usually 3-celled ; styles as many as the ovary-cells. 
(Celtic quer = fine, cuez = a tree ; because the sacred Mistletoe grew upon 
it.) Wood fine for floors and furniture. 

A. Leaves not lobed, entire or sinuate or serrate or dentate, evergreen. 

B. Leaf-blade widest above rather than below the middle; acorns maturing the 
first season, shell glabrous inside. W. Q. sadleriana 

BB. Leaf-blade widest below rather than above the middle; acorns maturing the 
second season, shell hairy inside. W. C. E. Q. chrysolepis (LIVE OAK) 

AA. Leaves lobed, deciduous. 

C. Leaf -lobes mostly sharp-pointed; acorns maturing the second season, shell 
silky-tomentose on the inside; stamens 4-6. W. C. Q. californica (BLACK OAK) 

CC. Leaf-lobes mostly with rounded tips; acorns maturing the first season, shell 
glabrous on the inside; stamens 5-10. 
D. Shrubs or trees, 45 m. high or less; notches of the leaf-blades rounded. W. 

Q. gar ry ana (WHITE OAK) 

DD. Shrubs, 2 m. high or less; notches of the leaf-blades mostly acute. W. C. 

Q. oerstediana (SCRUB OAK) 



Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, pinnately veined but often 
with 3-5 chief veins from the base. Flowers in lateral or axillary 
clusters, or the pistillate flowers solitary, small. Perianth 3-9- 
parted or of 3-9 distinct segments. Stamens as many as the 
perianth-segments and opposite them. Ovary i -celled or rarely 
2-celled, superior; styles or stigmas 2. Fruit a samara or drupe or 
nut. Seed i. 

A. All flowers in clusters; fruit dry, winged; leaves with i vein from the base. 
W. Several eastern species cultivated for shade trees,* but none wild. (The 
Latin name.) Ulmus (ELM) 

AA. Pistillate flowers solitary; fruit a drupe; leaves with 3 chief veins from the base. 
E. An eastern species, C. occidentals, is sometimes planted for shade. (The 
Latin name of an African Lotus on account of resemblances in fruit.) 

Celtis douglasii (HACKBERRY) 


Herbs or shrubs or trees; juice milky or watery. Stipules pres- 
ent. Flowers monoecious or dioecious; staminate flowers in panicles 
or spikes; pistillate flowers in spikes or heads or cymes, sometimes 
flowers solitary; both kinds of clusters axillary. Perianth 4-5- 
parted. Stamens as many as the perianth-segments. Ovary 
superior, i-celled; styles 1-2. Fruit various, either conelike or 
blackberry-like. Seed i. 

A. Shrubs or trees; sap milky; leaves alternate; stipules fugacious; fruit a berry. 
E. Berries edible. (L. morus = the name of the Mulberry.) 

Morus rubra (RED MULBERRY) 

AA. Twining herbs; sap watery; leaves opposite; stipules persistent; fruit cone- 
like. W. E. Fruits used in the making of beer. (L. humus = the ground; 
because prostrate when unsupported.) Humulus lupulus (.CULTIVATED HOP) 


Herbs ; juice watery. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple ; 
pinnately veined but with a number of chief veins from the base; 
petioles present. Flowers monoecious or dioecious or po- 
lygamous, small, greenish, the clusters axillary. Perianth 2-5 
cleft or -parted, or of 2-5 distinct segments. Stamens as many as 
the segments or lobes of the perianth, opposite them. Ovary 
superior, i-celled; style i. Fruit an akene. Seed i. 

* See Gray's New Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 


A. Perennial; herbage with stinging hairs; leaves opposite, coarsely serrulate; 

stipules present; flowers not involucrate. URTICA (p. 77) 

AA. Annual; herbage without stinging hairs; leaves alternate, entire; stipules 

none; flowers involucrate by leafy bracts. PARIETARIA <p. 77) 


Herbs, tall. Stem 4-angled. Flowers small; clusters paired, racemes 
or spikes or heads. Perianth 4-parted. Staminate flowers with 4 stamens 
and a rudimentary ovary. (L. urere = to burn ; referring to the sensa- 
tion produced by the stinging hairs.) The stinging hairs produce intense 

A. Leaves soft-pubescent on both sides; staminate flower-clusters nearly equaling 

the leaves. E. U. holosericea (HAIRY NETTLE) 

AA. Leaves glabrous above or nearly so, sparsely pubescent beneath; staminate 

flower-clusters hardly exceeding the petiole. 

B. Inner perianth-segments rather widest below their middle, in fruit shorter than 

the akene; akene 1-1.5 mm. long. W. C. E. U. lyallii (COMMON NETTLE) 

BB. Inner perianth-segments rather widest above their middle, in fruit about 3 

times as long as the akene; akene 0.5-0.7 mm. long. W. C. E. U. brewer! 


Herbs, low, diffuse or tufted. Flowers polygamous; clusters headlike, 
involucrate by leafy bracts. Perianth of staminate flowers 4-parted or of 
3-4 distinct segments. Perianth of pistillate and perfect flowers tubular 
or campanulate, 4-lobed. In dry open places. (L. paries = a wall ; 
because some species prefer to grow on old walls.) 

A. Leaves oblong-lanceolate; involucre 2-3 times as long as the flowers. E. 

P. pennsylvanica 
AA. Leaves ovate; involucre about equaling the flowers. W. E. P. debilis 


Herbs, sometimes root parasites. Leaves entire. Flowers per- 
fect, mostly greenish. Perianth adnate to base of ovary or to disk. 
Stamens as many as the perianth lobes and opposite them. Ovary 
i -celled; placenta central; style o-i. Fruit a drupe. Seed i. 
Only the following genus. 


Perennial, erect, glabrous, mostly parasitic on the roots of other plants. 
Leaves alternate, almost sessile. Flower clusters cymose, bractless. Per- 
ianth campanulate, 4-5-lobed. Anthers attached to the calyx lobes each 
by a tuft of hair. (Gk. komn = hair, andros = a man or male ; referring 
to the anther hairs.) 


A. Leaves pallid, acute, 3-7 mm. wide; flowers many, corymbosely clustered near the 

top of the stem; style slender. 

B. Leaves oblong, pale green beneath; fruit globose, constricted above the line at 

which the perianth joins it. W. E. C. umbellata 

BB. Leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate, or those of the main stem oblong, glaucous 

beneath; fruit ovoid-oblong, constricted at the line at which the perianth joins it. 

E. C. pallida (PALE COMANDRA) 

AA. Leaves green, obtuse, 7-13 mm. wide; flowers few, on axillary peduncles; styles 

short. E. C. livlda (GREEN COMANDRA) 


Herbs or shrubs, green or yellowish- or olive- or brownish-green, 
ours parasitic on woody plants. Leaves opposite, in some merely 
scales. Flowers dioecious, regular. Perianth of similar parts; 
tube adherent to the ovary; limb entire or toothed or lobed. Sta- 
mens 2-6. Style o-i ; stigma entire. Fruit a berry. Seed i. 

A. Herbs, parasitic on branches of Abies or Pseudolsuga or Tsuga or Larix or 
Finns; anthers i -celled; berry stalked; inflorescence not bracted. 


AA. Shrubs, parasitic on Quercus or Juniperus or Libocedrus; anthers 2-celled ; 
berry sessile ; inflorescence bracted. PHORADENDRON (p. 78) 


Herbs, perennial, parasitic on branches of conifers, fleshy, small or minute, 
glabrous; branches 4-angled. Leaves scalelike, opposite. Flowers 
solitary or several together in the axils of the scales. Perianth of staminate 
flowers 2-4-parted; stamens usually i on each perianth lobe; anthers 
sessile. Perianth of pistillate flowers with 2-parted limb. (Honor of 
A. Razoumofski, a Russian botanist.) 

A. On Pinus contorta or Pinus flexilis; staminate plants 5-10 cm. high, 0.5-2 mm. 

thick at base; pistillate plants much smaller; staminate flowers dichotomously 

paniculate, nearly all terminal on pedunclelike joints. W. E. R. americana 

AA. On trees other than those in A; staminate flowers nearly all axillary, forming 

simple or compound spikes. 
B. On Pinus ponderosa; stems 5-13 cm. high, 4-5 mm. thick at base. W. 

R. campylopoda (SNAPPERS) 
BB. On conifers other than Pinus; stems 0.8-4 cm. high. C. E. R. douglasii 


Shrubs, parasitic on trees, yellowish-green or olive-green; twigs brittle, 
usually jointed. Leaves flat, coriaceous. Flowers small in bracted spikes. 
Perianth 2~4-lobed. Anther i at the base of each perianth lobe, sessile, 
transversely 2-celled. Ovary inferior ; stigma entire. (Gk. phor = a 
thief, dendron = a tree ; because it is parasitic on trees.) 


A. On oaks; even the younger branches terete; leaves orbicular to spatulate, 1.2-4.2 
cm. long, not scales, permanently villous; berry white. W. 

P. villosum (OAK MISTLETOE) 

AA. On junipers or Incense Cedar; younger branches 4-angled; leaves broadly tri- 
angular, mere scales, ciliate; berry white or red. W. E. P. juniperinum 


Herbs, with rhizome-like stem. Leaves alternate, petioled, 
cordate or reniform; stipules none. Flowers solitary, perfect, 
mostly large, regular. Perianth 3-lobed. Stamens 12, on the 
ovary. Ovary wholly or partly inferior. Fruit a capsule, 6-celled. 
Seeds many. Only the following genus. 


Rhizome ginger-like to taste, bearing several scales and 1-2 leaves. 
Leaves entire, evergreen; petioles very long. Flowers brown-purple or 
mottled, on long peduncles. In damp forests. (Said to be from Gk. a = 
not, seiro = to bind ; because it withers too easily to use for garlands.) 

A. Leaves not marked with white; free tip of connective much shorter than the 
anther; ovary about 8 mm. wide; seed 3 mm. long. W. C. E. A. caudatum 

AA. Leaves marked with white above; free tip of connective 1-2 times as long as 
the anther; ovary about 12 mm. wide; seed 4 mm. long. W. 



Herbs, or herbaceous twining vines, or shrubs; juice acid or 
acrid. Stems plainly jointed when long enough. Leaves simple, 
mostly entire; stipules sheathing and united, or none. Flowers 
regular. Perianth 2-6-cleft or -parted. Stamens 2-9; filaments 
distinct. Ovary superior, i-celled; ovule i; style 2-4-cleft or 
-parted. Fruit an akene, lens-shaped or ^-angled or rarely 4-angled. 
No keys to species in unimportant and difficult genera. (F. & 
R. pp. 130-140.) 

A. Lower leaves fan-shaped, 2-lobed, distinctly toothed, 4-13 mm. long; all leaves 
opposite, scattered along the stem. W. (Gk. pteron = a wing, stege = a cover- 
ing; referring to the bractlike involucre inclosing the solitary flowers.) 

Pterostegia drymarioides 
AA. Leaves never fan-shaped, not lobed, rarely faintly serrulate, often more than 

13 mm. long, alternate or whorled in almost all species, often in basal tufts. 
B. Stipules none; flowers involucrate; juice nearly tasteless; styles 3; stamens 9. 
C. Involucre i-flowered, coriaceous; its teeth cuspidate, often hooked; annual. 


CC. Involucre several-flowered, either herbaceous or without sharp point to its 


D. Akene lens-shaped; involucre 3-4-lobed, shortly awned; annual. E. 
(Gk. oxys = sharp, theke = sac or case; referring to the pointed anthers.) 

Oxytheca dendroidea 
DD. Akene 3-angled; involucre 4-8-lobed, pointless; annual or perennial. 

ERIOGONUM (p. 80) 
BB. Stipules scarious and sheathing; flowers not involucrate; juice usually sour 

or acrid ; styles 2-3 ; stamens fewer than 9 (except sometimes in Polygonurri) . 
E. Leaves kidney-shaped, wider than long; akene orbicular and broadly winged; 
perianth lobes 4; stigmas 2. W. C. E. (Gk. oxys = sharp or sour; the leaves 
are sour.) Oxyria digyna (MOUNTAIN SORREL) 

EE. Leaves not kidney -shaped, longer than wide; akene 3-angled or lens- 
shaped, not winged; perianth lobes 5-6 (4 in a few); stigmas 2-3. 
F. Perianth lobes 6, outer smaller and reflexed, inner erect and enlarging in 
fruit (except R. acetosella with very sour leaves); stigmas 3, tufted; akene 
3-angled. RUMEX (p. 80) 

FF. Perianth lobes 5, rarely 4 or 6, all about equal and remaining so; stigmas 

2-3, capitate; akene 3-angled or lens-shaped. 

G. Plants vines; akene 3-angled. POLYGONUM (p. 81) 

GG. Plants not vines; akene 3-angled or lens-shaped. 

H. Plants not fleshy; calyx exceeding the mature akene; surface of akene 
without pinnate striation; basal angles of leaves either projecting downward 
or else rounded. POLYGONUM (p. 81) 

HH. Plants rather fleshy; calyx only \ as long as the akene; mature akenes 
with pinnate striation on each face; basal angles of leaves pointed, the points 
projecting outward. W. Cultivated for honey and flour. (Gk. phagos 
= edible, or the beech; pyros = wheat; the seed resembles a beechnut.) 

Fagopyrum esculentum (CULTIVATED BUCKWHEAT) 


Herbs or shrubs or shrubbery at base. Stems often tufted. Leaves 
entire. Flowers in clusters; clusters involucrate. Perianth 6-cleft or 
-parted, usually colored. Plants mostly of dry plains. (Gk. erion = 
wool, gonu = knee ; on account of the woolly and jointed stems.) 


Herbs, juice more or less sour or acrid. Stem grooved. Leaves 
alternate, flat or crisped, entire or undulate ; stipules sheathing. Flowers 
small, green, in racemose or paniculate whorls or fascicles. Perianth 
6-parted or of 6 distinct segments, more or less colored, the inner often with 
cork swellings in fruit. Stamens 6. Fruit inclosed in the 3 inner perianth 
segments. (L. rumo = to suck ; because the Romans sucked the leaves 
to allay thirst.) The leaves of most species are sometimes used for greens. 

A. Coarse plants, usually over 4 dm. high, not strongly sour; flowers not dioecious. 
B. Inner perianth segments in fruit entire, or merely erose or undulate. 
C. None or only r of the inner perianth segments in fruit with cork. 
D. Inner perianth segments in fruit 15-37 mm. wide, 20-40 mm. long, without 
corks; leaves flat. E. R. venosus (BIG-SEED DOCK) 


DD. Inner perianth segments in fruit 4-9 mm. wide, 6-10 mm. long. 
E. All inner perianth segments in fruit without cork. 
F. Leaves crisped, oblong, truncate at base. W. E. 

R. occidentalis (WESTERN DOCK) 

FF. Leaves flat, lanceolate, rounded at base. E. R. hesperius 

EE. One inner perianth segment in fruit with cork. E. 

R. patientia (PATIENCE DOCK) 

CC. Each inner perianth segment in fruit with a cork. 
G. Inner perianth segments in fruit 3-6 mm. wide. 
H. Stems tufted, ascending; leaves flat, not crisped. W. E. 

R. mexicanus (WILLOW DOCK) 
HH. Stems mostly not tufted, erect; leaves crisped at margin. W. E. 

R. crispus 

GG. Inner perianth segments in fruit scarcely 2 mm. wide; leaves somewhat 
crisped. W. R. conglomerates (RING-SEED DOCK) 

BB. Inner perianth segments in fruit with slender teeth. 

I. Perennial; teeth of inner perianth segments more than 4, shorter than the seg- 
ments are wide; fruit mostly with 1-2 corks. 

J. Stems sparingly branched; often some of the lower leaves fiddle-shaped; 

inner perianth segments with 10-20 teeth. W. R. pulcher (FIDDLE DOCK) 

JJ. Stems branched at every joint; none of the leaves fiddle-shaped; inner 

perianth segments with 6-10 teeth. W: E. R. obtusifolius (BITTER DOCK) 

n. Annual; teeth of inner perianth segments 4, longer than the segments are wide; 

fruit with 3 corks. W. C. R. persicarioides (GOLDEN DOCK) 

AA. Slender plants, 4 dm. or less high, very sour; flowers dioecious. 

K. Leaves gradually narrowed at base, not hastate, spatulate or lanceolate; pedicels 

jointed at the base; inner perianth segments winged in fruit; akene smooth. C. E. 

R. paucifolius (MOUNTAIN DOCK) 

KK. Leaves hastate, oblanceolate; pedicels jointed at the summit; inner perianth- 
segments not winged in fruit; akene granular. W. C. E. A bad weed of ranges 
and waste places. R. acetosella (FIELD SORREL) 


Herbs or shrubs, annual or perennial, terrestrial or aquatic. Stems erect 
or prostrate or climbing or floating. Leaves alternate, sessile or petioled. 
Inflorescence various, terminal or axillary. Flowers small, normally per- 
fect, green or white or pink or purple ; pedicels not jointed. Perianth 4-6- 
parted or -cleft. Stamens 3-9; filaments glabrous. Style 2~3-parted or 
-cleft. Fruit lens-shaped or 3-angled, rarely 4-angled. (Gk. polys = 
many, gonu = knee, joint ; because the stems are distinctly many- jointed.) 

A. Plants erect to prostrate, but not vines; leaves cordate to attenuate at base. 
B. Leaf blade jointed to the petiole (except those included in CC), less than i cm. 
wide (except one in D); sheath 2-lobed, becoming lacerate; flowers either in 
axillary fascicles or in spikelike racemes with non-scarious bracts. 
C. Leaf blade not longitudinally 3-veined, jointed to the petiole. 
D. Plants annual, glabrous or not; stems not woody, greenish, mostly striate, 

not scaly. Large but difficult group. (F. & R. pp. 136-138.) 
DD. Plants perennial, glabrous; stems shrubby, chestnut-brown; bark loose- 

E. Seacoast plant, in sandy soil; leaves strongly revolute; sheaths 12-21 mm. 
long; flowers in subspicate clusters near the ends of the branches. W. 

P. paronychia (SHRUB KNOTWEED) 

F. & R. EL. FL. 6 


EE. Mountain plant, in rocky soil; leaves not revolute; sheaths 4-6 mm. long; 
flowers 2-3 together in the axils of the leaves. C. E. 

P. shastensis (SHASTA KNOTWEED) 

CC. Leaf blade longitudinally 3-veined, not jointed to the petiole. 
F. Akene obovate; spike rather stout. 
G. Sheath 6-8 mm. long, its segments rigid; upper leaves reduced. E. 

P. greenei 

GG. Sheath 2-3 mm. long, its segments not rigid; leaves much the same size 

throughout. E. p. parryi 

FF. Akene narrowly lanceolate; spike very slender; sheath about 2 mm. long; 

upper leaves reduced. W. C. P. californicum 

BB. Leaf blades not jointed to the petiole, at least some over i mm. wide; sheath 

not 2-lobed (except P. alpinum); flowers in most species in spikelike racemes; 

bracts small, scarious, or none. 

H. Perennial or annual, without rhizomes, mostly lowland plants; sheath cylindric, 
truncate; stamens 4-8; akenes 3-angled or lens-shaped. 

I. Sheaths bristly-ciliate. 

J. Sepals dotted with dark glands; annual; akene lens-shaped or 3-angled. 
K. Racemes drooping; akene granular or dull. W. E. 

P. hydropiper (WATER PEPPER) 
KK. Racemes erect; akene smooth, shining. W. E. 

P. punctatum (DOTTED SMARTWEED) 
JJ. Sepals not dark-dotted. 

L. Spike 3-6 cm. long, slender, not dense, interrupted; style 3-cleft; akene 

3-angled. W. E. P. hydropiperoides (MILD WATER PEPPER) 

LL. Spike 1.2-3.5 cm. long, thick, dense, not interrupted except sometimes at 

base; styles 2 or 2-cleft, rarely 3-cleft; akene lens-shaped, rarely 3-angled. 
M. Leaves mostly with a dark blotch near the middle; plant glabrous, never 
aquatic; spikes several. W. E. A bad weed in cultivated fields. 

P. persicaria (LADY'S THUMB) 

MM. Leaves not dark-blotched; plant hispid unless in water; spike only i. 
W. E. P. hartwrightii 

II. Sheaths nearly or quite without cilia. 

N. Annual, in damp places; spikes several. 

O. Leaves white-tomentose beneath. E. P. tomentosum (WOOLLY SMARTWEED) 
OO. Leaves not white-tomentose beneath. 

P. Spikes erect; akene orbicular. E. P. pennsylvanicum 

PP. Spikes drooping at least at tip; akene ovoid. 
Q. Calyx and style each parted to below the middle. W. E. 

P. lapathifolium 

OQ. Calyx and style each parted nearly to the base. E. P. incarnatum 
NN. Perennial, in water or mud; spike only i. 

R. Leaves oblong-elliptic, obtuse; spikes 1.2-2.5 cm- long; peduncles glabrous 

or nearly so. W. E. P. amphibium (WATER SMARTWEED) 

RR. Leaves ovate, acuminate; spikes 3-10 cm. long; peduncles hispid, often 

glandular. W. E. P. emersum (SWAMP SMARTWEED) 

HH. Perennial, with horizontal and elongated or cormlike rhizomes, alpine or 

subal pine plants; sheath oblique; stamens 8; akenes 3-angled. 
S. Inflorescence of but i spikelike raceme, terminal; plants not growing in water 

nor particularly wet places. 
T. Rhizome elongated; spike bearing flowers throughout. W. C. E. 

P. bistortoides 

TT. Rhizome cormlike; spike bearing bulblets at base. C. E. P. viviparum 
SS. Inflorescence of more than i cluster, axillary and terminal; plants growing 
in wet places. 


U. Sheaths 1-12 mm. long; flower clusters mostly axillary. 

V. Sheaths 1-3 mm. long; flowers usually more than 4 in a cluster; perianth 

segmented to near the base. C. P. newberryi 

W. Sheaths 6-1 2 mm. long; flowers 2-4 in a cluster; perianth segmented to 

near the middle. C. E. P davisiae 

UU. Sheaths 13-50 mm. long; flower clusters mostly panicled. 

W. Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate; perianth white or greenish; akene 

obovoid. C. E. P- alpinum 

WW. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate; perianth white or pinkish; akene 

ovo id. E. P- phytolaccaefolium 

AA. Plants twining or climbing, vines; leaves sagittate or sagittate-cordate. 

X. Annual; stems somewhat rough; outer perianth segments narrowly winged or not 

at all; akene minutely roughened, dull. W. E. P. convolvulus (BLACK BINDWEED) 

XX. Perennial; stems smooth; outer perianth segments broadly winged; akene 

smooth, shining. W. E. P. scandens (FALSE BUCKWHEAT) 


Herbs or shrubs, often mealy. Leaves alternate or opposite, 
simple, entire to lobed, sometimes mere scales or ridges (Salicornia) ; 
stipules none. Flower commonly in panicled spikes, green or green- 
ish, regular or nearly so; bracts none or green or fleshy. Perianth 
none or various ; segments alike. Stamens as many as the perianth- 
segments or fewer, opposite them. Ovary mostly superior, i -celled; 
styles 1-3. Fruit a utricle. Seed i. Family too difficult for 
beginners. Key mostly only to genera. (F. & R. pp. 140-145.) 

A. Leaves not reduced to scales, alternate in nearly all; branches not conspicu- 
ously opposite; stems not conspicuously jointed, not very fleshy. 
B. Leaves opposite. 

C. Plants perennial, herbs, not shrubby; flowers perfect; perianth of 5-7 seg- 
ments. E. (Gk. nitron = native soda, philos = loving; from its alkali 
habitat.) Nitrophila occidentalis 

CC. Plants either annual herbs or shrubby perennials; flowers imperfect; per- 
ianth none or 2-5-parted. (See F.) 
BB. Leaves alternate. 

D. Herbs, sometimes shrubby at base; leaves entire or not; flowers perfect in 
most; fertile flowers with perianth in most. 

E. Leaves not linear; perianth segment i; stamen i. E. (Gk. monos = i, 
lepis = a scale; referring to the single perianth segment.) 

Monolepis (MONOLEPIS) 

EE. Either leaves linear, or perianth segments and stamens 2 or more. 
F. Flowers monoecious or dioecious; fertile flowers without perianth; leaves 
not linear in most. Often in alkali places. (Gk. atraphaxos = not nourish- 
ing; they are weeds.) Atriplex (ATRIPLEX) 
FF. Flowers perfect; perianth of 1-5 segments or lobes; leaves various. 
G. Leaves wider than linear. Common weeds. Some cooked for greens. 
(Gk. chen = a goose, pous = a foot; referring to the form of the leaf in 
some species.) Chenopodium (GOOSEFOOT) 


GG. Leaves linear. 
H. Leaves flat, not fleshy, not spinelike. 

I. Stem not hairy, glabrous or slightly mealy; leaves mealy beneath; 
flowers clustered or panicled, with 2-5-toothed or -parted perianth. (See 

II. Stem more or less villous-pubescent, not mealy; leaves not mealy; 
flowers solitary in the axils of the reduced upper leaves, naked or with 
i perianth segment. E. (Gk. koris = a bug, sperma = a seed; the 
seed is buglike in appearance.) Corispermum (BUGSEED) 

HH. Leaves somewhat terete or angular, sometimes fleshy or spinelike. 
J. Leaves rigid and prickly-pointed, making the plant prickly to the 
touch; tumbleweed. W. E. A bad weed, very common in wheat 
fields. (Diminutive of L. salstis = salt; because most of the species 
grow in saline soil.) Salsola kali (RUSSIAN THISTLE) 

JJ. Leaves not pricklelike; plant not prickly to the touch, not a tumble- 

K. Stem glabrous or somewhat pubescent; perianth not hairy; styles 
2-4. Suaeda (SEA ELITE) 

KK. Stem more or less villous-tomentose; perianth densely white- to- 
mentose; style i. E. (Honor of W. D. J. Koch, a German botanist.) 

Kochia americana (WHITE SAGE) 

DD. Shrubs; leaves entire; flowers unisexual; fertile flowers without perianth. 

L. Plant densely white-tomentose with stellate hairs, not spinescent; bracts of 

fruit with 4 tufts of long hairs; pericarp hairy. E. (Gk. euros = mold; 

referring to the white-hairy herbage.) Eurotia lanata (WINTER FAT) 

LL. Plant not hairy as above, spinescent (except A triplex nuttallii); pericarp 


M. Leaves linear, quite fleshy, somewhat terete; perianth present in pistillate 
flowers but not in staminate. E. (Gk. sarkos = flesh, batos = a bramble; 
referring to the fleshy leaves and thorny stems.) 

Sarcobatus vermiculatus (GREASEWOOD) 

MM. Leaves wider than linear, not or only slightly fleshy, flat, not terete; 
perianth present in staminate flowers but not in pistillate. 
N. Leaves 12-31 mm. long; plant spiny; bracts obcompressed, in fruit united 
into a sac; perianth segments of staminate flowers 4. E. (Honor of Asa 
Gray, an American botanist.) Grayia spinosa (HOP SAGE) 

NN. Either leaves only 4-17 mm. long or plant not spiny ; bracts compressed, 
in fruit united but not to the top; perianth segments of staminate flowers 5. 

AA. Leaves almost none or mere scales, opposite; branches opposite; stems con- 
spicuously jointed, very fleshy. W. (L. sal = salt, cornu = a horn; salt 
plants with hornlike branches.) Salicornia ambigua (SALT-HORN) 


Annual herbs. Leaves alternate, simple. Flowers imperfect, 
small, green or white or purplish, with scarious bractlets, variously 
grouped. Perianth herbaceous or membranous, scarious, 2-5- 


parted. Stamens 1-5. Ovary superior, i-celled; stigmas 1-3. 
Fruit a utricle. Seed i. Only the following genus. 


Leaves pinnately veined, petioled. Flowers mostly with 3-5 bractlets, 
in dense terminal spikes or axillary clusters. Utricle 2~3-beaked by the 
persistent styles. Mostly weeds. (Gk. amarantos unfading ; because 
the colored calyx and bracts are chaffy and do not wither.) 

A. Stems erect, 3-20 dm. high; flowers in dense terminal spikes; sepals 5; stamens 5. 

B. Spikes green, stout, 8-14 mm. thick. E. A. retroflexus (ROUGH PIGWEED) 
BB. Spikes purple, slender, 4-6 mm. thick. E. A. paniculatus (PURPLE PIGWEED) 

AA. Stems spreading or ascending (rarely erect in A. graecizans), 1.5-6 dm. long; 
flowers crowded in close small axillary clusters; sepals 1-3 (4-5 in A. blitoides); 
stamens 3 or fewer. 

C. Fertile flowers with 3 bracts and 3-5 sepals. 

D. Branches and flower heads and under side of leaves all pinkish to deep flesh- 
color. E. A. carneus 
DD. Branches and flower clusters and leaves all whitish or green. 
E. Plant prostrate; sepals 3-5, very little longer than the bracts; fruit not 
rugose; seed about 1.5 mm. wide. W. E. A. blitoides (PROSTRATE PIGWEED) 
EE. Plant ascending or erect; sepals 3, much longer than the bracts; fruit rugose; 
seed about 0.8 mm. wide. E. A. graecizans (TUMBLEWEED) 
CC. Fertile flowers with i bract and i sepal. E. A. californicus 


Herbs; juice watery. Stems fragile; joints swollen. Leaves 
opposite, simple, entire, petioled; stipules none. Flowers perfect, 
in terminal or axillary clusters; clusters involucrate. Perianth 
corolla-like, tubular or campanulate or salverform, 4~5-lobed or 
toothed. Stamens few. Ovary superior, i -celled; stigma capi- 
tate. Fruit in akene, somewhat ribbed or grooved or winged, in- 
closed by the hardened perianth base. Seed i. 

A. Leaves narrowly ovate or wider; perianth not purple. 

B. Flowers about 5 cm. long; involucre bracts 25-38 mm. long, united to above 
their middle; fruit not winged nor even strongly angled. C. E. (L. mirabilis 
= wonderful; any striking flower is wonderful when first found.) C. E. 

Mirabilis greenei U-O'CLOCK) 

BB. Flowers 1-2.5 cm. long; involucre bracts 4-19 mm. long, distinct to base; 
fruit 3-5 -winged. ABRONIA (p. 85) 

AA. Leaves linear; perianth purple. E. (Honor of C. Allioni, an Italian bot- 
anist.) Allionia linearis (UMBRELLA-WORT) 


Perennial ; stems prostrate to erect, mostly glandular-pubescent. Leaves 
thick, one of each pair somewhat the larger. Flowers sessile, conspicuous ; 


clusters solitary or again clustered, on long peduncles. Perianth 5-lobed ; 
lobes spreading, obcordate or emarginate. Stamens 3-5, unequal, on the 
perianth, included. Styles filiform. Akenes i-5-winged ; wings reticulate- 
veined. Seed cylindric. (Gk. abros = graceful, delicate. Does not seem 
to apply to ours very well.) 

A. Plants of the seashore; flowers not white. 

B. Leaves broadly ovate to reniform; involucre bracts rounded to ovate or oblong; 
flowers yellow; wings of the fruit thick, hollow. W. 

A. latifolia (YELLOW ABRONIA) 

BB. Leaves ovate to narrowly oblong; involucre bracts narrowly lanceolate; flowers 
rose colored; wings of fruit thin, not hollow. W. A. umbellata (PINK ABRONIA) 
AA. Not plants of the seashore; flowers white. 

C. Stems prostrate; involucre bracts narrowly lanceolate; wings of the fruit thin, 
not hollow. E. A. mellifera 

CC. Stems erect or ascending; involucre bracts broadly ovate; wings of the fruit 
thick, hollow. E. A. fragrans 


Herbs, perennial, tall. Leaves alternate, simple, entire; stip- 
ules none. Flowers perfect, regular, in racemes. Perianth 4-5- 
parted or of 4-5 distinct segments; segments all alike. Stamens 
10. Ovary superior, lo-celled; cells i-ovuled; stigmas 10, filiform. 
Fruit a berry, dark purple. E. (Gk. phyton = a plant; L. lacca 
= lacquer; referring to the red juice in the berries.) 

Phytolacca decandra (POKE-BERRY) 


Herbs, annual; stems mostly prostrate, branching. Leaves 
whorled; stipules scarious. Flowers small, regular, solitary, 
whitish. Perianth 5-parted and segments all alike. Stamens 
3-5, hypogynous. Ovary usually superior, 3-5-celled. Fruit a 
capsule, loculicidal. Seeds many. E. (L. mollis = soft; they 
form a carpet-like growth.) Mollugo verticillata (CARPET-WEED) 


Herbs, low, mostly fleshy or succulent, rarely somewhat woody. 
Leaves alternate or opposite. Flowers regular, perfect, axillary or 
terminal. Sepals usually 2, in some more. Petals none to many. 
Stamens as many as the petals or fewer, rarely more, opposite 
the petals when of the same number; filaments filiform. Ovary 
superior, I -celled; placenta central, free; styles 2-g-cleft or -di- 
vided. Fruit a capsule, membranous or crustaceous, circumscissile 
or 2-3-valved. Seeds 2 to many. 


A. Sepals not scarious; styles or stigmas 3 or more. 

B. Ovary quite free from the calyx; leaves either mostly basal or mostly scattered 
along the stem. 

C. Caudex beset with short subulate spines which are the persistent midribs 
of former leaves; leaves terete, about 12 mm. long; sepals deciduous; stamens 
20-30. E. (The native name of an African species.) 

Talinum spinescens (ROCK PINK) 

CC. Caudex not beset with spines or none; leaves either not terete or else more 
than 12 mm. long; sepals persistent; stamens fewer (except in some species of 

D. Leaves either in a basal tuft or scattered along the stem; sepals 2-3; petals 
2-5; stamens 3-10; styles or stigmas 3; capsule not circumscissile, 3-valved 
from apex. 
E. Most of the leaves scattered along the stem, alternate, linear to lanceolate. 

F. Leaves not scarious nor clasping at base, the upper linear, the lower 
lanceolate and petioled; stamens 3 or more; seed minutely tuberculate. 
W. (Honor of J. L. Calandrini, a Swiss botanist.) 

Calandrinia caulescens (RED MAIDS) 

FF. Leaves somewhat scarious and clasping at base, all linear and sessile; 
stamens 3; seed quite smooth. MONTIA (p. 88) 

EE. Leaves not as above in all characters. 

G. Stems and leaves from a subterranean corm or the crown of a fleshy root; 
most of the leaves at the surface of the ground; involucre leaves not united; 
either petals not twice as long as the sepals or involucre leaves oblong or 
narrower. CLAYTONIA (p. 87) 

GG. Plants without corms or fleshy roots (except M . sibirica, which has a 

fleshy root crown); leaves scattered along a stem above the ground, or 

involucre leaves united, or petals about thrice as long as the sepals and 

involucre leaves oblong. MONTIA (p. 88) 

DD. Leaves in a tuft on the top of the caudex; sepals 2-8; petals 10-16; 

stamens 5-50; styles or stigmas 3-8; capsule circumscissile. LEWISIA (p. 89) 

BB. Ovary adherent to the calyx along at least its lower half; most of the leaves 

scattered along the stem. E. A weed in cultivated land. (From L. portula 

= a small gate ; referring to lid of capsule.) Portulaca oleracea (PURSLANE) 

AA. Sepals scarious at least at margin; styles or stigmas 2. 

H. Stamens 3, longer than the petals and opposite the 3 larger ones; style very 
long, filiform; capsule globose-ovate. W. C. E. (Honor of a Mr. Sprague, 
an artist who illustrated Gray's Botanies.) Spragua multiceps (SPRAGUA) 

HH. Stamen i, shorter than the petals and alternate with them; style very short 
or hardly any; capsule linear or oval. E. (Gk. calypterion = a covering. 
Not clear why.) Calyptridium roseum 


Perennial, glabrous. Stem leaves 2, opposite (1-3 and alternate in C. 
megarrhiza) ; basal leaves i or more. Flowers white or yellow or rose 
colored, racemose ; racemes simple or paniculate, terminal, naked, loose. 
Sepals 2. Petals always 5, free, equal, conspicuous. Stamens always 5. 


Style 3-cleft. Seeds not more than 6. (Honor of J. Clayton, an American 

A. Flowers yellow. E. C. aurea 

AA. Flowers white or pink, with pink or purple veins. 
B. Stems and leaves from a deep-seated corm; stem leaves opposite, 2. 
C. Stem 7.5-15 cm. high; stem leaves sessile, narrowly lanceolate to oblong; 
corm globose. W. C. E. C. lanceolata (PIGEON-ROOT) 

CC. Stem 2-5 cm. high; stem leaves petioled, ovate to orbicular; corm oblong or 
fusiform. E. C. umbellata 

BB. Stems and leaves from the top of a fleshy root; stem leaves usually alternate. 
1-3. E. C. megarrhiza (PURPLE-ROOT) 


Annual or perennial, glabrous. Flowers pale or white, delicate, in racemes ; 
racemes axillary or terminal, simple or compound, loose. Sepals 2-3. 
Petals 0-5, more or less united at base, usually unequal, 3 a little smaller 
than the other 2. Stamens 3-5, on the very base of the corolla, opposite 
the petals. Seeds 3. (Honor of G. Monti, an Italian botanist.) 

A. Stem leaves opposite. 

B. Stem leaves i pair, often united into a disk. 
C. Stem leaves not united. 

D. Plants with creeping rhizomes; most of the pedicels not subtended by bracts. 
W. C. E. M. asarifolia 

DD. Plants without rhizomes; most of the pedicels subtended by bracts. 
E. Basal leaves ovate. W. C. E. M. sibirica 

EE. Basal leaves narrower than ovate. 

F. Stem leaves all quite separate; inflorescence 12-50 mm. long; petals 6 mm. 

long. E. M. arenicola 

FF. Stem leaves somewhat united; inflorescence 6-12 mm. long; petals 2-4 mm. 

long. (See G.) 

CC. Stem leaves united at least at base. 

G. Stem leaves terete to ovate-lanceolate, not united into a disk but usually 
somewhat united at base at one or both sides. W. E. M. spathulata 

GG. Stem leaves wide, united into a disk which may however be lobed. 
H. Calyx 4 mm. long; seed 2 mm. wide; pedicels in fruit rarely longer than 
the calyx; basal leaves from spatulate-obovate to reniform. W. C. E. 

M. perfoliata 

HH. Calyx 2 mm. long; seed i mm. wide; pedicels in fruit 2-6 times as long as 
the calyx; basal leaves various. W. C. E. M. parviflora 

BB. Stem leaves several pairs, not united. 

I. Plant perennial, with filiform runners; petals 6 mm. long, pale rose color; leaves 

25-50 mm. long including the petiole. W. E. M. chamissonis (TOAD-LILY) 

n. Plant annual, without runners; petals 2 mm. long, white; leaves 1.5-13 mm. 

long including the petiole. W. E. M. fontana (BLINKS) 

AA. Stem leaves alternate. 

J. Annual, without stolons; leaves not very fleshy; petals 5 mm. long or shorter; 

sepals 4 mm. long or shorter, a little shorter than the petals. 
K. Leaves narrow, sessile, clasping at base; stamens 2-5; seed quite smooth. 
L. Leaves linear, 12-75 mm. long; petals 5. 

M. Leaves 2.5-7.5 cm. long; racemes dense; sepals about 4 mm. long; petals 
4-5 mm. long; seed about 2 mm. wide. W. E. M. linearis 


MM. Leaves 1.2-2.5 cm. long; racemes loose; sepals about 2 mm. long; petals 

2-3 mm. long; seed less than i mm. wide. W. E. M. dichotoma 

LL. Leaves spatulate, 4-8 mm. long; petals o or 2 or 3 or 5, 2 mm. or less long; 

seed i mm. wide. W. H. howellii 

KK. Leaves wide, petioled, not clasping at base; stamens 5; seed closely striate. 

W. M. diffusa 

JJ. Perennial, with slender stolons; leaves very fleshy; petals 8-10 mm. long; 

sepals about 2 mm. long. W. C. E. M. parvifolia (SPRADDLES) 


Perennial ; caudex and root fleshy, perpendicular. Flowers on i -flowered 
scapes or in panicles with scapose stalks, showy, white to rose color or deep 
red. Styles 2-8-cleft or -parted. Capsule circumscissile at the very base. 
Seeds many. (Honor of M. Lewis of the Lewis and Clarke expedition.) 

A. Scapes i-flowered, jointed about the middle; involucral bracts 5-7, near the middle 
of the scape; sepals 4-8; petals 10-15. E. L. rediviva 

AA. Scapes i- to many-flowered, jointed at base; involucral bracts 2, near the calyx; 

sepals 2; petals 3-10. 

B. Flowers many, in open paniculate racemes. 
C. Leaves 12 mm. or more wide, spatulate to obovate. 

D. Leaf-margin not hyaline nor crisped; filaments united at base. W. 

L. cotyledon 

DD. Leaf margin hyaline, crisped; filaments free. W. L. howellii 

CC. Leaves 8 mm. or less wide, terete or linear-spatulate. 

E. Petals 10-13 mm. long; leaves not glaucous, flat, linear-spatulate. W. C. 

L. columbiana 
EE. Petals about 6 mm. long; leaves glaucous, terete or subspatulate. W. 

L. leana 

BB. Flowers 1-5, in umbels. 
F. Leaves obovate or linear-oblanceolate. 

G. Leaves obovate; seed granulate. E. L. tweedyi 

GG. Leaves linear-oblanceolate; seed smooth. W. L. oppositifolia 

FF. Leaves linear or lanceolate. 

H. Root fusiform or conical; petals 8 mm. or more long. 

I. Sepals entire; petals white, 12-16 mm. long. E. L. nevadensis 

n. Sepals erose; petals red, about 8 mm. long. C. E. L. pygmaea 

HH. Root corm-like, globular; petals about 4 mm. long. C. E. L. triphylla 


Herbs, annual or perennial, often swollen at the base. Leaves 
opposite or apparently whorled, entire or nearly so. Flowers per- 
fect or rarely dioecious, regular. Sepals 4-5, persistent. Petals 
as many as the sepals or none. Stamens twice as many as the 
sepals or fewer, hypogynous or perigynous. Ovary i, mostly 
i -celled; styles 2-$; placenta central. Fruit a capsule, membranous, 
opening by valves or teeth. Seeds several to many. 

A. Sepals united into a cup or tube; petals always present, with slender claws; 
stipules none. 


B. Calyx with 10 to many veins; styles 3-5. 

C. Flowers 2.5-4 cm. in diameter; calyx-teeth 2-3 cm. long, foliaceous; petals 
dark purplish red; styles 5, opposite the petals; leaves linear. W. E. A 
weed. (Gk. agros = field, stemma = a crown; on account of the beauty of the 
flowers.) Agrostemma githago (CORN COCKLE) 

CC. Flowers mostly not so wide; calyx-teeth much shorter, not foliaceous ; 
petals mostly not colored as above. 
D. Leaves mostly linear; styles 3; capsule opening by 3 or 6 teeth. 

SILENE (p. 90) 

DD. Leaves wider than linear; styles 5; capsule opening by 4 or 5 or 8 or 10 
teeth. LYCHNIS (p. 92) 

BB. Calyx with 5 veins; styles 2. SAPONARIA (p. 92) 

AA. Sepals distinct or nearly so; petals none or without claws. 
E. Stipules none. 

F. Capsule cylindric; petals always present. CERASTIUM (p. 93) 

FF. Capsule ovoid or oblong. 

G. Styles either fewer than the sepals, or else as many and opposite them. 
H. Petals none or entire or merely emarginate; leaves often sharp-pointed, 
either terete or angular or narrowly linear, or else petals present. 

ARENARIA (p. 94) 

HH. Petals none or deeply divided into 2 lobes; leaves never sharp-pointed, 

flat, broadly linear or wider. STELLARIA (p. 92) 

GG. Styles as many as the sepals and alternate with them; petals none or 

entire or emarginate. SAGINA (p. 93) 

EE. Stipules present, scarious. 

I. Leaves apparently in whorls; styles 5; petals always present. W. E. A 
weed in grain fields. (L. spar gar e = to scatter; the seed is widely sown with 
grains.) Spergula arvensis (CORN SPURRY) 

II. Leaves opposite; styles 3, rarely 5; petals sometimes none. TISSA (p. 94) 


Annual or perennial. Flowers mostly pink or white. Calyx more or 
less inflated, ovoid to campanulate, 5-toothed or -cleft, 10- to many-veined, 
not bracted at base. Petals narrow, clawed. Stamens 10. Ovary i-celled 
or incompletely 2-4-celled. Seeds many, spiny or tubercled. (Gk. sialon 
= saliva; on account of the sticky substance on the stem of some species.) 

A. Calyx with 15 or more veins. 

B. Leaves narrowly oblong to linear; calyx veins 18-23, obscure. W. S. multinervia 
BB. Leaves ovate-lanceolate; calyx veins 15-20, prominent. W. E. 

S. latifolia (BLADDER CATCH-FLY) 
AA. Calyx with 5-10 veins. 

C. Plant 2.5-5 cm. high; leaves crowded so as to hide the stem, linear. W. C. E. 

S. acaulis (MOSS CATCH-FLY) 

CC. Plant taller; leaves not crowded so as to hide the stem, various in width. 
D. Flowers 25 mm. or more wide. 
E. Leaves lanceolate to ovate-elliptic, acuminate; flowers deep red. W. 

S. calif ornica 

EE. Leaves oblanceolate, acute or obtuse; flowers white or pink. W. S. hooker! 
DD. Flowers 12-25 mm. wide. 


F. Petals entire, or emarginate, or 2-lobed or -cleft, or the 2 lobes again merely 

G. A part of each of the upper internodes of the stem glutinous; stem otherwise 

glabrous or merely puberulent; plant annual or biennial. 

H. Flowers 3-4 mm. wide, paniculate; calyx ovoid; leaves linear to lanceolate. 
W. C. E. S. antirrhina (SLEEPY CATCH-FLY) 

HH. Flowers 12-17 m m. wide, cymose; calyx club-shaped; leaves ovate- 
lanceolate. W. E. S. armeria (SWEET-WILLIAM CATCH-FLY) 
GG. Stem either not sticky at all, or else viscid-pubescent and thus sticky through- 
out the whole of the internodes. 
I. Leaf-blades widest below their middle. 

J. Calyx 21-31 mm. long; plant annual or biennial, viscid-pubescent or hirsute. 

JJ. Calyx 8-20 mm. long; plant perennial. 

K. Leaves ovate-lanceolate; flowers in the forks of the branches thus form- 
ing a leafy inflorescence; calyx 5-8 mm. long; plants finely glandular- 
pubescent. W. E. S. menziesii (MENZIES PINK) 
KK. Leaves narrower; flowers in cymes or spikes or panicles which are not 

leafy; calyx longer. 

L. Plant viscid-tomentose; inflorescence subspicate or cymose-paniculate; 
petal blades scarcely exceeding the 4 appendages; ovary stipitate. W. C. E. 

S. spaldingii 

LL. Plant pubescent but not viscid; inflorescences 3-5-flowered cymes; 
petal blades quite longer than the appendages; ovary not stipitate. 
W. C. E. S. douglasii 

n. Leaf blades widest at or above their middle. 

M. Inflorescence a whorled spike; flowers many; stem hairs not jointed; 

petals 2-lobed, the lobes again emarginate. W. E. S. scouleri 

MM. Inflorescence a simple i-sided raceme, often spikelike; flowers several 

to many; stem hairs white, jointed; petals entire to 2-lobed, the lobes not 

emarginate. W. S. anglica (ENGLISH CATCH-FLY) 

MMM. Inflorescence a panicle, or flowers only 1-7 and scattered; stem hairs 

not jointed; petals emarginate or 2-lobed, the lobes not again emarginate. 
N. Plants 1-2.5 dm. high; leaves 0.6-2.5 cm. long. 

O. Petal lobes entire; petal appendages retuse. C. E. S. suksdorfii 

OO. Petal lobes each with a short lateral tooth; petal appendages obtuse. 

W. C. S. watsoni 

NN. Plants 3-9 dm. high; leaves 2.5-7.5 cm. long. 

P. Stem with leaves; basal leaves i -veined, 2-4 mm. wide. W. C. E. 

(See LL.) 

PP. Stem with 1-2 pairs of bracts but no leaves; basal leaves 3-veined, 
6-1 1 mm. wide. E. S. scaposa 

FF. Petals with 4 or more distinct lobes or divisions. 

Q. Flowers borne in the forks of the branches and forming a leafy inflorescence. 
W. C. S. campanulata 

QQ. Flowers in naked or bracted cymes or panicles. 

R. Calyx campanulate; ovary not stipitate. W. C. E. S. macounii 

RR. Calyx cylindric or obovoid ovary stipitate, but in some very shortly so. 
S. Calyx 7-9 mm. long. W. S. lemmoni 

SS. Calyx 12-19 mm. long. 

T. Plant fetid, very viscid. C. E. S. oregana 

TT. Plant not fetid, not glandular or only somewhat so above. 
U. Petals 2-parted, each part again 2-lobed. W. S. montana 

UU. Petals 3-parted, each part again 2-lobed. W. S. gormani 



Perennial. Calyx ovoid to clavate, lo-veined, usually inflated, 5-toothed. 
Petal blade entire or variously lobed or cleft. Stamens 10. Ovary i-celled, 
partly 4~5-celled at base. (Gk. lychnos = a lamp or light ; referring to 
the flamelike color of some species.) 

A. Plant white-woolly; calyx teeth twisted; petals exserted, spreading above the 

calyx. W. E. L. coronaria (MULLEIN PINK) 

AA. Plant ashy-puberulent to glabrous; calyx teeth not twisted; petals not or very 

little spreading above the calyx. 

B. Plant dwarf, caespitose; stems i-flowered; petals exserted. E. L. kingii 

BB. Plant 2-5 dm. high, erect; stems few-flowered; petals included or nearly so. 

W. E. L. drummondii (DRUMMOND PINK) 


Annual or perennial, glabrous, diffuse or erect. Leaves wide. Flowers 
white or pink or red. Calyx ovoid to tubular, 5-toothed. Petals entire 
or emarginate. Stamens 10. Ovary i-celled. Capsule ovoid or oblong, 
opening by 4 valves which appear as apical teeth. (L. sapo = soap ; the 
mucilaginous juice lathers with water.) 

A. Annual, dichotomously branched; calyx sharply s-angled, 1-15 mm. long, oblong 
or ovate. W. E. S. vaccaria (cow HERB) 

AA. Perennial, not dichotomously branched; calyx terete, 16-21 mm. long, tubular. 
E. S. officinalis 


Annual, tufted, low. Flowers either solitary in the leaf axils or else in 
cymes. Sepals 4-5. Petals none or white. Stamens 10 or fewer, hypogy- 
nous. Ovary i -celled; styles usually 3, usually opposite the sepals. 
Capsule globose to oblong ; valves usually 6. Seeds several to many. 
(L. stella = a star ; referring to the star-shaped flowers.) 

A. Lower leaves petiolate. 

B. Pubescence of stem scattered; styles 5; petals always present. W. 

S. aquatica (WATER CHICKWEED) 

BB. Pubescence of stem a line of hairs; styles 3-4; petals always present. W. E. 


BBB. Pubescence of stem none except at base; styles 3-4; petals sometimes none. 

AA. Leaves all sessile or nearly so. 

C. Petals bifid to the middle or less, always present. 

D. Stem smooth except for a puberulent line. E. S. oxyphylla 
DD. Stem glandular-pubescent at least above. E. S. jamesiana 

CC. Petals bifid nearly to the base. 

E. Inflorescence bracts small, scarious. 

F. Petals equaling or exceeding the calyx, always present. 

G. Cymes few-flowered; pedicels erect. W. C. E. S. longipes 

GG. Cymes diffuse; pedicels spreading. 

H. Leaves lanceolate, widest near the base; seed rough under hand lens. W. E. 

S. gram in ea 


HH. Leaves linear, widest near the middle; seed smooth under hand lens. 
W. E. S. longifolia (LONG-LEAVED CHICKWEED) 

FF. Petals none or much shorter than the calyx. 

I. Pedicels grouped in somewhat unbel-like clusters; capsule 6-8 mm. long. E. 

S. umbellata (UMBEL CHICKWEED) 

n. Pedicels scattered, not in umbel-like clusters; capsule 3-4 mm. long. (See J.) 
EE. Inflorescence bracts foliaceous. 

J. Leaves lanceolate. W. C. E. S. borealis (NORTHERN CHICKWEED) 

JJ. Leaves ovate. 

K. Sepals obtuse, hardly scarious-margined; petals none. W. E. S. obtusa 

KK. Sepals acute, scarious-margined. 

L. Petals exceeding the calyx, always present. W. S. humifusa 

LL. Petals exceeded by the calyx, sometimes none. 
M. Stem glabrous; sepals lanceolate; petals minute or none. W. C. E. 

S. crispa 
MM. Stem pubescent, sepals ovate; petals none. W. C. S. washingtoniana 


Annual or perennial, mostly pubescent or hirsute. Flowers white, in 
dichotomous terminal cymes. Sepals 5. Petals bifid to entire. Stamens 
10. Styles as many as the sepals and opposite them, or fewer. Capsule 
i-celled, often curved, valves twice as many as there are styles. Seeds 
many, rough. (Gk. keras = a horn ; referring to the shape of the pod.) 

A. Petals not longer than the sepals, always present. 

B. Perennial, flowering in summer and fall; pedicels longer than the calyx. W. E. 

C. vulgatum (COMMON MOUSE-EAR) 
BB. Annual, flowering in spring; pedicels not longer than the calyx. W. C. E. 

C. viscosum (SPRING MOUSE-EAR) 
AA. Petals decidedly longer than the sepals, rarely none. 

C. Flowers 12-21 mm. wide; perennial. W. C. E. C. arvense (FIELD MOUSE-EAR) 
CC. Flowers 4-6 mm. wide. 

D. Annual; calyx not scarious-margined nor hairy. E. C. nutans (POWDERHORN) 
DD. Perennial; calyx scarious-margined, hairy. W. C. E. C. beeringianum 


Annual or perennial, tufted or matted, low. Leaves subulate or fili- 
form. Flowers small, whitish, pedicelled, terminal. Sepals 4-5. Petals 
none, or entire to emarginate. Stamens as many as the sepals, or fewer, or 
twice as many. Ovary i-celled. Capsule 4~5-valved, opening at base. 
Seeds many. (L. sagina = fattening ; first the name of Spergula, with 
fleshy leaves.) 

A. Herbage glabrous. 

B. Annual; stems decumbent, several-flowered, the lower flowers lateral; flowers 

1-3 mm. wide. W. C. E. S. occidentalis 

BB. Perennial; stems either erect, or else with a single terminal flower; flowers 

3-5 mm. wide. 

C. Stems decumbent, filiform, i-flowered, the flower terminal; pedicels at length 
nodding. C. E. S. saginoides 


CC. Stems erect, somewhat fleshy, several-flowered, the lower flowers lateral; 

pedicels remaining straight. W. S. crassicaulis 

AA. Herbage glandular-puberulent; annual. W. S. ciliata (HAIRY PEARLWORT) 


Annual or perennial, mostly low, often tufted. Leaves sessile in most 
species, often rigid, ovate to subulate. Flowers small, white, solitary or in 
cymes; cymes paniculate or headlike. Sepals 4-5. Stamens twice as 
many as the sepals. Styles 2-5, usually 3, opposite the sepals. Capsule 
valves 2-5, entire or 2-cleft. Seeds few to many. (L. arena = sand; 
referring to the habitat of many species.) Species difficult. (F. & R. pp. 


Annual or perennial. Leaves fleshy in most, linear or setaceous, often 
clustered in the axils. Flowers small, whitish or pink, in terminal bracted 
or leafy cymes or racemes. Sepals 5. Petals none or entire. Stamens 
2-10. Ovary i-celled. Pod 3-valved at base. Seeds many. (A Latin 
name of unknown meaning.) 

A. Plants of saline soils; leaves very fleshy. 

B. Perennial; roots large; mature capsules 4-5 mm. in diameter. W. 

T. macrotheca (LARGE SAND-SPURRY) 
BB. Annual; roots fibrous; mature capsules less than 4 mm. in diameter. W. 

AA. Plants not of saline soils; leaves not fleshy. 

C. Stipules ovate-lanceolate, 4-6 mm. long; stamens usually 5. W. E. 

CC. Stipules deltoid, shorter; stamens mostly 2-3. E. T. diandra 


Herbs, perennial, low, densely tufted. Leaves mostly opposite, 
mostly entire, subulate, densely crowded; stipules scarious. 
Flowers sessile, in axillary clusters. Calyx persistent, 5-parted. 
Petals minute, scalelike. Stamens on the calyx. Ovary i-celled; 
style bifid. Fruit a utricle. Seed I. On sand near the seashore. 
(Gk. pente = 5, kainis = a knife; referring to the 5 sharp-pointed 
sepal spines.) W. Pentacaena ramosissima (THORNY SANDWORT) 


Herbs, aquatic, perennial; rhizomes horizontal. Leaves large, 
floating or immersed, or rarely emersed. Sepals 3-12. Petals 3 
to many. Stamens 5 to many. Carpels 3 to many, distinct or 
united; stigmas distinct or united into a radiate or ringlike disk; 
ovules i to many. Fruits indehiscent. 


A Leaves peltate, on an elongated stem; flowers 1-2 cm. wide; carpels distinct; 

pistils 4-18, not dehiscent. W. E. Brasenia schreberi (WATER SHIELD) 

AA. Leaves not peltate, all basal; flowers 2.5-13.7 cm. wide; carpels united into a 

single dehiscent pistil. 

B. Sepals 4, flat; petals 2-3.5 cm. long, white or pinkish, epigynous. E. (Gk. 
kastalia = a mythical fountain on Mt. Parnassus.) 

Castalia tetragona (SMALL WHITE WATER-LILY) 

BB. Sepals 8-12, concave; petals 1-1.5 cm - long, yellow, hypogynous. W. C. E. 
Seeds edible. (White ones were dedicated by the Greeks to the water 
nymphs.) Nymphaea polysepala (YELLOW POND-LILY) 


Herbs, perennial, aquatic, submerged; stems slender, branching. 
Leaves whorled; threadlike or stag-horn-like, terminal tuft of leaves 
slimy and persisting through the winter. Flowers extremely rare. 
W. E. (Gk. keras = a horn, phyllon = a leaf; the leaves branch 
Stag-horn-like.) Ceratophyllum demersum (HORNWORT) 


Herbs or shrubs, annual or perennial, climbing when shrubby. 
Leaves alternate or opposite (Clematis) or a single whorl (Anemone), 
simple or compound; stipules none. Flowers regular or irregular. 
Sepals 3-15, often petal-like, imbricated (except in Clematis). 
Petals of about the same number as the sepals, rarely more, 
rarely none. Stamens 10 to many, hypogynous. Carpels I to 
many, often separate, in fruit becoming akenes or follicles or berries. 

A. Leaves either alternate or all basal. 
B. Floweis spurless or i-spurred; leaves various. 
C. Flowers regular; leaves various. 
D. Leaves simple. 

E. Leaves entire; fruit of i-seeded akenes. MYOSURUS (p. 100) 

EE. Leaves either not entire, or else fruit of several-seeded follicles. 
F. Petals none. 

G. Leaves entire or crenate; sepals 5-15; fruit of follicles; follicles several- 
seeded, not 4-angled. CALTHA (p. 96) 
GG. Leaves palmately lobed; sepals 4; fruit of akenes; akenes i -seeded, 
4-angled. W. C. E. (Honor of E. R. von Trautvetter, a Russian bot- 
anist.) Trautvetteria grandis (FALSE BUGBANE) 
FF. Petals present. 

H. Plants glabrous; petals 15-25; fruit of many-seeded follicles. W. C. E. 
(German trol = something round; referring to the form of the flower.) 
HH. Plants either pubescent or petals fewer; fruit of i -seeded akenes. 


I. Flowers white; stems submerged; leaves filiform when submerged; 
akenes transversely rugose; petals with a naked spot or pit at base. 

BATRACHIUM (p. 100) 

II. Flowers yellow; stems mostly not submerged; rarely the leaves fili- 
form; akenes not transversely rugose; petals with a small scale at the 
base of the claw. RANUNCULUS (p. 101) 

DD. Leaves compound. 
J. Petals not red; flowers often small; fruit of follicles or akenes, or a red 


K. Fruit of akenes, these each i -seeded. 

L. Petals present; leaves rarely ternately more than i -compound; inflores- 
cence either not panicles nor racemes, or else flowers large; flowers perfect. 
(See HH.) 

LL. Petals none; leaves ternately 2-3-compound; inflorescence panicles or 
racemes; flowers small, mostly not perfect. THALICTRUM (p. 102) 

KK. Fruit of follicles or berries, these each several-seeded. 
M. Fruit of follicles; carpels 2 or more (except sometimes in Cimifuga 

N. Leaves withering in the fall, not all basal; follicles sessile or short- 
stalked, in heads. 

O. Stems 9-24 dm. high, many-flowered. CIMIFUGA (p. 98) 

OO. Stems 0.5-3 dm. high, i- to several-flowered. ISOPYRUM (p. 97) 

NN. Leaves green throughout the winter, all basal; follicles long-stalked, 

in umbels. COPTIS (p. 97) 

MM. Fruit a red berry; carpel i. ACTAEA (p. 97) 

JJ. Petals red; flowers large; fruit of many-seeded follicles. E. (Honor of 

Paeon, a Greek physician.) Paeonia brownii (PEONY) 

CC. Flowers irregular; leaves palmately-lobed or -cleft or -divided. 

P. Upper sepal spurred. DELPHINIUM (p. 98) 

PP. Upper sepal arched into a hood. ACONITUM (p. 99) 

BB. Flowers regular; petals 5, each with a long tubular spur; leaves ternately 

i-3-compound. AQUILEGIA (p. 98) 

AA. Stem leaves opposite or whorled. 

Q. Stem herbaceous, erect ; stem leaves in a single whorl of 2-3. 
R. Style short, glabrous or pubescent, not plumose. ANEMONE (p. 99) 

RR. Styles long, filiform, becoming plumose. W. C. E. (Perhaps diminutive 
of L. pulsare = to beat or pulse; application not clear.) 

Pulsatilla occidentalis (PASQUE FLOWER) 

QQ. Stem of ten woody, erect or viney; stem leaves more than 3, opposite; style 
plumose. CLEMATIS (p. 100) 


Herbs, glabrous. Leaves mostly basal, cordate or reniform. Flowers 
white or yellow or pink. Sepals petal-like, large, deciduous. Stamens 
many. Pistils 5-15, sessile. Marsh plants. (Gk. kalathos = a goblet; 
referring to the form of the flower.) 

A. Stem decumbent, several-leaved; flowers yellow; follicles sessile. W. Poi- 
sonous. C. palustrls 


AA. Stem erect, scapose or i-leaved; flowers white or purplish; follicles more or less 


B. Leaf blades wider than long, reniform-orbicular; sepals lanceolate, acute. W. 

C. E. C. leptosepala 

BB. Leaf blades longer than wide, roundish to oblong-cordate; sepals oblong to 

spatulate, obtuse. W. C. C. biflora 


Herbs, perennial, low, smooth. Leaves alternate, ternately 2-3- 
compound. Flowers white, solitary or clustered. Sepals 56, petal- 
like, regular, deciduous. Petals none or very small. Stamens 10-40. 
Follicles 2-20. Seeds 2 to several. (Gk. isopyron = the name of some 
plant of the genus Fumaria.) 

A. Stem 0.5-1 dm. high, i-flowered; sepals oblong, 6 mm. long; follicles short-stalked. 

W. I. stipitatum (SMALL FALSE RUE) 

AA. Stem 3-9 dm. high, several -flowered; sepals obovate, 8 mm. long; follicles 

sessile. W. I. hallii (TALL FALSE RUE) 


Herbs, perennial, low, glabrous; rootstalks creeping. Leaves ternately- 
compound. Flowers white, solitary or few, on naked scapes. Sepals 
5-7, petal-like, deciduous, white or greenish. Petals 5-6, small, linear, 
cucullate. Stamens 10-25. Follicles 3-12. (Gk. kopto = to cut; from 
the divided leaves.) 

A. Leaflets obscurely 3-lobed ; sepals oval or oblong, obtuse; petals enlarged at the sum- 
mit. W. C. E. C. trifolia 
AA. Leaflets rather deeply lobed or segmented; sepals linear or ligulate, attenuate; 

petals enlarged near the middle. 
B. Leaves ternate. 

C. All 3 leaflets long-petioluled; leaf-divisions obtuse, obtusely dentate; seed 

oblong. C. E. C. occidentalis 

CC. Middle leaflet long-petioluled, lateral short-petioluled; leaf-divisions acute, 

acutely dentate; seed oval. W. C. C. laciniata 

BB. Leaves pinnately s-foliolate. W. C. asplenifolia 


Herbs, perennial, tall. Leaves alternate, ternately 3-compound. Flowers 
small, white, in short terminal racemes. Sepals 5-6, nearly equal, petal- 
like. Petals 4-10 or none, less showy than the stamens. Stamens many. 
Stigma wide, 2-lobed, covering the carpel. Seeds many. (Gk. aktea = 
an old name for the Elder.) 

A. Leaf teeth sharp, acuminate. W. C. E. A. arguta 

AA. Leaf teeth rounded or mucronate. E. A. rubra 

F. & R. EL. FL. 7 



Herbs, perennial, tall. Leaves ternately compound, large. Flowers 
small, white, in panicled racemes. Sepals 4-6, falling soon after the flower 
opens. Petals 0-8. Stamens many. Follicles 1-8. Seeds many. 
(L. cimex = bug, fugere ;= to drive away; its odor drives insects away.) 

A. Petals none; staminodia 1-2 or more; follicles 1-3, not stalked. W. C. elata 
AA. Either petals or staminodia present, 1-5; follicles 3-5 or more, stalked. C. 

C. laciniata 


Herbs, perennial. Leaflets roundish, obtusely lobed. Flowers terminal, 
showy. Sepals 5, petal-like. Stamens many, outer long-exserted, inner 
merely thin scales. Follicles 5, sessile, pointed with the slender style. 
(L. aquila = an eagle ; referring to the talon-like spurs of the flowers.) 

A. Flowers red to yellow, pendulous when open. 

B. Petal blade from half to as long as the spur. W. C. E. A. formosa 
BB. Petal blade very short or none. W. A. truncata 

AA. Flowers white to bluish, erect or ascending when open. 

C. Flowers almost white, slightly bluish. E. A. coerulea (WHITE COLUMBINE) 
CC. Flowers bluish, somewhat yellowish on lobes and spurs. E. 

A. oreophila (BLUE COLUMBINE) 


Herbs, erect, annual or perennial. Leaves alternate. Flowers showy, 
in racemes or panicles. Sepals 5, usually colored and petal-like. Petals 
2 or 4, small ; 2 upper petals produced backward and inclosed in the sepal 
spur. Stamens many. Style persistent. Follicles 1-5, sessile. Seeds 
many. (Gk. delphin = a dolphin ; from a slight resemblance of the 
flower.) Many are poisonous to cattle. 

A. Flowers white or green or blue. 

B. Most of the pedicels shorter than the flowers and the fruit. 
C. Flowers blue or purplish. 
D. Roots fasciculate, elongate, not tuber-like. 
E. Leaves 5-7.5 cm. wide; stem 3-18 dm. high. 
F. Leaf segments laciniately many parted, the lobes linear. C. E. 

D. scopulorum 
FF. Leaf segments 5-9, the segments and their divisions oblong to obovate- 


G. Mature follicles viscid-pubescent. E. D. reticulatum 

GG. Mature follicles glabrous. (See F.) 

EE. Leaves 2.5-5 cm. wide; stem 3-6 dm. high. E. D. andersoni 

DD. Roots thickened, forming irregular tubers. 

H/ Plant pubescent throughout. E. D. simplex 

HH. Plant glabrous or nearly so. E. D. distichum 

CC. Flowers greenish. E. D. viridescens 

BB. Most of the pedicels longer than the flowers and the fruit. 
I. Mature follicles 6.5-12.5 mm. long. 
J. Stem i-y-flowered, only i-3-leaved. C. E. D. depauperatum 


JJ. Stems many-flowered, more than 3-leaved. 
K. Stem glabrous or nearly so; sepals f as long as the spur. W. C. E. 

D. columbianum 

KK. Stem puberulent or hirsute-pubescent below; sepals about as long as the 
spur. W. D - hesperium 

II. Mature follicles 13-25 mm. long. 

L. Plant pubescent, 1.5-6 dm. high. W. C. E. D. menziesii 

LL. Plant glabrous or only the inflorescence hairy. 

M. Plant 1.5-3 dm. high; leaves rarely over 2.5-5 cm. wide; leaf-segments 

obtuse. W. C. E. D. bicolor 

MM. Plant 6-18 dm. high; leaves often 10-15 cm. wide; leaf segments 

acute. W. E. D. trolliifolium (POISON LARK-SPUR) 

AA. Flowers scarlet or orange. 

N. Flowers pale yellow. E. D. xantholeucum 

NN. Flowers red. W. C. D. nudicaule 


Herbs, perennial, tall. Leaves alternate, palmately lobed. Flowers 
showy, in open racemes. Sepals 5, colored, petal-like. Petals 2-5 ; 2 
upper with long claw and spurlike blade concealed in the hood of the 
sepals; 3 lower small or obsolete. Follicles 3-5, sessile. Seeds many. 
(Said to be from the town Acone in Asia Minor, where first found.) 
Said to be poisonous. 

A. Stem stout, not viney; upper leaves without bulblets in their axils. C. E. 

A. columbianum 
AA. Stem weak, viney; upper leaves with bulblets in their axils. E. A. bulbosum 


Herbs, perennial, erect. Leaves lobed or divided or compound, all basal 
except those of the involucre. Sepals 4-20, colored and petal-like. Petals 
none. Stigma lateral. Akenes many, flat, pointed. (Gk. anemos = 
the wind; from the exposed habitats.) 

A. Akenes naked or merely pubescent. 
B. Involucre leaves petioled. 

C. Involucre leaves 3-5-foliolate; stems from a horizontal rhizome. 
D. Flowers 20-35 mm. wide, white. W. C. E. A. quinquefolia (WOOD ANEMONE) 
DD. Flowers 8-12 mm. wide. 

E. Sepals white or pale blue. W. A. lyallii 

EE. Sepals bright blue. C. E. A. oregana 

CC. Involucre leaves 2-3 times dissected; stems from an erect caudex. E. 

A. tetonensis 

BB. Involucre leaves sessile. 

F. Basal leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets ovate or rhombic-ovate; akenes wingless. 

W. C. A. deltoidea ^-LEAVED ANEMONE) 

FF. Basal leaves 3-parted or -divided; leaf lobes narrowly lanceolate or linear; 

akenes wing margined. E. A. narcissiflora 

AA. Akenes densely long-woolly. 

G. Plants glabrate; sepals not yellowish, blue. W. C. E. A. drummondii 

GG. Plants villous-pubescent; sepals yellowish, sometimes tinged with blue. W. E. 

A. multifida (CUT-LEAVED ANEMONE) 



Perennial, more or less woody, either climbing vines or else erect or 
ascending herbs. Leaves simple or compound; petioles slender, serving 
as tendrils. Sepals 4-5, petal-like. Petals none or shorter than the sepals. 
Stamens many. Akenes many; styles long, persistent. (Gk. klema 
= a tendril ; the petioles coil tendril-like.) 

A. Herbs, erect. 

B. Petiolules all straight; leaf segments linear to lanceolate. E. 

C. douglasii (SUGAR BOWLS) 

BB. Petiolules of some of the leaflets contorted as if for climbing; leaf segments 
oblong to ovate-lanceolate. E. C. scottii (SCOTT'S CLEMATIS) 

AA. Shrubby, climbing vines. 

C. Flowers white, cymose-paniculate; sepals 8-13 mm. long; leaves pinnately 

D. Akenes silky-pubescent with straight hairs. E. C. ligusticifolia (VIRGIN BOWER) 
DD. Akenes woolly-pubescent with crinkly hairs. E. C. suksdorfil 

CC. Flowers blue, solitary; sepals 25-50 mm. long; leaves i-2-ternate. 

E. Leaves ternate, entire or merely toothed. E. C. occidentalis 
EE. Leaves biternate, incisely toothed or lobed. C. E. C. alpina 


Herbs, annual, small. Leaves linear or linear-spatulate, basal. Flowers 
solitary, on simple scapes. Sepals 5-6, spurred at base. Petals o or 5-6, 
with long claws, with a pit at tip, greenish yellow. Stamens 5-25. Akenes 
many, apiculate or aristate, on a slender or conical receptacle. (Gk. 
mys = a mouse, oura = a tail; referring to the long tail-like head of 

A. Carpels prominently beaked; carpel spike 2-25 mm. long. 

B. Carpel spike sessile; petals always present; E. M. sessills 
BB. Carpel spike on a scape 2.5-5 cm. long; petals sometimes none. E. 

M. ape talus 
AA. Carpels obscurely beaked. 

C. Carpel spike 1-5 cm. long, 6 mm. or less thick; seed oblong. (See BB.) 
CC. Carpel spike shorter, thicker; seed oval. 

D. Not a salt-marsh plant. W. E. M. minimus 

DD. Salt-marsh plant, mainly maritime. W. M. major 


Herbs, annual or perennial, aquatic or subaquatic. Submerged leaves 
filiform-dissected; emersed leaves when present with flat blade; petioles 
with dilated stipule-like base. Peduncles solitary, opposite the leaves. 
Akenes not margined. (Gk. batrachos = a frog ; on account of the 
aquatic habitat.) 

A. Leaves mostly submerged; styles not longer than the ovary. W. C. E. 

B. aquatile (DITCH CROWFOOT) 
AA. Leaves nearly all floating; styles about 3 times as long as the ovary. W. 

B. lobbii 



Herbs, annual or perennial, mostly in wet places, sometimes aquatic. 
Leaves simple or compound. Sepals 5, deciduous. Petals as many as 
the sepals or more, conspicuous or minute, with a scale at the base of the 
blade. Stamens several to many. Akenes many; style minute or elon- 
gated. (Diminutive of L. rana = a frog ; on account of the common wet 

A. Plants aquatic or subaquatic; leaves divided into filiform segments when sub- 

B. Petals much exceeding the sepals; carpels margined toward the base with con- 
spicuous tumid border. E. R. delphinifolius (SWAMP BUTTERCUP) 

BB. Petals not much exceeding the sepals; carpels without distinct border. W. C. 
E. R. purshii (PURSH BUTTERCUP) 

AA. Plants terrestrial but often of very wet places; leaves never dissected into fili- 
form segments (except R. sceleratus) . 

C. Leaves entire to crenate or dentate, not lobed nor more deeply separated into 

D. Leaves ovate to cordate, coarsely crenulate to dentate. 

E. Leaves acute, dentate; mature akenes not veined on the faces. E. 

R. gormani 

EE. Leaves rounded at apex, crenate; mature akenes striate-veined on the faces. 
W. E. R. cymbalaria (SEASIDE BUTTERCUP) 

DD. Leaves either narrower or else merely crenulate or denticulate. 

F. Stem creeping, rooting from the joints. W. C. E. R. flammula (SPEARWORT) 
FF. Stem erect, not rooting from the joints. C. E. R. alismaefolius 

CC. Leaves or some of them lobed or yet more deeply separated into segments. 
G. Faces of the akenes smooth or merely pilose; mostly perennials. 
H. Plants glabrous or nearly so, 3 dm. or less high or long (except R. sceleralus 

and R. bongardii). 
I. Basal leaves toothed or entire or 2-7-lobed for less than the distance to the 

base; stem leaves 2-s-cleft or -parted. 

J. Basal leaves 2-4-toothed or -lobed; carpels forming a globose head. 
K. Blades of basal leaves widest above their middle; petals broadly obovate. 
E. R. glaberrimus 

KK. Blades of basal leaves widest below their middle; petals spatulate-oblong. 
E. R. jo vis 

JJ. Basal leaves s-g-lobed at apex, carpels forming an oblong or cylindric head. 
E. R. eximius 

n. Both basal and stem leaves parted or divided or compound. 
L. Leaves ternately divided; the segments linear to linear-spatulate, 1-2 mm. 
wide. E. R. triternatus 

LL. Leaves not so in every particular. 
M. Head of akenes globose. 
N. Beak of the akene hooked. 

O. Segments of basal leaves again deeply lobed. (See D.) 
OO. Segments of basal leaves not again lobed. E. R. jovis 

NN. Beak of the akene without hook. 
P. Petals 2-4 mm. long. W. E. Very poisonous to cattle. 

R. sceleratus (CURSED BUTTERCUP) 

PP. Petals 8-13 mm. long. W. C. R. suksdorfii 

MM. Head of akenes 2 or more times as long as wide. 


Q. Beak oi akeie not honked. 
H. Petals 2-4 aim, Jeng; auntial. (See P.) 

RR. Petals 6-13 mm. long; perennial. W. C. E. R. eschscholtzii 

QQ. Beak of akene hooked; petals 2-4 mm. long. C. E. R. verecundus 

HH. Plants pubescent or hairy, usually 3-5 dm. or more high or long (except 

R. parviflorus and R. cardiophyllus). 
S. Beak of akene not hooked. 
T. Petals 5, 2-4 mm. long, not exceeding the calyx; plant erect. W. E. 

R. pennsylvanicus (BRISTLY BUTTERCUP) 
XT. Petals 6 or more mm. long, exceeding the calyx. 
U. Petals 5; beak of akene less than 2 mm. long. 

V. Leaves not white-spotted; stem erect or ascending; plant without stolons. 

W. E. R. oreganus 

W. Leaves mostly white-spotted; stem prostrate; plant with stolons. W. 

UU. Petals 7-16; beak of akene 3-4 mm. long. 
W. Leaf segments linear to cuneate-obovate, 2-3-lobed or -toothed. W. E. 

R. orthorhynchus 

WW. Leaf segments oblong to ovate, 3-cleft or -parted and again 3-Q-toothed. 
E. R. platyphyllus 

SS. Beak of akene hooked. 
X. Petals 5. 

Y. Petals 4-6 mm. long, less than if times as long as the sepals. W. C. E. 


YY. Petals 6-15 mm. long, at least twice as long as the sepals. 
Z. Basal leaves coarsely crenate to 3-7 cleft, segments entire; stem leaves 
palmately many-cleft, segments incisely crenate. E. R. cardiophyllus 

ZZ. Basal leaves 3-parted, segments sometimes again 2-s-lobed; stem 
leaves 3-parted, segments entire or 2-3-lobed. E. R. ciliosus 

ZZZ. Basal leaves 3~s-cleft or -parted, segments 2-3-lobed; stem leaves 
3~S-parted or -divided; segments entire. W. 

R. occidentalis (PRAIRIE BUTTERCUP) 

XX. Petals 6-15. W. R. calif ornicus 

GG. Faces of akenes scabrous or muriculate or echinate; annuals. 
a. Akenes hispid with hooked hairs; beak of akene hooked; plant pubescent. E. 

R. hebecarpus (BUR-SEED BUTTERCUP) 
aa. Akenes muriculate. 

b. Plant villous or hirsute; leaves 3~s-parted or -divided; petals not longer 
than the sepals; beak of akene hooked. W. 


bb. Plant nearly glabrous; leaves 3-s-cleft; petals longer than the sepals; 
beak of akene not hooked. W. R. muricatus (ROUGH-SEEDED BUTTERCUP) 


Herbs, perennial, erect, tall, usually smooth. Leaves alternate. Flowers 
perfect or polygamous or dioecious, greenish white. Sepals 4-5. Stamens 
many, exserted. Akenes usually few, ribbed or veined. (Said to be from 
Gk. thallo = to become green ; referring to the young shoots.) 

A. Akene flat, two edged. 

B. Flowers perfect; akenes half rhombic-ovate. C. E. T. sparsiflorum 

BB. Flowers dioecious. 
C. Akenes lanceolate, acuminate. W. C. E. T. occidentale 


CC. Akenes ovate or oblong or orbicular, blunter. 

D. Akenes few to many, 4-6 mm. long, ovate; seed head usually not globular 

\V. E. T. fendleri 

DD. Akenes many, about 6 mm. long, obovate; seed head dense, globular. W. 

T. polycarpum 

AA. Akenes terete or but slightly flat, ovate to short-oblong. 

E. Leaves glabrous and glaucous; flowers dioecious. E. T. venulosum 

EE. Leaves obscurely glandular or waxy; flowers polygamous. E. 

T. purpurascens 


Herbs or shrubs, perennial. Leaves simple or compound, alter- 
nate, often all basal. Flowers perfect, solitary or in racemes. 
Sepals and petals generally imbricated in several sets. Stamens 
opposite the petals and as many as them; anthers extrorse, opening 
by valves. Pistil i; style short, ovary superior. Fruit a berry 
or capsule. Seeds 2 to many. 

A. Herbs ; leaves deciduous ; ternately i-3-compound, not spiny. 

B. Leaf only i ; leaflets 3 ; flowers in a spike ; sepals and petals none. W. C. 
(Gk. achlys = mist ; suggested by the flowers.) 

Achlys triphylla (SWEET-AFTER-DEATH) 

BB. Leaves more than i; leaflets more than 3 to a leaf; flowers in a panicle; 
sepals and petals present. VANCOUVERIA (p. 103) 

AA. Shrubs; leaves evergreen, pinnately i-compound, spiny-toothed at margin. 

BERBERIS (p. 103) 


Flowers white or yellow; panicle bracted. Sepals 6, obovate. Petals 
6, shorter than the sepals and opposite them, linear-spatulate. Fruit a 
capsule. Seeds many. (Honor of G. Vancouver, a Pacific explorer.) 

A. Leaves thin, membranous, not white margined. W. C. V. hexandra 

AA. Leaves thick, somewhat coriaceous, narrowly white margined. U. 

V. chrysantha 


Flowers yellow, in bracted racemes. Sepals 6-9, petal-like. Petals 6. 
Stamens 6 ; anthers opening by valves at the top. Pistil i ; stigma pel- 
tate. Fruit a berry. Seeds i to few. The roots are medicinal. (From 
Arabic berberys = the name for the fruit of these plants.) 

A. Leaves with the 3 chief veins from the base. W. C. E. 

AA. Leaves with but i vein from the base. 
B. Leaflets 3-7, pale green, dull; leaf teeth with weak spines. U. C. E. 


BB. Leaflets 5-11, bright green, shining; leaf teeth with strong spines. W. C. E. 




Shrubs or trees, aromatic. Leaves alternate, evergreen, shining, 
petioled, lanceolate-oblong; stipules none. Flowers small; yel- 
lowish green, in umbels or panicles. Perianth in 2 whorls, 6-parted. 
Stamens 9, on the perianth, distinct, often some modified. Ovary 
superior. Fruit a drupe. Seed i. U. (L. umbella = an umbel; 
referring to the flower arrangement.) 

Umbellularia califoraica (CALIFORNIA LAUREL) 


Herbs; juice milky or colored at least in the root. Leaves alter- 
nate or opposite or whorled; stipules none. Peduncles i -flowered. 
Flowers regular. Sepals 2-3. Petals 4-12 in 2 sets, imbricated 
in the bud. Stamens indefinite in number. Ovary superior. 
Fruit a capsule, i -celled; placentae parietal. Seeds many. 

A. Most of the leaves opposite or whorled, entire. 

B. Stamens 4 to many; filaments narrow; carpels 3-4; flowers white or yellow. 


BB. Stamens 6; filaments very wide; carpels 6-1 8; flowers yellow. U. (Gk. 
platys = flat, stemon = a stamen; the stamens have flat filaments.) 

Platystemon californica (LONG-LEAVED CREAM-CUPS) 
AA. Leaves alternate. 

C. Leaves lobed or dissected. 

D. Flowers bright yellow; ovary and capsule with 2 placentae; stigma composed 

of 4-6 lobes. ESCHSCHOLTZIA (p. 105) 

DD. Flowers red; ovary and capsule with many placentae; stigma a radiate 

disk. PAPAVER (p. 105) 

CC. Leaves entire; flowers yellow; ovary and capsule with 3 placentae; stigmas 3. 

E. (Honor of W. M. Canby, an American botanist.) Canbya aurea (CANBYA) 


Annual, low, slender. Flowers on long peduncles. Sepals 2-3, distinct. 
Petals 4-6, deciduous. Carpels united into a 3-angled to nearly terete 
ovary. Seed smooth, shining. (Gk. platys = flat ; + stigma ; some 
species have wide flat stigmas.) 

A. Plant glabrous; stem leafy; petals white, 2-4 mm. long; stamens 4-6. W. C. 

P. oreganum (WHITE CREAM-CUPS) 

AA. Plant somewhat villous; stem somewhat scapelike; petals yellow, 8-12 mm. 
long; stamens many. U. P. lineare (YELLOW CREAM-CUPS) 



Herbs, glabrous; juice bitter, of the stem colorless, of the root red or 
yellow. Leaves finely dissected. Sepals 2, united into a conical cap, 
detached and pushed off by the growth of the petals. Petals 4. Stamens 
many. Capsule elongated, strongly ro-veined, opening usually from the 
bottom up by 2 valves. Seeds many. (Honor of J. F. Eschscholtz, a 
German botanist.) 

A. Leaves ternately i-3-compound; flowers 2.5-10 cm. wide. 

B. Flowers 5-10 cm. wide; escaped from gardens. W. E. E. californica 

BB. Flowers 2.5-5 cm. wide; native. W. E. E. douglasii 

AA. Leaves pinnate, 5-foliolate; flowers 1-2.5 cm. wide. U. E. hypecoides 


Herbs, hispid or glaucous; sap milky, narcotic. Leaves alternate, 
lobed or dissected. Flowers nodding when in bud, showy. Sepals 2-3. 
Petals 4-6. Stamens many. Capsule globose to oblong, opening near 
the tip. Seeds many. (Said to be from Celtic papa = pap ; because 
poppy juice was formerly put into the food of children to make them sleep.) 

A. Leaves pinnately parted; herbage hairy, not glaucous. 

B. Capsule club-shaped, stiff-hairy; native. E. P. argemone (CLUB POPPY) 

BB. Capsule subglobose or top-shaped, glabrous; escaped from gardens. W. 

P. rhoeas (FIELD POPPY) 

AA. Leaves merely lobed; herbage glabrate, glaucous; escaped from gardens. W. 
This is the source of opium. P. somniferum (GARDEN POPPY) 


Herbs, tender; juice watery. Leaves compound, dissected, 
alternate. Flowers perfect, irregular. Sepals 2, small, hyaline. 
Petals 4, 1-2 of them spurred, somewhat united. Stamens 6, dia- 
delphous, opposite the outer petals. Ovary superior. Capsule 
i-celled; placentae 2, parietal. 

A. 2 outer (larger) petals alike, both spurred at base. DICENTRA (p. 105) 

AA. 2 outer (larger) petals unlike, only i spurred at base. CORYDALIS (p. 106) 


Perennial, acaulescent. Flowers in scapose racemes. Corolla cordate 
at base ; petals in 2 pairs ; outer pair spurred or saccate at base ; inner 
pair clawed, united above. Style slender. Capsule oblong or linear, 
2-valved. (Gk. dis = twice, kentron a spur ; from the 2-spurred co- 

A. Flowers in a raceme or panicle, white or pinkish. 
B. Corolla 2-spurred at base, white or pinkish. 


C. Spurs divergent; corolla 12-16 mm. long, white or pinkish. E. 

D. cucullaria (DUTCHMAN'S BREECHES) 
CC. Spurs not divergent; corolla 18-25 mm. long, white. U. 

BB. Corolla 2-saccate at base, pink. C. E. 

AA. Flowers in a thyrsus, pink. W. C. E. D. formosa 


Leaves basal or cauline. Flowers in racemes, terminal or opposite the 
leaves. One petal of. the outer pair spurred ; inner petals narrow. Cap- 
sule linear or oblong, 2-valved. (Gk. korydalos = the crested lark ; 
said to be suggested by the spurs.) 

A. Flowers pink or white, or light yellow with bluish tips; perennial; capsule oval 

or oblong. 

B. Leaves many-pinnatifid; flowers pink. W. C. scouleri (PINK CORYDALIS) 

BB. Leaves 2-3-pinnatifid; flowers salmon-pink or yellow. 

C. Leaves 3-pinnatifid; flowers salmon-pink; sepals hastate. E. C. hastatum 
CC. Leaves 2-pinnatifid; flowers yellow; sepals laciniate-reniform. E. 

C. cusickii 

AA. Flowers golden yellow; annual or biennial; capsule linear or nearly so. 
D. Capsule incurved-ascending; seed acute-margined. E. C. montana 

DD. Capsule spreading or pendulous; seed obtuse-margined. E. 



Herbs, rarely shrubby at base, with mustard or turnip taste. 
Leaves alternate. Flowers perfect, solitary or clustered. Sepals 4, 
deciduous. Petals 4, rarely none, alternate with the sepals. Sta- 
mens 6, tetradynamous, rarely only 2 or 4. Ovary 2-celled by a 
partition from one lateral placenta to the other, rarely only i -celled; 
style o-i. Fruit a pod, indehiscent or 2-valved from the base. 
Difficult family, and should not be attempted without flowers and 
mature pods. Some difficult genera are not carried to species. 
(F. & R. pp. 176-191.) 

A. Leaves palraately-compound or -lobed or -toothed. GROUP 1, L (p. 107) 

AA. Leaves not palmately veined, or if so merely serrate. 
B. Basal leaves 2-4.5 dm. long, not pinnately compound nor pinnatifid. 

GROUP 1, K (p. 107) 

BB. Basal leaves smaller, often pinnately compound or pinnatifid. 
C. Flowers solitary on a scape. GROUP 2, KK (p. 108) 

CC. Flowers in racemes or heads. 

D. Pod transversely divided into 2 terete or slightly flattened or angular seg- 
ments or joints, indehiscent, upper joint the larger; plant glabrous; leaves 
entire or sinuate-toothed. GROUP 1, Y (p. 107) 

DD. Pod or plant or leaves not as in D. 


E. Leaves awl-shaped; plants aquatic. GROUP 2, P (p. 108) 

EE. Leaves not awl-shaped; plants mostly terrestrial. 
F. Pod 3 or more times as long as wide including its stipe and beak. 

GROUP 1 (p. 107) 
FF. Pod less than 3 times as long as wide including its stipe and beak. 

GROUP 2 (p. 108) 

GROUP 1 (with long pods) 

A. Petals yellow. 

B. Pod borne on a stipe i cm. or more long. STANLEYA (p. no) 

BB. Pod without a stipe, or with a very short one. 
C. Leaves entire or merely serrate. 
D. Seeds in 2 rows in each cell of the pod; mature pod 3-14 mm. long. 

DRABA (p. 115) 
DD. Seeds in i row in each cell of the pod; mature pod 1.5-10 cm. long (or 

as short as i cm. in Erysimum cheiranthoides) . 

E. Pod torulose; valves veinless or faintly i -veined; petals 4-6 mm. long. 
E. (Crambe is another genus; Gk. schoenos = a reed; hence a reed-like 
Crambe.) Schoenocrambe linifolia (PLAINS MUSTARD) 

EE. Pod not torulose; valves strongly keeled by the prominent mid vein; petals 
6-25 mm. long (.except E. cheiranthoides). ERYSIMUM (p. 115) 

CC. At least some of the leaves lobed or pinnatifid or pinnately compound. 
F. Most of the leaves of the upper ^ of the stem entire or merely serrate. 
G. Pod not beaked, 5-12.5 cm. long when mature. (See EE.) 
GG. Pod beaked, 2 cm. or less long when mature. BRASSICA (p. 112) 

FF. Most of the leaves of the upper \ of the stem lobed or pinnatifid or pin- 
nately compound. 

H. Pod indehiscent; seeds 2-10. RAPHANUS (p. 112) 

HH. Pod dehiscent; seeds usually more numerous. 

I. Pod beakless or the beak very short and thick. 

J. Seeds flat; leaves lyrate-pinnatifid. BARBAREA (p. 112) 

JJ. Seeds not flat; leaves not or hardly lyrate-pinnatifid. 

K. Seeds in i row in each cell of the pod; valves of the pod mostly 3-veined; 

pubescence simple or none. SISYMBRIUM (p. in) 

KK. Seeds in 2 rows in each cell of the pod; valves of the pod i- veined ; 

pubescence often forked or stellate. RORIPA (p. 113) 

II. Pod with an abruptly slender or a flat beak at least | as long as the fertile 
portion. BRASSICA (p. 112) 

AA. Petals either none or of some color other than yellow. 
L. Leaves ternately- or palmately-lobed or -laciniate or -divided. 

DENTARIA (p. 114) 

LL. Leaves pinnately-toothed to -compound, or entire and pinnately-veined. 
M. Pod borne on a stipe i cm. or more long. STANLEYA (p. no) 

MM. Pod without a stipe or with a very short one. 
N. Some of the leaves pinnatifid. 
O. Stem leaves all pinnatifid. 

P. Pod indehiscent, not longitudinally 2-celled. RAPHANUS (p. 112) 

PP. Pod dehiscent, longitudinally 2-celled. 
Q. Pod terete, 1-16 mm. long; plants of ditches. RORIPA (p. 113) 


QQ. Pod flattened parallel to the partition, 12-31 mm. long; mostly not 

ditch plants. CARDAMINE (p. 113) 

Q Q Q. Pod flattened at right angles to the partition, 6-10 mm. long; plants 

of rather dry places. SMELOWSKIA (p. 115) 

OO. At least the leaves of the upper half of the stem entire or merely toothed 

or serrate. 

R. Pod 3 cm. or less long. ARABIS (p. 115) 

RR. Pod 3.5 cm. or more long. 

S. Petals undulate-crisped, but little longer than the sepals, the blade 
merely a wide extension of the claw. CAULANTHUS (p. no) 

SS. Petals plane, much longer than the sepals or else the blade well de- 
veloped. THELYPODIUM (p. no) 
NN. All of the leaves from entire to shallowly lobed, none pinnatifid. 
T. Mature pod 2.5 cm. or less long. 
U. Pod flattened parallel to the partition. 

V. Leaves all petioled; valves veinless. CARDAMINE (p. 113) 

W. Stem leaves sessile. 

W. Valves of the pod veinless; stem leaves not clasping. DRABA (p. 115) 
WW. Valves i-veined; stem leaves clasping in most species. 

ARABIS (p. 115) 

UU. Pod terete or angular or hardly flattened. 
X. Plant glabrous. 

Y. Pod 2-celled by a transverse constriction. mdehiscent. W. 
(Arabic name.) Cakile edentula (SEA ROCKET) 

YY. Pod 2-celled by a longitudinal wall, dehiscent. 


XX. Plant more or less pubescent with branched hairs. 
Z. Flowers in a globular head. C. (Honor of F. G. DeBray, a French 
count.) Braya humilis (LOW ROCK CRESS) 

ZZ. Flowers in an elongated raceme. W. (Gk. stenos = narrow, 
phragma = a partition; referring to the partition in the pod.) 

Stenophragma thaliana (MOUSE -EAR CRESS) 
TT. Mature pod more than 2.5 cm. long. 

a. Caudex stout and branching, the branches densely clothed with the 
persistent petioles of former seasons. E. (Honor of W. E. Parry, an 
English explorer.) Parrya menziesii 

aa. Caudex none or not so clothed. 

b. Petals flat; anthers short, subcordate. ARABIS (p. 115) 

bb. Petals twisted; anthers long, sagittate. STREPTANTHUS (p. in) 

GROUP 2 (with short pods) 
A. Flowers yellow. 

B. Pod flattened parallel to the partition. 

C. Pod orbicular; seeds 2 in each cell of the pod. W. E. (Gk. a = against, lyssa 
= madness; one was reputed a remedy for hydrophobia.) 

Alyssum alyssoides (YELLOW ALYSSUM) 

CC. Pod elliptic to oblong; seeds 3 or more in each cell. DRABA (p. 115) 

BB. Pod flattened at right angles to the partition. 


D. Leaves spatulate; cells of the pod much inflated and appearing like twin 
pods. PHYSARIA (p. 114) 

DD. Leaves sagittate-clasping; cells of the pod not inflated; pod obovoid. 

CAMELINA (p. 114) 
BBB. Pods terete. 

E. Pod indehiscent, globose, i-celled, i-2-seeded. E. (Honor of J. A. N. 
DeNesle, a French botanist.) Neslia paniculata 

EE. Pod dehiscent, oval to cylindric, 2-celled, several to many-seeded. 
F. Pod oval or obovate; leaves entire to wavy. LESQUERELLA (p. 114) 

FF. Pod oblong; in nearly all species some of the leaves pinnatifid. 

RORIPA (p. 113) 

AA. Flowers not yellow, petals often none. 
G. Pod indehiscent, orbicular, flattened, i -celled, i -seeded. 

H. Pubescence branched; pod not wing-margined. W. E. (Gk. a = with- 
out, thysanos = a fringe ; because the pod is not wing-margined.) 

Athysanus pusillus 

HH. Pubescence simple; pod wing- margined. THYSANOCARPUS (p. 115) 
GG. Pod dehiscent/various in form, often flattened, 2-celled, more than i-seeded. 

I. Pod terete. W. (L. cochlear a spoon; the leaves are somewhat spoon- 
shaped.) Cochlearia anglica (SPOON CRESS) 

II. Pod flattened parallel to the partition. 
J. Seeds 4 or more in each cell of the pod. 

K. Flowers solitary, on scapose stems; seed broadly winged. E. (Gk. 
platys = wide, sperma = a seed.) Platyspermum scapigerum 

KK. Flowers in racemes, often on scapose stems; seed wingless. 

DRABA (p. 115) 

JJ. Seed i in each cell of the pod. W. (L. lobulus a little lobe; probably 
referring to the 2-lobed hairs. Lobularia maritima (SWEET ALYSSUM) 

III. Pod flattened at right angles to the partition. 

L. Pod lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate. SMELOWSKIA (p. 115) 

LL. Pod shorter for its width. 

M. Valves of the pod obtusely keeled or rounded on the back. 
N. Pod warty-wrinkled or -tubercled, 2-seeded. CORONOPUS (p. in) 

NN. Pod not as above, many-seeded. 

O. Pod obcordate or triangular-obovate, much flattened, notched at apex. 
W. E. (Diminutive of L. capsa = a box; referring to the pod.) 

Capsella bursa-pastoris (SHEPHERD'S PURSE) 

OO. Pod ovate or elliptic, not much flattened, not notched at apex. 
P. Leaves entire, awl-shaped; aquatic; seeds few. W. E. (L. subula = 
an awl; from the leaves.) Subularia aquatica (WATER AWL WORT) 

PP. Leaves pinnatifid, not awl-shaped; terrestrial; seeds many. W. E. 
(Honor of a Miss Hutchins, an Irish botanist.) 

Hutchinsia procumbens 

MM. Valves of the pod acute- or wing-keeled. 
Q. Pod orbicular or obovate; cells i-2-seeded; petals often none. 

LEPIDIUM (p. in) 

QQ. Pod ovate or oblong; cells 2- to several-seeded; petals always present. 

THLASPI (p. in) 



Biennial or perennial, stout. Leaves entire or few-toothed. Flowers 
white or greenish or yellow, in elongated many-flowered racemes. Sepals 
long, spreading. Petals long, narrow, slender-clawed. Stigma sessile, 
entire. Pod terete or subterete, elongated. Seeds oblong, in i row in 
each cell. (Honor of E. Stanley, ex-president of the Linnaean Society.) 

A. Flowers white or greenish. 

B. Stem angular; buds scattered before opening; pedicels in fruit 6-8 mm. long. E. 

S. viridiflora 

BB. Stem terete; buds densely massed before opening; pedicels in fruit 12-15 mm. 

long. E. S. confertiflora 

AA. Flowers yellow. E. S. rara 


Annual or biennial, mostly coarse. Leaves entire or pinnatifid. Flowers 
white or purple, in long racemes. Petals plane. Stamens well exserted. 
Pod linear, terete or 4-angled, with short thick stipe. Seeds in i row. 
(Gk. thelys = female, pous = foot or stalk ; the pod is short-stalked.) 

A. Stem leaves cordate-clasping or auriculate at base, sessile. 
B. Pods 1.2-3.1 cm. long; petals 4-12 mm. long. 

C. Flowers in young clusters opening considerably below the bud-bearing apex 
of the flowering axis. 

D. Plant hispid near the base; buds and flowers ascending. E. T. howellii 
DD. Plant glabrous throughout; buds and flowers widely spreading. E. 

T. eucosmum 
CC. Flowers opening close to the summit of the cluster while it is still corymbose. 

E. Basal leaves spatulate; auricles of stem leaves obtuse. E. T. torulosum 
EE. Basal leaves lanceolate; auricles of stem leaves acute. T. flexuosum 

BB. Pods 5-7.5 cm. long; petals 14-17 mm. long. E. T. sagittatum 

AA. Stem leaves not cordate-clasping nor auriculate at base, either sessile by a narrow 

base or distinctly petioled. 

F. Annual; racemes loose; pods reflexed. W. E. T. lasiophyllum 

FF. Biennial; racemes dense; pods spreading. 

G. Leaf margin entire or wavy; pods about 2.5 cm. long. E. T. integrifolium 
GG. At least some of the leaves with margin serrate or more deeply lobed. 
H. Leaves coarsely dentate to entire; pedicels and rachis milky-white. E. 

T. milleflorum 
HH. Leaves laciniate to dentate; pedicels and rachis green. C. E. T. laciniatum 


Biennial or perennial, stout. Leaves mostly pinnatifid. Flowers dull- 
colored, in long racemes. Sepals large. Pod sessile, terete, with short 
thick stipe. Seeds in i row in each cell, oblong, flat. (Gk. kaulos = a 
stem, anthos = a flower; referring to the long claws of the petals.) 

A. Stem somewhat hairy; flowers ascending. E. C. pilosus 

AA. Stem glabrous. 

B. Flowers erect or ascending; sepals 10-12 mm. long. E. C. crassicaulis 

BB. Flowers horizontal or reflexed; sepals less than 10 mm. long. E. C. hastatus 



Branching. Flowers white or purple. Sepals usually colored. Stigma 
entire. Pod sessile, compressed or subterete ; valves i-veined. Seed 
flat, margined or winged. (Gk. streptos = twisted, anthos = a flower ; 
referring to the twisted petals.) Not common. 


Leaves small, dentate to pinnatifid. Flowers white, small, in terminal 
racemes. Petals rounded at apex, sometimes none. Stamens 2-6, free. 
Style o-i. Pod emarginate to deeply notched at the apex. Seed not 
winged. (Gk. lepidion = a little scale; from the form of the fruit.) Spe- 
cies too difficult for beginners. 


Annual or biennial, diffuse. Leaves mostly pinnatifid. Flowers small, 
whitish. Stamens 2-6. Stigma sessile. Pod small, sessile; valves oblong 
or subglobose, obtuse at each end. (Gk. korone = a crow, pous = foot ; 
referring to the deeply cleft leaves.) 

A. Pod notched at apex, rough-wrinkled. W. C. didymus 

AA. Pod not notched at apex, tubercled. W. C. procumbens 


Low, erect, glabrous. Leaves entire or dentate; at least the upper 
stem leaves auriculate and clasping. Flowers white or purplish. Petals 
obovate or oblanceolate. Stamens free. Style o-i. Seed wingless. 
(Gk. Maein = to crush ; on account of the flat pod.) 

A. Pod 8-12 mm. wide, broadly wing-margined, notched J-f its length; annual. 
W. E. T. arvense (FIELD PENNYCRESS) 

AA. Pod 2-5 mm. wide, hardly wing-margined or notched; perennial. C. E. 



Annual or biennial. Stamens free. Stigma simple or 2-lobed. Pod 
linear, terete or flat. Seeds many, in i or 2 rows in each cell, marginless. 
(The Greek name of some plant of this family.) 

A. Pubescence none or of simple hairs; stigma 2-lobed; pod firm. 

B. Pod appressed, awl-shaped, 1-1.5 cm. long. W. E. A bad weed. 

S. officinale (HEDGE MUSTARD) 
BB. Pod spreading, linear, 5-10 cm. long. W. E. A bad weed. 

S. altissimum (TUMBLING MUSTARD) 

AA. Pubescence of stellate or occasional forked hairs or reduced to minute granules; 
stigma entire; pod delicate. 

C. Seeds in 2 rows in each cell of the pod. E. S. canescens 
CC. Seeds in i row in each cell of the pod. 


D. Leaves i-2-pinnatifid, subglabrous; pod 0.6-1.5 cm. long. 
E. Pod 10-14 mm. long, spreading. W. E. 


EE. Pod 3-6 mm. long, on ascending pedicels. W. E. S. incanum 

DD. Leaves 3-pinnate, canescent; pod about 2 cm. long. E. 

S. sophia (FLIXWEED) 


Annual or biennial, coarse, erect. Basal leaves pinnatifid or lyrate; 
stem leaves dentate or nearly entire. Flowers large, in elongated racemes. 
Sepals equal or one pair saccate at base. Pod linear, sessile, terete, or some- 
what 4-sided, not stipitate. Seeds in i row, globose, not margined. 
(The Latin name of the Cabbage.) Cabbage, Cauliflower, Brussels Sprouts, 
Kohl-rabi, and Kale are merely cultivated varieties of Brassica oleracea. 

A. Stem leaves auriculate and clasping at the base. W. E. Cultivated for its 
root. B. campestris (TURNIP) 

AA. Stem leaves not auriculate nor clasping. 

B. Pod beak less than i as long as the fertile part, terete; pod glabrous. W. E. 


BB. Pod beak f-ij times as long as the fertile portion, flat or 2-edged. 
C. Pod beak somewhat 2-edged but not flat; pod glabrous. W. E. 

B. arvensis (WILD MUSTARD) 
CC. Pod beak flat; pod hairy. W. The ground seeds are table mustard. 



Annual or biennial, coarse. Leaves lyrate. Flowers showy. Petals 
large, clawed. Pod linear to lanceolate, distinctly beaked, transversely 
divided by false partitions, fleshy or corky. Seed spherical or nearly so. 
(Gk. ra = quickly, phaino = to appear; referring to the rapid germina- 

A. Flowers white or yellow; dry pod grooved lengthwise; seeds 2-10. E. 

R. raphanistrum (WILD RADISH) 

AA. Flowers white or pink or purple; dry pod not grooved lengthwise; seeds usually 
2-3. W. E. . R. sativus (GARDEN RADISH) 


Biennial or perennial, glabrous, stems angled. Leaves entire or pinnati- 
fid. Petals spatulate or clawed. Stamens free. Style short; stigma 
2-lobed. Pod linear, somewhat 4-angled. (Honor of St. Barbara, who 
used them medicinally.) 

A. Pod ascending, 2.5-3 cm. long; flowers racemose even when opening. E. 

B. vulgar is 

AA. Pod appressed, 1-1.5 cm. long; flowers corymbosely aggregated when opening. 
W. B. stricta 



Leaves simple to pinnately compound, rarely entire. Flowers white or 
yellow. Sepals greenish yellow. Petals short-clawed. Stamens 1-6. 
Stigma entire to 2-lobed. Pod terete or nearly so, not stipitate. Seeds 
minute, turgid, wingless, in 2 rows in each cell. (Said to be from Celtic 
ros = dew, ripa = a bank ; referring to the habitat of some species.) 

A. Flowers white; leaves either pinnately divided or else very large. 

B. Leaves all pinnate; basal leaves 7.5-15 cm. long; pod linear; roots with mild 
radish taste. W. E. Edible. R. nasturtium (WATER CRESS) 

BB. Rarely some of the lower leaves pinnate; basal leaves 45 cm. or less long; pod 
globular; roots with extremely strong radish taste. W. E. Ground roots com- 
monly eaten as a condiment. R. armorica (HORSE-RADISH) 
AA. Flowers yellow; leaves various, mostly pinnate, not extremely large. 

C. Perennial by running rhizomes; stems diffuse. E. 

CC. Annual or biennial, without rhizomes. 
D. Stems diffuse, branched from the base; pedicels 6-8 mm. long. 

E. Stem hispid; pod 3-5 mm. long. E. R. hispida (HAIRY CRESS) 
EE. Stem glabrous throughout or nearly so; pod 2-12 mm. long. W. E. 

R. palustris (MARSH CRESS) 
DD. Stems erect, simple below; pedicels 2-4 mm. long. 

F. Pod curved; leaf lobes acute. W. E. R. curvisiliqua (ARC CRESS) 
FF. Pod straight or nearly so; leaf lobes obtuse. E. R. obtusa (BLUNT CRESS) 


Annual or perennial. Leaves entire to pinnately compound. Flowers 
white or purple, in racemes or corymbs. Petals obovate to narrowly spat- 
ulate. Stamens 4 or 6. Pod linear, not stipitate. Seeds in i row in each 
cell, flat, marginless. (Gk. kardia = the heart, damao = to strengthen ; 
from the cordial properties of some.) 

A. Leaves all simple. 

B. Leaves ovate to elliptic, entire; alpine. C. * 

C. bellidifolia (ALPINE BITTER CRESS) 
BB. Leaves cordate to reniform, sinuate to toothed; subalpine. C. E. 

AA. Leaves or some of them pinnately compound. 

C. Basal leaves simple; stem-leaves 3-s-foliolate. W. C. E. 

CC. Basal leaves pinnately compound. 

D. Leaves all 3-foliolate or sometimes s-foliolate; leaflets coarsely 3-s-toothed. 

W. C. C. angulata (S-LEAVED BITTER CRESS) 

DD. Leaves 3-1 3-foliolate, only the smaller leaves if any 3-s-foliolate; leaflets 

coarsely toothed in some species. 
E. Leaves 7-i3-foliolate; leaflets of basal leaves orbicular. W. E. 

C. pratensis (CUCKOO FLOWER) 
EE. Leaves 3~7-foliolate. 

F. Flowers 2-3 mm. wide; leaflets petiolulate, lateral ones oblong. W. C. E. 

C. parviflora (SMALL BITTER CRESS) 
FF. Flowers 4-8 mm. wide. 
F. & R. EL. FL. 8 


G. Leaflets petiolulate, roundish; seeds 8-20. W. C. C. oligosperma 

GG. Leaflets of the stem leaves tending to be decurrent along the leaf axis, 
lateral ones oblong to oval; seeds 20-40. W. C. E. 



Perennial; rhizome horizontal; stems erect, leafless below. Leaves 
palmately laciniate or 3-divided, petioled. Flowers white or rose or purple, 
in corymbs or short racemes. Pod linear, straight, flat, without stipe, 
dehiscent. Seeds i row in each cell, flat, wingless. (L. dens = a tooth ; 
referring to the toothlike projections of the rootstock.) 

A. Stem leaves of 3 petiolulate leaflets; basal leaves entire or with 3 leaflets. U. 

D. californica 

AA. Stem leaves either not completely divided into leaflets or these not petiolulate. 
B. Basal leaves round-cordate, crenate or sinuate; racemes few-flowered. W. C. 


BB. Basal leaves parted or divided into 3-5 segments; racemes densely many- 
flowered. U. C. E. D. macrocarpa 


Perennial, low, stellate-hairy. Leaves mostly entire. Flowers in ter- 
minal racemes. Petals longer than the sepals. Style filiform. Pod mem- 
branous, stellate-pubescent; partition narrow; cells subglobose, several- 
seeded. Seed not margined. (Gk. physa = a bladder ; the pod is inflated.) 

A. Mature pod much inflated, 1.2-1.7 cm. wide, its upper sinus acute. E. 

P. didymocarpa 

AA. Mature pod but little inflated, its upper sinus shallow and rounded. 
B. Pedicels 6 mm. long; pod 5-8 mm. wide, its partition ovate. E. P. geyeri 

BB. Pedicels 12 mm. or more long; pod 10-20 mm. wide, its partition narrowly 
linear. E. P. oregana 


Annual or perennial, low. Leaves entire or repand-dentate. Petals 
spatulate to obovate, entire. Valves of pod veinless ; partition hyaline, 
veined from apex to middle. Seeds rounded, flat. (Diminutive, honor 
of L. Lesquereux, an American bryologist.) 

A. Hairs stellate; pod obovate, its cells 2-ovuled. E. L. douglasii 

AA. Hairs not stellate; pod oval, its cells 4-ovuled. E. L. occidentalis 


Annual, erect. Leaves entire to pinnatifid. Sepals somewhat colored. 
Petals spatulate to obovate, clawed. Valves of pod strongly convex; 
partition obovoid, persistent. Seeds in 2 rows in each cell, many, wingless. 
(Gk. chamai = a dwarf, linon = flax.) 

A. Pod 6-7 mm. wide; plant glabrous or nearly so. W. E. C. satlva 

AA. Pod 4-5 mm. wide; plant pubescent at least below. E. C. microcarpa 



Annual or perennial, low, tufted. Leaves simple, entire or toothed. 
Flowers white or yellow. Pod elliptic to linear, flat, dehiscent. Seeds 
wingless, in 2 rows in each cell. (Gk. drabe = biting ; referring to the 
sharp taste.) Too difficult for beginners. 


Annual, slender, erect, sparingly branched. Basal leaves toothed or 
pinna tifid. Flowers minute, white or rose, in long racemes. Pod plano- 
convex, i-celled, i-seeded. Seed somewhat flat, margined. (Gk. thy- 
sanos = a fringe, karpos = a fruit or body ; referring to the wing-margined 

A. Upper leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate; pod not radiately veined; pedicels 
4-8 mm. long. E. T. curvipes (FRINGED LACE POD) 

AA. Upper leaves ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong; pod radiately veined; pedicels 
8-17 mm. long. U. T. radians (RADIATE LACE POD) 


Herbs, perennial, low, caespitose ; pubescence simple or stellate. Leaves 
i-2-pinnatifid. Flowers small, white, in terminal racemes. Petals obovate 
or spatulate, longer than the sepals. Stigma sessile. Pod lanceolate or 
lance-oblong ; valves sharply keeled. Seeds few. (Evidently named after 
some Russian.) 

A. Capsule lanceolate, attenuate at each end; petals i$ times as long as the sepals. 

W. C. E. S. calycina 

AA. Capsule ovate, obtuse to subcordate at base, acute to attenuate at apex; "petals 

if times as long as the sepals. W. C. S. ovalis 

AAA. Capsule linear, obtuse at base, acuminate at apex; petals 3 times as long as 

the sepals. U. S. fremontii 


Herbs. Flowers white or purple, in bractless racemes. Sepals equal 
or the lateral ones saccate at base. Pod linear, flattened parallel to the 
partition. Seeds in 1-2 rows in each cell. (Named after Arabia, the 
country where first found.) Too difficult for beginners. 


More or less pubescent or hoary. Leaves simple. Stigma lobed. Pod 
linear. Seed oblong. (Gk. eryein = to draw blisters ; a property of 
the ground seeds of many plants of this family.) 

A. Petals 4-5 mm. long; pod 1-2 cm. long. E. 

E. cheiranthoides (TREACLE MUSTARD) 

AA. Petals 6-25 mm. long (unknown in E. arenicola) ; pod 2.5-10 cm. long. 
B. Pod terete or 4-angled. 


C. Petals 6-10 mm. long; pod 2.5-5 cm. long. E. 

E. parviflorum (SMALL WALL-FLOWER) 
CC. Petals 12-25 mm. long; pod 5-12.5 cm. long. 

D. Seed 4-angled. W. C. E. E. asperum 

DD. Seed lens-shaped. C. E. E. elatum 

BB. Pod flattened parallel to the partition. 

E. Biennial; stems simple, not caespitose. W. E. arenicola 

EE. Perennial; stems branched, caespitose. E. E. occidentale 


Annual herbs, often with a radish or turnip taste. Leaves alter- 
nate; ternately- or palmately-compound; stipules none. Flowers 
perfect, in racemes. Sepals 4-8. Petals 4 or rarely more. 
Stamens 4-32, not tetradynamous, on the receptacle. Ovary 
i-celled; placentae 2, parietal; style i. Fruit a pod, elliptic to 
linear, pedicelled. Seeds many. 

A. Stamens 6; pods pendulous, long stiped, opening from the base upward. 

CLEOME (p. 116) 

AA. Stamens 12-19; pods erect, unstiped; opening from the tip downward. 
E. (Gk. polys = many, anisos = not equal; referring to the stamens.) 

Polanisia trachysperma (CLAMMY-WEED) 


Erect, branched. Leaves palmately 3-8-foliolate. Pod opening from 
the base upward. (Gk. kleio = to close ; referring to the flower.) 

A. Leaflets 3; calyx 4-cleft; petals white to purplish. E. 

C. serrulata (STINKING CLOVER) 
AA. Leaflets 5 or on the upper leaves 3; calyx 4-cleft; petals yellow. E. 

AAA. Leaflets 3 ; calyx of 4 distinct sepals ; petals yellow. E. C. platycarpa 


Marsh herbs. Leaves all basal, tubular or pitcher-shaped. 
Flowers large, nodding, on scapes. Sepals 5, persistent. Petals 
5, hypogynous. Stamens many; anthers versatile. Ovary 5- 
celled; style lobed. Capsule loculicidal. Seeds many, densely 
soft-spiny. U. (Honor of Wm. Darlington, an American 
botanist.) Darlingtonia calif ornica (PITCHER PLANT) 


Herbs, biennial or perennial, glandular-pubescent, exuding a 
copious clear viscid liquid. Leaves mostly basal. Flowers perfect. 
Calyx persistent, 4-5 parted or segmented, Petals 5, distinct or 


nearly so. Stamens 4-20. Ovary free, globose or ovoid, 7-5- 
celled; styles 1-5, simple to 2-parted. Capsule many-seeded. 
Only the following genus. 


Plants of peat bogs, often reddish. Leaves with glandular- hairs which 
hold insects. Flowers in scapose racemes. (Gk. droseros = dewy ; 
the leaf glands exude drops of clear liquid.) 

A. Leaf blade not longer than wide, orbicular or transversely elliptic. W. E. 

D. rotundifolia (ROUND-LEAVED SUNDEW) 
AA. Leaf blade much longer than wide, linear to obovate-spatulate. C. 



Herbs, mostly fleshy. Leaves alternate or opposite, fleshy; 
stipules none. Flowers cymose, or rarely racemose or solitary, 
regular. Calyx persistent, mostly 4~5-parted or -lobed. Petals 
o or 4 or 5, distinct or somewhat united. Stamens as many or 
twice as many as the petals. Carpels 4-5, superior, distinct or 
united below. Fruit a follicle, i -celled, opening along the inner 
edge. Seeds minute, i to many, in 2 rows. 

A. Leaves opposite. 

B. Flowers solitary in the leaf axils; leaves 2-6 mm. long; petals greenish, not 
over 2 mm. long. TILLAEASTRUM (p. 117) 

BB. Flowers clustered in the leaf axils; leaves 1.5-3 mm. long; petals greenish, 
about i mm. long. U. C. (Honor of M. A. Tilli, an Italian botanist.) 

Tillaea erecta (PIGMY WEED) 

BBB. Flowers in terminal cymes; leaves 5-8 mm. long; petals yellow, about 6 mm. 
long. SEDUM (p. 118) 

AA. Leaves alternate. 

C. Petals more or less united. 

D. Corolla tubular, yellow, its lobes erect; basal leaves acute. U. (Honor of 
W. R. Dudley, an American botanist.) Dudleya farinosa 

DD. Corolla short-campanulate or rotate, yellow or red, its lobes spreading; 

basal leaves obtuse. GORMANIA (p. 118) 

CC. Petals distinct. SEDUM (p. 118) 


Annual, glabrous, small or minute ; sometimes aquatic. Leaves oppo- 
site, entire. Sepals mostly 4, distinct. Petals distinct or united at base. 
Carpels distinct. (Possibly Tillaea; + L. aster = a contemptuous dimin- 
utive suffix; from their lack of beauty.) 

A. Leaves obtuse; flowers sessile or nearly so. E. T. aquaticum 

AA. Leaves acute; with pedicels at least equal to the calyx. E. T. drummondii 



Low, Sedum-like, perennial by horizontal rootstocks. Leaves spatulate 
to orbicular; stem leaves smaller. Flowers cymose or thyrsoid. Stamens 
10, on the corolla. Carpels many-seeded, united below, erect or nearly 
so even in fruit. (Honor of M. W. Gorman, an American botanist.) 

A. Corolla red or pink. U. G. laxa 

AA. Corolla yellow. 
B. Corolla segments long-acuminate, much exceeding the filaments. W. C. E. 

G. oregana 

BB. Corolla segments acute to acuminate, little longer than the filaments. 
C. Leaves spatulate. E. G. watsoni 

CC. Leaves orbicular. E. G. debilis 


Flowers clustered ; clusters often i-sided. Calyx 4~5-lobed or -parted. 
Petals distinct or united at base, in ours yellow or purple. Stamens 8 or 
10. Carpels distinct or united at the very base, few- to many-seeded. 
(L. sedere = to sit; because the basal tuft of leaves is often flat on the 

A. Leaves spatulate or obovate, widest above their middle, flat. 

B. Flowers purple, dioecious; racemes not i-sided. C. E. S. integrifolium 

BB. Flowers yellow, perfect; racemes i-sided. 

C. Follicles erect or nearly so; leaves with line of pits underneath near margin. 
W. E. S. spathulifolium 

CC. Follicles widely spreading; leaves without a line of pits. 

D. Leaves of sterile shoots opposite; cyme branches short, mostly simple. W. C. 
E. S. divergens 

DD. Leaves alternate; cyme branches long, forked. 

E. Biennial, 2.5 dm. or less high, not forming offsets. C. S. leibergii 

EE. Perennial, i dm. or less high, forming offsets. W. S. woodii 

AA. Leaves linear to ovate, widest at or below their middle, terete or flat. 
F. Perennial; leaves linear to lanceolate. 
G. Leaves linear, not ciliate; follicles erect or nearly so. W. C. E. 

S. stenopetalum 

GG. Leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate; follicles widely spreading. 
H. Leaves not ciliate. W. C. E. S. douglasii 

HH. Lower leaves ciliate. U. S. ciliosum 

FF. Annual; leaves oblong or ovate-oblong, 5-12 mm. long, 2-4 mm. wide. W. 

S. radiatum 


Herbs, but sometimes shrubby. Leaves opposite or alternate, 
simple or compound, often palmately veined. Flowers mostly per- 
fect. Sepals 4-5, united to nearly distinct. Petals o or 4 or 5, 
alternate with the sepals. Stamens as many or twice as many as 
the sepals, rarely fewer, on the calyx. Ovary superior or partly injerior, 


i-3-celled or rarely more-celled ; placentae parietal or axial ; styles 
'distinct or somewhat united. Fruit a capsule; follicles usually 
separate at tip. Seeds several to many. 

A. Leaves centrally peltate, orbicular, g-i4-lobed, sharply serrate, 1-4 dm. wide. 
C. (Gk. pelte = a small shield, phyllon = a leaf; the leaves are peltate.) 

Peltiphyllum peltatum 
AA. Leaves not peltate. 
B. Leaves entire. 

C. Leaf blade widest below its middle; flowers solitary; staminodia present; 
carpels 3-4, united. PARNASSIA (p. 123) 

CC. Leaf blade widest at or above its middle; flowers not solitary; staminodia 
none; carpels 2, distinct at least above. SAXIFRAGA (p. 120) 

BB. Leaves not entire. 

D. Either ovary 2-celled and placentae axial or basal, or else carpels separate. 
E. Stamens 10; leaf blade widest above its middle or else narrower than ovate 

(except in many Saxifraga). 

F. Carpels distinct; leaves 2.5-15 cm. long, coriaceous, glabrous on both sides, 
coarsely serrate above the middle. W. C. (Gk. leptos = small, arren = 
male; probably referring to the i -celled anthers.) Leptarrhena pyrifolia 

FF. Carpels united at least below; leaves not as above in all points. 
G. Leaf blade jointed to the petiole. U. (Saxifraga is another genus of 
plants; Gk. opsis = form; hence Saxifraga-\ike.) Saxifragopsis fragarioides 
GG. Leaf blade not jointed to the petiole. SAXIFRAGA (p. 120) 

EE. Stamens 5; leaf blade either widest at or below its middle and ovate or 
wider, or else 3-5-foliolate. 

H. Ovary free from the calyx -tube, superior. C. (Honor of H. N. Bolander, 
an American botanist.) Bolandra oregana 

HH. Ovary partly united to the calyx tube, partly inferior. 

I. Rhizome short, bulblet-bearing, with terminal flower stalk. 

HEMIEVA (p. 120) 

II. Rhizome elongated and horizontal, without bulblets, with lateral flower 

J. Sepals imbricate; petals persistent; seed winged. W. E. (Honor 
of W. S. Sullivant, an American bryologist.) Sullivantia oregana 

JJ. Sepals valvate; petals deciduous; seed wingless. BOYKINIA (p. 120) 
DD. Ovary i -celled; placentae parietal or basal. 
K. Sepals 4; petals o or 4; stamens 3 or 8. 

L. Flowers solitary in the forks of the upper branches; petals none; stamens 8; 
leaves crenate but not lobed, never with young plants where blade joins 
petiole. W. C. (Gk. chrysos = gold, splen = the spleen; on account of 
some reputed medicinal property.) 

Chrysosplenium glechomaefolium (GOLDEN SAXIFRAGE) 

LL. Flowers in racemes; petals 4; stamens 3; leaves lobed, often with young 

plant where blade joins petiole. W. C. (Gk. leptos = slender; -j- axis; 

referring to the raceme.) Leptaxis menziesii (YOUTH-ON-AGE) 

KK. Sepals 5; petals 5; stamens 5 or 10. 

M. Carpels 3. LITHOPHRAGMA (p. 122) 


MM. Carpels 2. 
N. Inflorescence a panicle. 
O. Stamens 10; leaves 3-foliolate (except T. unifoliala). 

TIARELLA (p. 120) 

OO. Stamens 5; leaves simple. HEUCHERA (p. 121) 

NN. Inflorescence a raceme. 

P. Stamens 10. TELLIMA (p. 122) 

PP. Stamens 5. 

Q. Flowering branches leafless. MITELLA (p 122) 

QQ. Flowering branches leafy. 
R. Sepals triangular; petals pinnatifid. (See Q.) 
RR. Sepals ovate; petals entire to 3- or s-cleft at apex. (See P.) 


Perennial, glandular-pubescent. Flowers in panicles. Leaf blades reni- 
form, variously cleft or lobed, dentate or crenate. Calyx segments 5. 
Petals white or purple. Stamens 5, opposite the sepals. Ovary \ in- 
ferior, 2-celled; styles 2. Follicle beaks 2, divergent. Seeds shining. 
(Honor of a Dr. Boykin, of Georgia.) 

A. Petals white. 

B. Stipules none or mere bristles. W. C. B. major 

BB. Stipules wider, scarious or foliaceous. W. C. B. occidentalis 

AA. Petals dark purple. E. B. heucheriformis 


Perennials, glandular-puberulent. Basal leaves ternately divided or 
crenate only. Flowers in a panicle. Calyx segments 5. Petals obovate. 
Stamens 5, opposite the sepals. Ovary \-\ inferior, 2-celled; styles 
2. (Possibly Gk. hemi = , L. aemim = an age ; in reference to its half- 
perennial form, through budding in the leaf axils.) 

A. Petals white, with short claw; ovary % inferior. C. E. H. ranunculifolia 

AA. Petals violet, with long claw; ovary f inferior. E. H. violacea 


Herbs, but sometimes shrubby, chiefly perennial. Leaves alternate, 
simple. Flowers small, in clusters. Sepals 5. Petals on the calyx tube 
when there is one, entire or 2-toothed. Stamens 10. Carpels usually 2, 
rarely 3-6 ; ovary of as many cells ; fruit with as many beaks. (L. saxum 
= rock, frangere = to break ; because many species grow in rock clefts.) 
Species too difficult for beginners. (F. & R. pp. 197-199.) 


Perennial. Stipules present. Flowers in racemes or panicles. Calyx 
tube small, short-campanulate. Petals clawed or filiform. Stamens 


exserted. Ovary almost entirely superior; placentae 2, parietal but almost 
basal. Capsule membranous. (Diminutive of G. tiara = a mitre or 
turban ; from the form of the pistil.) 

A. Leaves merely 3 -5-lobed. C. E. T. unifoliata 

AA. Leaves with 3 leaflets. 

B. Leaflets coarsely dentate. W. C. T. trifoliata (3-LEAVED COOLWORT) 

BB. Leaflets deeply lobed or cleft. W. C. T. laciniata 


Perennial. Calyx tube various, often oblique ; segments often very 
unequal. Petals clawed. Ovary partly inferior; placentae 2, parietal; 
styles 2, distinct. Capsule 2-beaked. (Honor of J. H. Heucher, a German 

A. Flowers in a loose panicle. 
B. Calyx cup about as long as wide; stamens at least twice as long as the free calyx 


C. Lobes of the basal leaves acute. W. C. E. H. glabra 

CC. Lobes of the basal leaves rounded. 
D. Basal leaf blades decidedly longer than wide. 

E. Petioles and stems glabrous. C. H. glaberrima 

EE. Petioles and lower portion of the stems hairy. W. C. H. diversifolia 

DD. Basal leaf blades not or hardly longer than wide. W. C. E. H. micrantha 

BB. Calyx cup about twice as long as wide; stamens i$-2 times as long as the free 

calyx segments. 

F. Leaf blades cordate at base. E. H. rubescens 

FF. Leaf blades cuneate to rounded at base. E. H. cuneata 

AA. Flowers in a spike or a spikelike panicle. 

G. Stamens about equaling the free calyx segments; calyx cup hemispheric, densely 
hairy. W. H. pilosissima 

GG. Stamens much shorter than the free calyx segments; calyx cup various, some- 
times hairy. 
H. Calyx 3-5 mm. long, its cup saucer-shaped to shortly campanulate. 

I. Lobes of the leaf blades again 3-lobed. E. H. gracilis 

II. Lobes of the leaf blades not again lobed. 

J. Calyx campanulate, white or yellowish or pinkish, the free segments almost 


K. Plants glabrous or glandular-pubescent merely on scape and inflorescence. 
C. E. H. hallii 

KK. Plants more or less glandular-hirsute. (See NN.) 

JJ. Calyx saucer-shaped, green, the free segments spreading. E. H. parvifolia 
HH. Calyx 5-10 mm. long, its cup deeply campanulate to urn-shaped. 
L. Calyx greenish. 

M. Petioles and flowering branches villous. W. H. cylindrica 

MM. Petioles and flowering branches glabrous or minutely glandular-puberu- 
lent. E. H. tenuifolia 

LL. Calyx yellowish. 

N. Leaf lobes deep, broadly ovate. C. H. suksdorfii 

NN. Leaf lobes shallow, rounded. 

O. Leaf blade densely glandular-pubescent. C. E. H. ovalifolia 

OO. Leaf blade glabrous or hairy only on the veins or merely puberulent. E. 

H. glabella 



Perennial. Calyx cup campanulate to turbinate. Petals white or rose 
colored, clawed, entire to divided, much exceeding the sepals. Stamens 
10, included. Ovary \-\ inferior, placentae parietal ; styles 3, short. 
(Gk. lithos = a stone, phragma = an inclosure; probably referring to the 
hard capsule.) 

A. Calyx tube campanulate; ovary almost wholly superior. 

B. Petals about 12 mm. long; calyx tube more than 3 mm. wide. U. 

L. campanulata 
BB. Petals 2-7 mm. long; calyx tube less than 3 mm. wide. W. C. E. 

L. tenella (BABY'S BREATH) 
AA. Calyx tube turbinate or obconic; ovary J inferior. 

C. Stem 1-3 dm. high; leaf blades divided to near the base; calyx tube elongated- 
obconic. U. L. affinis 

CC. Stem 3-5 dm. high; leaf blades not divided to near the base; calyx tube short- 
turbinate. W. E. L. parviflora 


Perennial, hairy. Stipules small. Flowers in racemes. Calyx cup 
urn-shaped to deeply campanulate. Petals white or tinged with purple, 
spreading; claw cuneate; blade pinnately divided. Stamens 10, short, 
included. Ovary almost completely superior, placentae parietal; styles 
2. (An anagram of Mitella.) 

A. Only base of ovary adnate to calyx; calyx tube 8 mm. long; flowers not fragrant. 

W. C. T. grandiflora 

AA. Lower half of ovary adnate to calyx; calyx tube 6 mm. or less long. 

B. Flowers fragrant; petals pinnately divided, spreading; calyx cup 5-6 mm. 

long. W. T. odorata 

BB. Flowers not fragrant; petals 3~5-cleft at apex, or entire, erect; calyx cup 4 mm. 

long. W. C. E. T. racemosa 


Perennial, low, slender. Flowers small, variously clustered. Calyx 
short, 5-cleft. Petals slender. Stamens 5 or 10, included. Ovary from 
to wholly inferior; placentae 2, parietal or basal; styles 2, very short. 
Capsule short, 2-beaked, 2-valved at summit. (Diminutive of L. mitra = 
a mitre or cap ; referring to the form of the young pod.) 

A. Calyx green; petals pinnatifid. 

B. Ovary almost wholly superior; stigmas entire; stems i-3-leaved; plant with 

summer runners. W. C. E. M. caulescens 

BB. Ovary almost wholly inferior; stigmas 2-lobed; stems leafless; plant without 

summer runners. 

C. Stamens alternate with the sepals. W. C. E. M. pentandra 
CC. Stamens opposite the sepals. 

D. Leaves ovate-cordate. W. M ovalis 

DD. Leaves broadly reniform-cordate. C. M. brewer! 


AA. Calyx white; petals trifid or entire. 

E. Leaves angularly lobed; calyx lobes acute; petals 3-cleft. E. M. diversifolia 
EE. Leaves not angularly lobed; calyx lobes obtuse. 

F. Petals entire. E. M. micrantha 
FF. Petals 3-cleft or -parted. 

G. Raceme not secund; midveins of sepals branched; petals 3-cleft, their lobes 

not divaricate. W. C. E. M. trifida 

GG. Raceme secund; midveins of sepals simple; petals 3-parted, their lobes 

divaricate. E. M. stauropetala 


Glabrous, scapose. Leaves palmately veined, the basal petioled; stem 
leaf i, sessile. Calyx 5-lobed. Petals pale yellow or white. Fertile 
stamens 5, opposite the sepals; sterile stamens generally many, in a cluster 
at the base of each petal. Ovary superior or partly inferior, i-celled; 
placentae 4. (Named by the Greeks after Mt. Parnassus.) 

A. Leaves ovate to broadly oval; petals 16-20 mm. long, not fimbriolate at base; 

sterile stamens 20-24 i n a group. U. P. californica 

AA. Leaves cordate to reniform; petals 8-13 mm. long, very much fibriolate at 

base; sterile stamens 5-9 in a group. W. C. E. P. fimbriata 


Shrubs. Leaves opposite, simple, deciduous, 3-veined from the 
base; stipules none. Sepals 4-10, united below, in sterile flowers 
often conspicuously enlarged. Petals as many as the sepals. 
Stamens 8 to many; filaments long. Ovary wholly or partly inferior ; 
carpels 2-10, united. Capsule urn-shaped to conic or rarely globose. 
Seeds i to many in each carpel. 

A. Low, spreading or trailing; stamens 10-12 or fewer; ovule and seed only i in 
each carpel; capsule beakless. W. (Honor of A. W. Whipple, who commanded 
a survey on the Pacific coast.) Whipplea modesta (WHIPPLEA) 

AA. Tall, erect or spreading; stamens many; ovules and seeds many in each 
carpel; capsule beaked by the persistent style. PHILADELPHUS (p. 123) 


Leaves toothed to entire. Flowers perfect. Sepals 4-5, persistent. 
Petals white, conspicuous. Stamens 25-60. Ovary at least f inferior, 
3-5-celled. Capsule obovoid, somewhat woody or leathery, loculicidal. 
Seeds many. (Honor of King Ptolemy Philadelphus, of Egypt.) 

A. Lower leaf surface pubescent all over; styles united for f their length. W. C. 

P. gordonianus 

AA. Lower leaf surface pubescent only on the veins; styles united for | their length 
or rarely more. E. P. lewisii 



Shrubs; stems often prickly, sometimes with spines at base of 
petiole. Leaves alternate, simple, petioled, deciduous, palmately 
veined, dentate to lobed; stipules none or adnate to the petiole. 
Flowers bracted, small, regular, on short axillary branches, soli- 
tary or clustered. Sepals 4-5, distinct or united at base. Petals 
4-5, small, on the calyx. Stamens 4-5. Ovary inferior; style 
2-3-lobed. Fruit a berry. Seeds several to many. Only the 
following genus. 


(The Arabic name.) The fruits of many are edible. The cultivated 
gooseberry is R. oxyacanthoides . 

A. Stems not spiny nor prickly; pedicels jointed beneath the ovary, and fruit break- 
ing off at this point. (CURRANTS) 
B. Flowers yellow. 

C. Calyx segments 5-8 mm. long; calyx tube 2-3 times as long as wide; berry 
yellow or red or black. E. R. aureum (GOLDEN CURRANT) 

CC. Calyx segments 3 mm. long; sepals but very little united at base; berry red. 
C. E. R. erythrocarpum 

BB. Flowers white or green or red. 

D. Calyx tube saucer-shaped or almost none. 
E. Ovary glabrous; berry red, smooth. 

F. Sepals usually somewhat purplish; petals red; anther cells parallel. C. E. 


FF. Sepals and petals yellowish green; anther cells widely divergent. W. E. 
Cultivated for the fruit. R. vulgare (GARDEN RED CURRANT) 

EE. Ovary hairy or glandular; berry black, hairy or glandular. 

G. Sepals greenish; berry without a bloom. E. R. hudsonianum 
GG. Sepals white; berry with a bloom. 

H. Ovary with sessile glands; bracts of the inflorescence widest above their 

middle; leaves 5-20 cm. wide, 5-7-lobed. W. C. 

R. bracteosum (STINK CURRANT) 
HH. Ovary with stalked glands; bracts of the inflorescence widest below their 

middle; leaves 5-10 cm. wide, 3-s-lobed. 

I. Bracts about equaling the pedicels; racemes pendent. W. C. 

R. acerlfolium 

II. Bracts not more than \ the length of the pedicels; racemes erect or ascend- 
ing. W. C. R. laxlflorum 

DD. Calyx tube campanulate or cylindric. 
J. Racemes usually io-2o-flowered; sepals red or rose; anthers without an apical 


K. Leaves white-tomentose beneath; ovary with some curled whitish hairs 
among the gland hairs; calyx 8-12 mm. or less long. W. C. 


KK. Leaves not tomentose; ovary with gland hairs only; calyx 6 mm. long. 


JJ. Racemes usually fewer than lo-flowered; sepals white or greenish; anthers 

with a conspicuous cup-shaped apical gland. 

L. Leaves glandular-dotted; inflorescence pendulous; berry red or orange, 

glabrous or slightly glandular. E. R. cereum (SQUAW CURRANT) 

LL. Leaves densely glandular-pubescent; inflorescence spreading or ascending ; 

berry black, glandular. E. R. viscosissimum (STICKY CURRANT) 

AA. Some of the stems either spiny or prickly, or both. (GOOSEBERRIES) 

M. Flowers more than 4 in a cluster; calyx tube saucer-shaped; berries glandular. 

N. Leaves glabrous or nearly so; berries black; racemes mostly io-is-flowered. 

W. C. E. R. lacustre (SWAMP GOOSEBERRY) 

NN. Leaves pubescent or glandular; berries red; racemes mostly 3-7-flowered. E. 

R. lentum 

MM. Flowers 1-4 in a cluster; calyx tube campanulate or cylindric. 
O. Berry spiny or densely glandular-hairy or velvety-pubescent. 
P. Calyx green or yellow. 

Q. Berry velvety-pubescent; leaves 1-1.2 cm. wide; sepals yellow; petals 
yellow. U. R. velutlnum 

QQ. Berry bristly; leaves 2-6 cm. wide; sepals green; petals white. 
R. Stem trailing; leaves densely pubescent beneath; petiole not glandular ; 
anthers exserted. U. R. binominatum 

RR. Stem erect or ascending; leaves pubescent beneath on the veins only; 
petiole glandular; anthers included. C. E. R. watsonianum 

PP. Calyx purplish to red. 

S. Young twigs densely bristly. U. R. menziesii 

SS. Young twigs not or very scantily bristly. 

T. Anthers mucronate-tipped; ovary not glandular; berry 1-2 cm. long, 

bristly. U. R. roezli 

TT. Anthers not mucronate-tipped; ovary densely stalked-glandular; berry 

1-2 cm. long, densely glandular. W. C. R. lobbii (GUMMY GOOSEBERRY) 

TTT. Anthers not mucronate-tipped; ovary not glandular; berry 2.5 cm. or 

more long, fleshy-spiny. U. R. marshallii 

OO. Berries smooth. 

U. Calyx lobes longer than the tube; stamens decidedly longer than whole calyx. 
V. Calyx white, its segments narrowly lanceolate. E. R. niveum 

W. Calyx greenish purple, its segments oblong. W. C. E. R. divaricatum 

UU. Calyx lobes equal to or shorter than the tube. 

W. Bracts much shorter than the pedicels; stamens scarcely longer than the 

whole calyx. E. R. saxosum 

WW. Bracts nearly equaling the pedicels; stamens decidedly shorter than the 

whole calyx. 

X. Leaves 1.5-4 cm. wide; calyx tube slightly hairy, much longer than wide, 

cylindric; calyx segments 2-4 mm. long. E. R. cognatum 

XX. Leaves 3-7 cm. wide; calyx tube glabrous, hardly longer than wide, 

campanulate; calyx segments 5-8 mm. long. E. R. irriguum 


Herbs or shrubs. Leaves usually alternate; stipules usually 
present. Flowers solitary or clustered. Sepals normally 5, 
rarely 4 or 6-9, often united at base. Petals as many as the sepals, 
or none. Stamens i to many, usually on the calyx. Pistils i to 
many, usually wholly distinct. Ovary i -celled. Fruit akenes or 


follicles or drupelets. Seeds i to few. Most difficult groups have 
keys to genera only. (F. & R. pp. 206-221.) 

A. Shrubs. 

B. Leaves simple; plants not vines. 

C. Leaves 3-lobed at apex, fascicled, 6-25 mm. long, cuneate-obovate, white- 
tomentose beneath; plant 6-24 dm. high. E. (Honor of Otto Kuntze, a 
botanist.) Kunzia tridentata (ANTELOPE BRUSH) 

CC. Not as above in all points. 

D. Leaves pinnately veined, or i-veined, in some pinnately lobed. 
E. Petals none; styles very long and plumose in fruit; carpels i -seeded. 

CERCOCARPUS ( p. 131) 
EE. Petals present; styles not plumose in fruit; carpels 2- to several-seeded 

(except Holodiscus). 

F. Erect, branching; inflorescence not spicate; leaves not rosulate, not 

G. Leaves ovate, shallowly lobed; stamen disk adherent, entire; ovules 2; 

seed i. HOLODISCUS (p. 129) 

GG. Leaves mostly narrower than ovate, not lobed, but often coarsely 

serrate; stamen disk free at margin, not entire; ovules several; seeds 

several. SPIRAEA (p. 128) 

FF. Depressed-caespitose; inflorescence spicate; leaves rosulate, entire. 


DD. Leaves palmately veined, palmately-lobed or -cleft. 
H. Stems i dm. or less long, caespitose, creeping; plant alpine; leaves 3-parted 
and the segments again 2-4-lobed; flowers in racemes. W. C. (Honor of 
F. P. Lutke, a Russian explorer.) Lutkea pectinata (PARTRIDGE FOOT) 

HH. Stems 5-24 dm. high, not caespitose, erect or ascending or divaricate ; 
plant not alpine; leaves 3~5-lobed halfway to the midvein or shallower ; 
flowers in corymbs. PHYSOCARPUS (p. 128) 

BB. Either the leaves compound, or else the plants vines. 

I. Leaves compound; leaflets entire. 

J. Leaves 2 -pinnate; leaflets many; petals white; twigs stellate- tomen- 
tose. E. (Gk. chamai = on the ground, batis a starfish; referring to the 
low spreading form.) Chamaebatiaria millefolium 

JJ. Leaves i -pinnate; leaflets 5-7; petals yellow; twigs silky-villous. W. C. E. 
(Gk. dasys = shaggy, phoros = bearing; from the densely villous akenes.) 

Dasiphora fruticosa (SHRUB S-FINGER) 

II. Either leaves simple or leaflets not entire. 

K. Fruit of drupelets usually united to form a pulpy berry; shrubs or herbs, 

some trailing, smooth or prickly. RUBUS (p. 131) 

KK. Fruit a globular or flask-shaped fleshy receptacle containing a few bony 

akenes; shrubs, none trailing, prickly. ROSA (p. 132) 

AA. Herbs. 

L. Leaves simple, 4-12 mm. long, deeply 3-lobed, the lobes 2-4-cleft; plant 2.5-20 
cm. high; petals none. W. C. E. (Alkemelyeh is the Arabic name.) 

Alchemilla arvensis (LADY'S MANTLE) 
LL. Not as above in all characters; petals present at most. 


M. Leaves ternately many times compound. W. C. E. (L. aruncus = the 
beard of a goat; probably suggested by the long spikes of white flowers.) 

Aruncus aruncus (GOAT'S BEARD) 
MM. Leaves not ternate, or if so leaflets only 3. 
N. Leaves palmately- or ternately-veined or -lobed or -compound. 
O. Fruit of a few fleshy drupelets; vines, alpine; leaves scattered, alternate, 
distant. RUBUS (p. 131) 

OO. Fruit of dry akenes; not vines with scattered distant leaves. 
P. Leaves all 3-foliolate. 

Q. Flowers white; plants with runners which give rise to new plants at the 

joints; leaves all basal. FRAGARIA (p. 129) 

QQ. Flowers yellow; plants without runners; leaves usually not all 


R. Petals oblanceolate; stamens 5; style lateral; leaflets 6-25 mm. long, 

3-S-toothed at the apex. W. C. E. (Honor of R. Sibbald, a Scotch 

botanist.) Sibbaldia procumbens 

RR. Petals wider; stamens 20; style terminal or nearly so; leaflets often 

longer, usually with more teeth. (See PP.) 

PP. Leaves or some of them not 3-foliolate. POTENTILLA (p. 129) 

NN. At least the basal leaves pinnately- veined or -lobed or -compound. 
S. Leaves simple, coarsely toothed; alpine caespitose plant; petals 8-9. 
C. E. (Gk. dryad = a wood nymph; from the forest habitat.) 

Dryas octopetala (ALPINE AVENS) 

SS. Leaves either compound or deeply dissected; petals not 8-9. 
T. Calyx surrounded by a dense border of hooked prickles. W. (Gk. 
agros = a field, monos alone; the chief of the field, from its medicinal prop- 
erties.) Agrimonia gyrosepala (AGRIMONY) 
TT. Calyx not surrounded by prickles. 

U. Flowers in a dense spike; petals none; calyx segments 4; stamens 2- 
12; calyx constricted over the fruit. SANGUISORBA (p. 130) 

UU. Flowers not in spikes; petals present; calyx segments rarely 4; sta- 
mens often more; calyx not constricted over the fruit. 
V. Style terminal. 

W. Style jointed to the ovary, deciduous; leaves pinnately compound. 
X. Stamens very near the base of the receptacle cup, on a ringlike 
thickening. POTENTILLA (p. 129) 

XX. Stamens well up on the receptacle cup, ringlike thickening none. 

HORKELIA (p. 129) 
WW. Style not jointed to the ovary, at least the lower portion persistent; 

basal leaves mostly lyrate-pinnatifid. 
Y. Petals yellow or purplish. 

Z. Calyx segments reflexed; styles jointed above the middle, the top 
deciduous and leaving a hook, not plumose. GEUM (p. 130) 

ZZ. Calyx segments erect or spreading; style not jointed, wholly 
persistent, hence not hooked, sometimes plumose. 

SIEVERSIA (p. 131) 

YY. Petals white. U. (L.filum = a thread, pendulus = pendulous . 
said to refer to the roots.) Filipendula occidentalis 

VV. Style lateral. 


a. Petals dark purple; receptacle spongy. W. E. - (Gk. komaros = 
the Arbutus, from the resemblance of the fruits.) 

Comarum palustre (PURPLE MARSH-LOCKS) 
aa. Petals yellow or white; receptacle dry. 

b. Leaflets opposite; style attached near the base of the ovary ; flowers 

in cymes; plant without stolons. DRYMOCALLIS (p. 130) 

bb. Leaflets not opposite; style attached near the middle of the ovary; 

flowers solitary; plant with stolons. ARGENTINA (p. 129) 


Bark shreddy. Leaves alternate. Calyx segments 5, persistent, stel- 
late-hairy at least inside. Petals white or rarely pinkish. Stamens 20-40. 
Pistils 1-5 ; styles terminal. Follicles somewhat united at base. Seeds 2-4. 
(Gk. physa = a bellows, carpos = fruit; from the inflated follicles.) 

A. Carpels usually 5, 8-10 mm. long; shrub 7 m. or less high. W. C. E. 

P. capitatus (TALL NINEBARK) 

AA. Carpels usually 1-2, 3-5 mm. long; shrub 2 m. or less high. 
B. Inflorescence bracts lanceolate; follicles inflated. E. P. monogynus 

BB. Inflorescence bracts spatulate or cuneate; follicles laterally flat. E. 

P. malvaceus 


Leaves evergreen or deciduous ; stipules none. Flowers perfect, in racemes 
or corymbs or panicles. Calyx segments 5. Petals white or red. Stamens 
15-70. Pistils 3-8, usually 5, distinct; styles terminal. Seeds 4. 
(Gk. speiran = to twist ; some species have twisted follicles.) 

A. Flowers red. 

B. Inflorescence flat-topped. W. C. E. S. densiflora (FLAT RED SPIRAEA) 

BB. Inflorescence not flat-topped. 
C. Under side of leaves glabrous. 

D. Twigs villous-puberulent. W. C. E. S. menziesii 

DD. Twigs glabrous. E. S. roseata 

CC. Under side of leaves tomentose. W. S. douglasii (HARDBACK) 

AA. Flowers white. 

E. Inflorescence flat-topped. W. C. E. S. corymbosa (FLAT WHITE SPIRAEA) 

EE. Inflorescence not flat-topped. 

F. Lower leaf surface tomentose. C. S. tomentulosa 

FF. Lower leaf surface not tomentose. C. E. S. pyramldata (PYRAMID BUSH) 


Low, on rocks. Leaves oblanceolate or spatulate, coriaceous, evergreen. 
Flowers in racemes ; racemes rarely compound. Calyx segments 5. Petals 
white. Stamens about 20. Pistils 3-5 ; ovary and lower part of style 
very hairy ; style terminal. Seeds 2-4. (Gk. petros = a stone, phyton = 
a plant ; referring to their rock habitat.) 

A. Leaves 3-veined. 
B. Sepals obtuse; petals obovate or oval; leaves glabrous or nearly so. W. 

P. hendersoni 


BB. Sepals acuminate; petals spatulate or oblanceolate; leaves canescent. E. 

P. cinerascens 
AA. Leaves i-veined. C. E. P. caespitosum 


Leaves deciduous; stipules none. Flowers in terminal panicles, many. 
Sepals 5, 3-veined. Petals white or pinkish. Stamens about 20. Akenes 
long-hairy. (Gk. holos = whole, diskos - a disk ; the disk of the re- 
ceptacle is entire-margined.) 

A. Leaves acute to truncate at base. W. C. E. H. discolor 

AA. Leaves cuneate at base. U. C. H. glabrescens 


Perennial, with scaly rootstocks or caudices. Leaves pinnately compound. 
Flowers in cymes or panicles. Calyx segments 5. Petals 5, white or rose 
or yellow. Stamens 5-20, in the throat of the calyx tube. Filaments 
filiform or somewhat petal-like. Receptacle flat to conic. Pistils 3 to 
many ; styles long. (Meaning undetermined.) Species too difficult for 


Leaves pinnately or digitately or ternately compound. Calyx segments 
4-5. Petals 5, obcordate to round, yellow or white or dark purple. Stamens 
usually 20, in 3 series of 10 + 5 + 5 respectively, near the base of the calyx 
cup ; style near apex of ovary, jointed to it, deciduous. (Diminutive 
of L. potens = powerful; first applied to Argentina anserina, which was 
thought to be medicinal.) Species too difficult for beginners. 


Perennial, with long runners. Leaves interrupted-pinnate; leaflets 
many. Flowers on long peduncles, in the axils of the basal leaves. Calyx 
segments 5 or more. Petals elliptic to orbicular. Stamens 20-25, in 3 
series, near base of calyx. Receptacle hemispheric. Pistils very many; 
style glabrous. (L. argentina = of silver; from the silvery-hairy leaves.) 

A. Leaves silvery on both sides. W. C. E. A. argentea 

AA. Leaves silvery beneath, green above. 
B. Stem and petiole and leaf rachis densely hairy. W. E. 

A. anserina (GOOSE TANSY) 
BB. Stem and petiole and leaf rachis glabrous or slightly appressed-hairy. W. 

A. pacifica 

Perennial, acaulescent. Leaves ternate. Calyx segments 5. Petals 
white, obovate to orbicular. Stamens about 20, in 3 series, sometimes 
abortive, closely surrounding the base of the receptacle. Receptacle hemi- 
spheric or obconic, enlarged and red in fruit, very juicy, edible. Akenes 

F. & R. EL. FL. 9 


very many ; style lateral. (L. fragans = fragrant ; from the odor of the 
fruit.) Fruits edible. 

A. Pubescence of the scapes and petioles spreading, generally at right angles or some- 
what reflexed. 
B. Leaves densely silky beneath; akenes in shallow pits. 

C. Terminal leaflet plainly petiolulate; sepals acute or mucronate; often culti- 
vated. W. F: chlloensis 

CC. Leaflets all subsessile; sepals acuminate. W. C. E. F. cuneifolia 

BB. Leaves slightly silky beneath, glabrate when old. 

D. Leaflets subsessile; akenes not in pits, superficial. W. C. E. F. americana 
DD. Leaflets petiolulate; akenes in pits. 

E. Plant more or less glaucous; petals oval or orbicular, twice as long as the 


F. Sepals and bractlets elliptic. E. F. truncata 

FF. Sepals and bractlets lanceolate. E. F. platypetala 

EE. Plant not glaucous; petals roundish-obovate, ij times as long as the sepals. 

W. F. grandiflora 

AA. Pubescence of the scapes and petioles appressed or ascending; akenes in 


G. Flowers 2-3.5 cm. wide; leaves finely tomentulose beneath. (See C.) 
GG. Flowers 1-2 cm. wide; leaves not tomentulose beneath. E. F. ovalis 


Perennial. Leaves pinnate, glandular. Flowers in cymes. Calyx 
segments 5. Petals obovate to orbicular, yellow or white. Stamens 20-30, 
in 5 clusters. Receptacle hemispheric. Pistils many. (Gk. drymos = a 
brushwood, kallos = beauty; from their growth in open woods.) Too 
difficult for beginners. 


Leaves pinnate; leaflets petiolulate; stipules none. Spikes long-ped- 
uncled. Calyx segments petal-like. Pistils 1-3 ; style terminal. (L. 
sanguis = blood ; sorbere = to absorb ; from reputed styptic proper- 

A. Leaflets toothed. 

B. Calyx segments white or slightly tinged with purple. W. E. S. sitchensis 

BB. Calyx segments dark purple. 
C. Stamens 2-3 times as long as the calyx segments; filaments wide. C. 

S. menziesii 

CC. Stamens hardly if at all longer than the calyx segments; filaments filiform. 

C. S. microcephala 

AA. Leaflets pectinate-pinnatifid. E. S. annua 


Perennial. Leaves mostly basal ; basal leaves lyrate or pinnate ; stem 
leaves lobed or compound ; stipules adnate. Flowers solitary or in corymbs. 
Calyx deeply 5-cleft. Stamens many. Receptacle dry, conic or clavate. 
Pistils many. (Gk. geyo = to taste well ; some have edible roots.) 


A. Leaf segments and their lobes acute; terminal leaflet cuneate-obovate; receptacle 
downy-pubescent. E. G. strictum (YELLOW AVENS) 

AA. Leaf segments and their lobes obtuse; terminal leaflet broadly cordate; recep- 
tacle nearly naked. W. C. E. G. macrophyllum (LARGE-LEAVED AVENS) 


Perennial; stem simple. Leaves mostly basal; basal leaves pinnate. 
Flowers in terminal cymes. Calyx deeply 5-cleft. Stamens many. Re- 
ceptacle dry. Pistils many; style straight. (Honor of J. Sievers, a 
Russian traveler.) 

A. Flowers pale purplish; style plumose; plant hairy; stem leaves not pinnatifid. 
W. C. E. S. ciliata 

AA. Flowers yellow; style glabrous; plant glabrous or nearly so; stem leaves pinnati- 
fid. E. S. rossii 


Shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate, evergreen; stipules small, 
wholly adnate. Flowers axillary, solitary. Calyx tube long and pedicel- 
like; segments 5, short, deciduous. Stamens 15-25, on the calyx. Pistil i, 
simple, free, erect; style terminal, villous. Akene linear-oblong, terete, 
villous. (Gk. kerkos = a tail, karpos = a fruit ; referring to the long- 
tailed akenes.) 

A. Leaves resinous, i-veined, margin revolute. 

B. Shrub; leaves linear, 2-4 cm. long; calyx lobes not half as long as the throat; 

tails of the akenes 2.5-5 cm. long. E. C. intricatus 

BB. Shrub or small tree; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 4-6 cm. long; calyx lobes as 

long as the throat; tails of the akenes 5-7.5 cm. long. E. C. ledifolius 

AA. Leaves not resinous, pinnately veined, margin not revolute. U. E. 

C. parvifolius 


Shrubs or herbs, erect or trailing, 'often prickly. Leaves simple or pin- 
nately 3-7-foliolate ; stipules adnate. Flowers white or purple. Calyx 
5-lobed, persistent. Petals conspicuous. Stamens many on the calyx. 
Carpels few to many, becoming drupelets ; style nearly terminal, deciduous. 
Drupelets usually adhering into a compound berry. (L. ruber = red ; 
from the fruit ; hence L. rubus = a bramble.) Fruits edible. 

A. Leaves 3-s-lobed or rarely -parted. 

B. Stem erect, 9-24 dm. high; shrub, not prickly; leaves 10-30 cm. long; fruit of 

many drupelets. W. C. E. R. parviflorus (THIMBLEBERRY) 

BB. Stem trailing, 0.5-12 dm. long; leaves 2.5-7.5 cm. long; fruit of 1-5 drupelets. 

C. Vine shrubby, with small recurved prickles; leaves shining, veins and petioles 

with recurved prickles beneath; carpels glabrous. W. C. E. R. nivalis 

CC. Vine herbaceous, without prickles; leaves not shining, not prickly; carpels 

tomentose. W. C. R. lasiococcus 

AA. Leaves 3-s-foliolate. 

D. Herbaceous vine, trailing, without prickles. W. C. E. R. pedatus 


DD. Shrubs, either trailing vines or more erect plants, prickly. 
E. Flowers red; fruit yellow or garnet; spreading bush, not even the longer branches 
trailing. W. C. R. spectabilis (SALMONBERRY) 

EE. Flowers white; fruit black; most of the species with the longest branches 

inclined to trail, or all trailing. 

F. Leaves much dissected into 7 to many small segments, evergreen. W. Some- 
times cultivated. R. laciniatus (EVERGREEN BLACKBERRY) 
FF. Leaves with 3-5 leaflets, not evergreen (except R. ur sinus west of the Cas- 

G. Trailing vine; carpels not pulling off from the receptacle in fruit (Black- 
berry). W. C. E. R. ursinus (TRAILING BLACKBERRY) 
GG. Stems erect or ascending, but the long branches often somewhat trailing; 

carpels pulling off from the receptacle in fruit (Raspberry). 

H. Stems not glaucous; fruit red. E. R. strigosus (WILD RED RASPBERRY) 
HH. Stems glaucous; fruit black. 
I. Leaves glaucous beneath. W. C. E. Sometimes cultivated. 

R. leucodermis (BLACKCAP) 
n. Leaves green beneath. E. R. hesperius 


Leaves odd-pinnate; stipules adnate. Flowers large. Calyx urn- 
shaped; the tube contracted at the mouth, at length fleshy or berrylike, 
inclosing the pistils. Pistils many. Akenes crustaceous or bony. 
(Latin name.) Many cultivated varieties. 

A. Calyx tube and fruit prickly. 

B. Flowers solitary at the ends of short leafy branches; fruit densely spiny. E. 

R. macdougali 

BB. Flowers in corymbs; fruit not spiny. U. R. spithamaea 

AA. Calyx tube and fruit not prickly. 

C. Calyx segments deciduous when fruit is mature; leaflets doubly serrate. 

D. Sepals pinnatifid; leaflets densely resinous beneath, aromatic; spines recurved. 
W. R. rubiginosa (SWEETBRIER) 

DD. Sepals not pinnatifid; leaflets not resinous beneath, not aromatic; spines 
straight. W. C. E. R. gymnocarpa (NAKED ROSE) 

CC. Calyx segments persistent. 

E. Infra-stipular spines none. E. R. sayi (PRICKLY ROSE) 
EE. Infra-stipular spines usually present. 

F. Flowers solitary; rachis of leaves not prickly nor pubescent. W. C. E. 

R. nutkana (NUTKA ROSE) 

FF. Flowers in corymbs, rarely solitary; rachis of leaves prickly or pubescent. 
W. C. R. pisocarpa (BUNCHED ROSE) 


Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple or odd-pinnate; 
stipules caducous, free or nearly so. Flowers perfect, regular, 
white or reddish, clustered. Calyx segments 5. Petals 5, on the 
calyx cup. Stamens mostly 20, on the calyx. Ovary inferior, 
compound; carpels 2-5; styles as many as the carpels. Fruit 


A. Leaves pinnately compound. SORBUS (p. 133) 

AA. Leaves simple. 

B. Leaves linear-lanceolate to oblanceolate; plant 1-2 m. high; flowers -1-2 in 
a cluster. E. (Apparently. Gk. per = through, a = without, phyllon = a 
leaf; hence through-absence-of-leaves.) Peraphyllum ramosissimum 

BB. Leaves wider; plant usually taller; flower clusters usually larger. 
C. Smaller branches with stout thorns; flowers in corymbs; fruit with stony 
carpels. CRATAEGUS (p. 134) 

CC. Plant without thorns; fruit with papery carpels. 

D. Flowers in corymbs; fruit yellowish green to red, having the appearance 

of an apple. PYRUS (p. 133) 

DD. Flowers in racemes; fruit black or purplish, having the appearance of a 

berry. AMELANCHIER (p. 133) 


Shrubs or small trees. Leaves odd-pinnate, deciduous. Flowers small, 
in terminal compound cymes. Carpels 3-5, coriaceous, i-seeded. Fruit 
small, globose or pyriform. (A Latin name for the service tree, Pyrus 
domes tica.) 

A. Leaflets dull, serrate only near the apex; fruit purple, glaucous. W. C. E. 

S. occidentalis 
AA. Leaflets shining, serrate from near the base; fruit coral-red. W. C. E. 

S. sitchensis 


Trees, small. Leaves deciduous, more or less serrate, sometimes some- 
what 3-lobed in ours. Flowers white to pink. Calyx tube urn-shaped. 
Styles 5, more or less united at base. Carpels 5, 2 -seeded, wholly covered 
by the adnate calyx tube. Fruit globose or oblong or pyriform, depressed 
at both ends, acid. (The Latin name of the pear.) 

A. Fruit widest between the middle and the stem end, without grit cells. 
B. Leaves often somewhat 3-lobed, white-pubescent beneath; fruit 8-12 mm. wide, 
15-20 mm. long. W. P. rivularis (WILD CRAB APPLE) 

BB. Leaves not lobed; fruit larger. 

C. Leaves glabrate; calyx lobes glabrate outside; fruit 3 cm. or less wide. W. E. 

P. baccata (SIBERIAN CRAB) 

CC. Leaves white-pubescent beneath; calyx lobes white-pubescent outside; fruit 

mostly larger. W. E. Many varieties. P. malus (CULTIVATED APPLE) 

AA. Fruit widest between the middle and the flower end, with grit cells. W. E. 

Many varieties. P. communis (CULTIVATED PEAR) 


Shrubs or small trees. Flowers white, in small racemes. Styles 3-5. 
Carpels 3-5, incompletely 2-celled by a partition from the back, i -seeded, 
wholly covered by the adherent calyx. Fruit small, berry-like, black or 
purplish, edible, sweet. (The French name for a cultivated Hawthorn.) 
Fruit edible. 


A. Twigs pale or ashy. 

B. Leaves cuneate at base. E. A. cuneata 

BB. Leaves rounded at base. 

C. Calyx lobes erect. U. A. pallida 
CC. Calyx lobes reflexed. E. A. utahensis 

AA. Twigs not ashy. 
D. Leaves tomentose beneath when young. 

E. Petals 12-15 mm. long. W. C. E. A. florida 
EE. Petals about 8 mm. long. E. A. oreophila 

DD. Leaves glabrous even when young. 

F. Leaves bright green; petals about 2 cm. long. E. A. cusickii 
FF. Leaves whitish green; petals 1-1.5 cm. long. E. A. basalticola 


Shrubs or small trees. Leaves toothed or lobed. Flowers white. 
Stamens 5-20. Carpels 2-5, i-seeded. Fruit drupelike, globose or ovoid, 
crowned with the calyx teeth. (Gk. kratos = strength ; referring to the 
toughness of the wood.) 

A. Fruit black; spines 1-3 cm. long. 

B. Leaves lobed or incisely and doubly toothed; petiole with scattered glands. 
W. E. C. douglasii 

BB. Leaves serrate, not incisely toothed or lobed; petiole glandless. E. 

C. rivularis 
AA. Fruit red; spines 4-6 cm. long. 

C. Leaves oval to orbicular. E. C. sheridana 
CC. Leaves cuneate-obovate. 

D. Calyx and fruit glabrous. E. C. columbiana 
DD. Calyx and fruit tomentose. E. C. piper! 


Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, simple, petioled; stipules 
small and caducous, or none. Flowers regular, perfect or imperfect. 
Calyx tubular or campanulate, deciduous; segments 5. Petals 5, 
on the calyx. Stamens 15-20, on the calyx. Pistils 1-5, distinct; 
ovary superior, i-celled. Fruit 1-5 separate drupes. Seed i. 

A. Leaves serrate; stipules present but caducous; flowers perfect, not with bad 

odor; carpel i; drupe i. 

B. Stone rough; fruit downy. AMYGDALUS (p. 134) 

BB. Stone smooth; fruit glabrous (except in the Apricot). PRUNUS (p. 135) 

AA. Leaves entire or undulate; stipules none; flowers dioecious, with bad odor; 

carpels 2-5; drupes 2-5. W. C. (Gk. osmeres = smelling; the flowers have 

an unpleasant odor.) Osmaronia cerasiformis (INDIAN PLUM) 

(The Latin name of the Peach.) 

A. Pulp edible; seed not edible. W. E. A. persica (PEACH) 

AA. Pulp not edible, seed edible. W. E. A. amygdalus (ALMOND) 



Shrubs or trees. Flowers white or pink, clustered. Petals spreading. 
Style terminal. Fruit glabrous, stone smooth or nearly so, terete or flat. 
(Latin name of the plum.) Here belong the following : P. armeniaca (Apri- 
cot) ; P. cerasus (Pie cherry); P. avium (Sweet cherry); P. domestica 
(Cultivated plum), and a variety of the same (Prune). 

A. Fruit 15-20 mm. long; stone flat; flowers not in racemes. W. E. 

P. subcordata (WILD PLUM) 
AA. Fruit 4-10 mm. long; stone subglobose. 
B. Flowers in corymbs; fruit bright red; petiole without glands. W. C. E. 

P. emarginata (WILD CHERRY) 

BB. Flowers in racemes; fruit dark purple; petiole usually with 2 glands just below 
point of attachment to blade. W. E. P. demissa (CHOKECHERRY) 


Herbs or shrubs or trees, often vining. Leaves alternate, mostly 
compound; stipules present. Flowers irregular, papilionaceous. 
Calyx 4~5-toothed or -cleft, sometimes 2-lipped. Petals distinct 
or somewhat united, usually consisting of i wide upper one (stan- 
dard) and 2 lateral ones (wings) and 2 lower usually united ones 
(keel). Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous or rarely distinct, 
10 or rarely 5. Pistil i, simple; ovary superior, usually i-celled, 
sometimes lengthwise 2-celled by the intrusion of the sutures, 
sometimes crosswise 2- to several-celled; style i. Fruit a pod, 
dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, sometimes breaking crosswise 
into joints. Seeds i to many. Species keys omitted in certain 
difficult genera. (F. & R. pp. 224-242.) 

A. Trees, cultivated; stipules often spiny; leaves pinnately compound. W. E. 
Planted for shade. (Honor of J. and V. Robin, who first cultivated the tree 
in Europe.) Roots, leaves, and bark poisonous. Robinia pseudacacia (LOCUST) 

AA. Shrubs. 

B. Plant spiny; leaves simple, often becoming spines; branches not or hardly 
4-angled, not conspicuously green. W. (The Latin name.) 

Ulex europeus (GORSE) 

BB. Plant not spiny; leaves with 1-3 leaflets, not becoming spines; branches 

conspicuously 4-angled, dark green. W. E. Ornamental shrub; escaped. 

(From Cythras, one of the Cyclades, where this or a related plant was first 

found.) Cytisus scoparius (SCOTCH BROOM) 

AAA. Herbs, or somewhat shrubby at base. 

C. Leaves with 3 leaflets. 

D. Stamens distinct; stipules free; leaflets entire; flowers yellow, in terminal 
3-bracted racemes. THERMOPSIS (p. 137) 


DD. Stamens either monad elphous or diadelphous in groups of 9 and i; stipules 
often adnate; leaflets serrate in most species; flowers not yellow in most, often 
in heads. 
E. Flowers in heads or headlike umbels. 

F. Leaflets entire; mature pod about 2.5 cm. long. LOTUS (p. 140) 
FF. Leaflets denticulate; mature pods i cm. or less long. 

TRIFOLIUM (p. 138) 

EE. Flowers in spikes or racemes, rarely in heads and then the pod coiled and 
the leaflets denticulate. 

G. Leaflets not entire. 

H. Flowers in spikes or heads, yellow or purple; pod curved or coiled, often 
spiny. MEDICAGO (p. 137) 

HH. Flowers in long racemes, yellow or white; pod straight, wrinkled. 

MELILOTUS (p. 137) 
GG. Leaflets entire. 

I. Leaves punctate with dark glands or pellucid dots; pod 6 mm. long; 
seed i. PSORALEA (p. 140) 

II. Leaves not punctate; pod 12 mm. or more long; seeds 2 to many. 

ASTRAGALUS (p. 141) 

CC. Leaves palmately compound, with 5-16 leaflets, occasionally some leaves 
with only 3 leaflets. 

J. Leaflets coarsely serrate or dentate. TRIFOLIUM (p. 138) 

JJ. Leaflets entire. 

K. Leaflets 5-16, not punctate, often quite hairy; keel of the corolla acumi- 
nate; seeds i or more. LUPINUS (.p. 137) 
KK. Leaflets 3-7. punctate with dark glands or pellucid dots, glabrous or with 
few hairs; keel of the corolla obtuse; seed i. PSORALEA (p. 140) 
CCC. Leaves pinnately compound, with 4 or more leaflets or occasionally some 
leaves with fewer. 

L. Leaves with an odd leaflet at the tip, without tendrils. 
M. Herbage conspicuously glandular-dotted. 

N. Leaflets 5-9, narrowly oblong to obovate, 1-12 cm. long; peduncles much 

exceeding the leaves, terminal; flowers deep purple; stamens 5; pod not 

prickly, i-seeded. E. (Gk. petalon = a petal, stemon = a stamen; from 

the union of the two in the flower.) Petalostemon ornatus (PRAIRIE CLOVER) 

NN. Leaflets 13-17, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm. long; peduncles 

about equaling the leaves, axillary; flowers ochroleucous ; stamens 10 ; 

pod prickly with hooked prickles, 2-6-seeded. E. Glycyrrhiza alba is the 

source of commercial licorice. (Gk. glykys = sweet, rhiza = a root; the 

root is sweet.) Glycyrrhiza lepidota (WILD LICORICE) 

MM. Herbage not glandular-dotted; stamens 10; pod not prickly. 

O. Flowers solitary or in umbels; pod linear, not jointed; leaflets 3-15. 

LOTUS (p. 140) 
OO. Flowers in spikes or racemes, rarely solitary and then the pod not linear; 

leaflets often more numerous. 

P. Pod 2-4-jointed, reticulate. HEDYSARUM (p. 141) 

PP. Pod not jointed, often veiny but hardly reticulate. 
Q. Keel of the corolla acute or subulate at apex. ARAGALLUS (p. 141) 
QQ. Keel of the corolla obtuse at apex. ASTRAGALUS (p. 141) 


LL. Leaves without an odd leaflet at the tip but often with tendrils. 
R. Style terete above, with a tuft of hairs at tip. VICIA (p. 141) 

RR. Style somewhat flat above, with hairs down the concave side for a short 
distance from the tip. LATHYRUS (p. 142) 


Perennial, stout, erect. Leaflets petiolulate ; stipules foliaceous ; bracts 
of the raceme herbaceous, persistent. Calyx 4~5-cleft. Standard roundish, 
shorter than the wings; wings oblong; keel obtuse, equaling the wings. 
Stamens 10. Pod narrow, flattish. (Gk. thermos = the lupine, opsis = 

A. Two upper calyx lobes united into a 2-toothed segment. 

B. Racemes short, loosely flowered; bracts acute; calyx teeth acute. U. T. gracilis 
BB. Racemes long, densely flowered; bracts acuminate; calyx teeth acuminate. U. 

T. robusta 
AA. Two upper calyx lobes united only about as much as the others. 

C. Leaflets oblong-oblanceolate to obovate; plant with somewhat fleshy rootstock. 
W. E. T. montana 

CC. Leaflets oval to narrowly elliptic; plant with woody caudex and roots. E. 

T. xylorhiza 


Flowers in terminal racemes or spikes, mostly showy. Calyx deeply 
2-lipped ; upper lip 2-clef t or -toothed or rarely entire ; lower lip entire or 
3-toothed. Wings united at the summit; keel falcate. Stamens mona- 
delphous; alternate filaments longer. Stigma bearded. Pod coriaceous. 
(L. lupus = a wolf ; it was supposed to devour that which made the soil 
fertile.) Species too difficult. 


Leaves small. Flowers small, in axillary heads or spikes. Calyx teeth 
nearly equal. Standard obovate or oblong; wings oblong; keel obtuse. 
Stamens 10, diadelphous, in groups of i and 9. Pod indehiscent. Seeds 
i to few. (Gk. medike = the Alfalfa ; because the Greeks got this from 

A. Perennial, 5-12 dm. high; flowers violet, in spikes about 6 cm. long. W. E. 
One of our best hay plants. M. sativa (ALFALFA) 

AA. Annual, 1.5-6 dm. high; flowers yellow, in heads about 2 cm. long. 
B. Pod several-seeded, spiral, spiny on the edges. W. E. 

M. dentlculata (BUR CLOVER) 
BB. Pod i -seeded, curved, not spiny. W. E. M. lupulina (NONESUCH) 


Annual or biennial. Leaves petioled. Flowers small. Calyx teeth 
nearly equal. Standard obovate or oblong ; wings oblong ; keel obtuse. 
Stamens 10, diadelphous, in groups of 9 and i. Pod ovoid or globose, in- 


dehiscent or finally 2-valved. Seeds i to few. (Gk. met = honey, lotos = 
some plant of this family ; the flowers are prolific in honey.) 

A. Flowers white. E. A roadside weed. Good for hay or browse. 

AA. Flowers yellow. 
B. Leaflets obtuse, toothed from near the base; petals 6-9 mm. long. E. 

M. officinalis (YELLOW MELILOT) 

BB. Leaflets truncate or emarginate, toothed above the middle; petals 2-2.5 mm. 
long. E. M. indica (SMALL MELILOT) 


Leaves normally 3-foliolate, in a few species s-y-foliolate ; stipules 
adnate to the petiole. Flowers variously colored. Calyx teeth nearly 
equal. Petal claws adhering to the stamen tube. Stamens diadelphous 
in groups of 9 and i, or monadelphous by only the partial separation of the 
i. Seeds 1-6. (L. tres = 3, folium = a leaf.) All those large enough 
are good hay or fodder plants. 

A. Leaflets 3-7, but always some leaves with 5-7; heads without involucre. 

B. Leaflets 5-7; flowers 2-3 cm. long. E. 

T. macrocephalum (LONG-FLOWERED CLOVER) 

BB. Leaflets 3-5; flowers 6-8 mm. long. E. T. plummerae 

AA. Leaflets 3, except in occasional abnormal leaves. 

C. Heads not subtended by an involucre. 

D. Heads on terminal peduncles; plants sometimes stemless. 
E. Leaves glabrous. 

F. Calyx teeth 3 times as long as the tube. E. T. douglasii 

FF. Calyx teeth scarcely longer than the tube. 
G. Stem quite evident. 

H. Stem stout; heads globose; leaflets mostly obtuse; flowers 12-20 mm. 
long. E. T. beckwithil 

HH. Stem slender; heads oblong; leaflets mostly acuminate; flowers 8-14 
mm. long. C. E. T. latifolium 

GG. Stemless or nearly so. E. T. haydeni 

EE. Leaves pubescent. 
I. Corolla pink or red or purple. 

J. Perennial; calyx lobes not plumose, shorter than the corolla. 
K. Stems 3-9 dm. high; leaflets 2.5-5 cm. long; flowers purplish red, not 
reflexed; stipules acuminate. W. C. E. T. pratense (RED CLOVER) 

KK. Stems 1.5-2 dm. high; leaflets 1.2-2.5 cm. long; flowers pinkish or light 
red, at length reflexed; stipules acute. U. T. oreganum 

JJ. Annual; calyx lobes plumose, equaling or exceeding the corolla. 
L. Leaflets 4-12 mm. long; heads ovate; flowers dark purple. W. 

T. albopurpureum 
LL. Leaflets 12-25 mm. long; heads oblong; flowers pinkish. W. E. 

n. Corolla yellow or white. 

M. Heads ovoid or oblong; flowers at length reflexed. E. T. plumosum 

MM. Heads obovate. W. C. E. T. longipes 

MMM. Heads globose. 
N. Calyx teeth plumose. 


O. Lobes of the calyx about equal, 3-4 times as long as the calyx tube. W. 

T. eriocephalum 

OO. Lobes of the calyx unequal, one twice as long as the other and as the 
calyx tube. E. T. arcuatum 

NN. Calyx teeth hairy but not plumose. 

P. Flowers with pedicels. C. E. T. latifolium 

PP. Flowers nearly sessile. E. T. covillei 

DD. Heads on axillary peduncles; plants not stemless. 
Q. Flowers yellow. 
R. Heads 3-i5-flowered; standard faintly striate. W. C. 

RR. Heads 2o-40-flowered; standard distinctly striate. W. 

T. procumbens (LARGE HOP-CLOVER) 
QQ. Flowers white or pinkish. 

S. Calyx and its lobes shorter than the corolla; perennials. 
T. Leaflets 0.6-2.5 cm. long; heads ovate or oblong, many-flowered. U. 

T. howellii 

TT. Leaflets 0.6-1.2 cm. long; heads s-io-flowered. 

U. Stipules oval. E. T. gymnocarpon 

UU. Stipules lanceolate. U. T. depauperatum 

TTT. Leaflets 2.5-7.5 cm. long; heads globose, many-flowered. 

V. Leaflets obtuse, rarely emarginate; erect or ascending, not stoloniferous; 
: . stem not rooting at the joints; flowers pinkish; calyx teeth about equal. 
W. E. T. hybridum (ALSIKE CLOVER) 

W. Leaflets obcordate to retuse; prostrate with the tip ascending, stolonifer- 
ous; stem rooting at the joints; flowers white; calyx teeth very unequal. 
W. C. E. T. repens (WHITE CLOVER) 

VW. Leaflets mostly retuse; prostrate; flowers white or pinkish; calyx teeth 
about equal. U. T. breweri 

SS. Calyx lobes from almost equaling to exceeding the corolla; annuals. 
W. Calyx teeth scarious-margined, ciliate. W. E. T. ciliolatum 

WW. Calyx teeth not scarious-margined, not ciliate. 

X. Leaflets notched at apex. W. E. T. hallii 

XX. Leaflets not notched at apex. W. T. gracilentum 

CC. Heads subtended by an involucre. 

Y. Corolla yellow; standard conspicuously enlarged. W. T. flavulum 

YY. Corolla ochroleucous; standard conspicuously enlarged. W. T. furcatum 
YYY. Corolla not yellow nor ochroleucous; standard not conspicuously enlarged 

(except in T. depauperatum). 
Z. Involucre membranous at least at base, not deeply lobed, the lobes entire or 

toothed; flowers white or light pink. 
a. Plant glabrous. 

b. Involucre none or entire, with no segments; leaflets 6-12 mm. long; 
standard much enlarged; calyx teeth not branched. U. T. depauperatum 

bb. Involucre with 7-10 shallow lobes, the lobes spinulose-dentate; leaflets 
12-25 mm. long; standard not much enlarged; calyx teeth branched. E. 

T. cyathiferum 
aa. Plant villous; calyx teeth scarious-margined. 

c. Involucre merely basal, its lobes laciniately toothed; calyx glabrous. W. C. 

T. microdon 

cc. Involucre nearly inclosing the head, its lobes entire; calyx hairy. W. E. 

T. microcephalum 
ZZ. Involucre not membranous, deeply lobed, the lobes laciniately and sharply 

toothed; flowers dark lilac-purple. 
d. Plant perennial with creeping rhizomes. W. E. T. fimbriatum 


dd. Plant annual. 

e. Leaflets obovate or obcordate, 0.6-1.2 cm. long; heads 1-1.4 cm. wide. 
W. C. E. T. variegatum 

ee. Leaflets linear or oblong or lanceolate. 

f. Leaflets 1.6-2 cm. long, obtuse or emarginate; heads s-7-flowered, 1-1.5 

cm. wide; calyx lobes never 3-toothed. W. T. oliganthum 

ff. Leaflets 2.5-5 cm. long, obtuse or acute; heads more than 7-flowered, 2-3 

cm. wide; calyx lobes sometimes 3-toothed. W. T. tridentatum 


Annual or perennial. Leaves 3-i5-foliolate, ternate or pinnate; leaflets 
entire. Flowers i to several in a leaf axil. Calyx 5-toothed or -cleft ; 
teeth nearly equal. Petals free from the stamens, nearly equal. Stamens 
diadelphous, in groups of 9 and i. Pods linear, flattish or terete, with spongy 
partition between the seeds. Seeds i to several. (A Greek name for some 
plants of this family.) 

A. Annual; flowers solitary (sometimes 2 on a peduncle in L. parviflora). 
B. Flowers and pods nearly sessile. 

C. Stem glabrous, 3-6 dm. high, erect, sparingly branched; corolla pale yellow to 
dark red. W. E. L. denticulatus 

CC. Stem pilose or villous, 1-1.5 dm. high, diffusely branched from the base; corolla 
bright yellow. U. L. wrangelianus 

BB. Flowers and pods with peduncles nearly as long as the leaves, or longer. 

D. Leaflets lanceolate to ovate, usually villous; flowers 5-6 mm. long; bract at 
top of peduncle i-3-foliolate. W. E. L. americanus (SPANISH CLOVER) 

DD. Leaflets oblong to ovate, usually glabrous; flowers 3-4 mm. long; bract at 
top of peduncle i-3-foliolate. E. L. parviflorus 

AA. Perennial; flowers in umbels. 

E. Leaflets 3-9; flowers various, but with some yellow in them. 
F. Leaves pubescent; flowers 4-13 mm. long. 

G. Stem procumbent or ascending, villous or tomentose; leaflets mostly acute, 

6-12 mm. long; pod i-2-seeded, its beak not hooked. W. E. L. decumbens 

GG. Stems erect or ascending, finely pubescent; leaflets mostly obtuse, 13-25 

mm. long; pod 5 or more seeded, its beak hooked. U. L. torreyi 

FF. Leaves glabrous or nearly so; flowers 14-20 mm. long. 

H. Flowers pure yellow. E. L. macbridei 

HH. Flowers with yellow standard but white or purple wings. 

I. Peduncles usually without a bract; corolla with yellow standard and white 

wings. W. E. L. bicolor 

n. Peduncles with a bract at the umbel ; corolla with yellow standard and purple 

wings. W. L. gracilis 

EE. Leaflets 9-15; flowers purple. W. E. L. crassifolius 


Perennial. Leaves 3~7-foliolate, punctate with dark glands or pellucid 
dots ; stipules wide. Flowers blue or pink or white. Stamens monadel- 
phous or diadelphous. Pod ovoid, short, indehiscent. Seed i. (Gk. 
psoraleos = scurfy ; referring to the glands or dots on the leaves.) 

A. Leaflets broadly ovate; seed grayish. W. E. P. physodes 

AA. Leaflets lanceolate; seed light brown. E. P. lanceolata 



Erect to prostrate. Leaves odd-pinnate ; leaflets entire ; tendrils none ; 
stipules persistent. Flowers small, narrow. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals with 
slender claws ; keel obtuse. Stamens diadelphous. (The Greek name 
of some plant of the family.) Too difficult for the beginner. 


Perennial or annual. Leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets entire. Flowers 
various in color, in spikes or heads ; flower clusters axillary or basal. Calyx 
5-toothed. Pod partly 2-celled by the intrusion of the ventral (placental) 
suture. (Meaning undetermined.) Poisonous to cattle. Too difficult 
for beginners. 


Leaflets entire; stipules scarious. Flowers white or yellow or purplish, 
racemes axillary, bracted; bracts scarious or setaceous. Calyx 5-toothed 
or -parted. Stamens hypogynous, diadelphous. Pod flat ; joints roundish. 
(Gk. hedys = sweet, aroma = smeU ; apparently from the fragrant 
flowers of some.) 

A. Flowers cream-colored. E. H. sulphurescens 

AA. Flowers light purple. 

B. Stems and leaves canescent. E. H. cinerascens 

BB. Stems and leaves green, glabrate or nearly so. W. E. H. boreale 


Climbing or trailing or quite weak. Leaves tendril-bearing. Flowers 
axillary, solitary or in racemes. Calyx tube oblique. Corolla blue or 
violet or white or yellow. Stamens diadelphous in groups of 9 and i, or 
monadelphous below. Pod flat. (Gk. bikion and L. vicia = the names 
of these plants.) Relished by stock. 

A. Flowers in spikes or racemes on axillary peduncles. 

B. Leaflets 20-30, 2.5-5 cm. long; flowers ochroleucous or tawny; perennial. 
W. C. E. V. gigantia (GIANT VETCH) 

BB. Leaflets either fewer or less than 2.5 cm. long; flowers from white to purple. 
C. Flowers bluish white, 4 mm. or less long; peduncles 2-6-flowered; annual; 
leaflets 12-14; pod hairy. W. V. hirsuta (HAIRY VETCH) 

CC. Flowers deep blue, 5-18 mm. long; perennial. 
D. Leaflets 18-24; peduncles densely is-4O-flowered; pod glabrous. W. 

V. cracca (TUFTED VETCH) 

DD. Leaflets 8-16; peduncles loosely 5-i6-flowered. 
E. Plant glabrous or not villous if hairy, 3-12 dm. high; pod glabrous; leaflets 

12-25 mm. long. 
F. Leaves ovate-lanceolate to broadly oval. W. C. E. 

V. americana (COMMON VETCH) 
FF. Leaves narrowly linear to oblong. W. C. E. 



EE. Plant villous-pubescent; 1.5-3 dm. high; pod pubescent; leaflets 4-14 mm. 
long. W. C. V. californica 

AA. Flowers solitary or in 2's in the axils of the leaves, nearly sessile; annuals. 
G. Flowers white or purplish, 6 mm. long; pod 1.6-2.5 cm. long. U. C. V. exigua 
GG. Flowers purple, 12-25 rnm. long; pod 2.5-7.5 cm. long. 

H. Leaflets oblong to ovate; pod brown; flowers 18-25 mm. long. W. C. 
Sown for hay. V. sativa (SPRING VETCH) 

HH. Leaflets linear to linear-oblong; pod black; flowers 12-16 mm. long. W. 

V. angustifolia (COMMON VETCH) 


Erect to vining. Leaves mostly with tendrils. Flowers axillary, soli- 
tary or in racemes. Calyx oblique or gibbous at base. Corolla tawny or 
white to purplish. Stamens diadelphous in groups of 9 and i, or mona- 
delphous below. Ovules usually many. Pod flat or terete. (Gk. lathyros 
= the name of some plant of this family.) Relished by stock. 

A. Plant densely silky- villous; rachis of leaves without tendrils. W. 

L. littoralis (SHAGGY PEA) 
AA. Plant not villous, either glabrous or pubescent; rachis of leaves mostly with 

tendrils or their rudiments. 
B. Flowers purple or whitish. 
C. Stipules narrow, half-sagittate, their lobes usually lanceolate and acuminate; 

plants glabrous or pubescent. 
D. Leaflets 6-14 mm. long, pubescent. 

E. Peduncles i-2-flowered; stem very slender. W. 

L. torreyi (I-FLOWERED PEA) 

EE. Peduncles 4-6-flowered; stem rigid. W. L. vestitus 

DD. Leaflets 15-25 mm. or more long, glabrous or hairy. 

F. Leaflets 2-4, 2.5-8.7 cm. long; peduncles 2-flowered; flowers purplish. E. 

L. bijugatus 
FF. Leaflets 4-6 or more, often shorter; either peduncles with 3 or more flowers, 

or else flowers white. 
G. Flowers white. 

H. Leaflets 1.4-2 cm. long. E. L. rigidus 

HH. Leaflets 2.5-7.5 cm. long. 

I. Leaflets linear to linear-lanceolate. E. L. cusickii 

n. Leaflets ovate to ovate-oblong. E. L. obovatus 

GG. Flowers purple. 

J. Stem wingless, although sometimes angular. 
K. Flowers 25 mm. or more long, 3-5 on a peduncle. E. 

L. decaphyllus (PRAIRIE PEA) 

KK. Flowers 10-20 mm. long, often more than 5 on a peduncle. 
L. Plant glabrous throughout or merely minutely papillose. 
M. Peduncles about equaling the leaves; leaves not thick nor coriaceous. 
U. L bolanderi 

MM. Peduncles much shorter than the leaves; leaves thick-coriaceous. 
W. E. L. coriaceus 

LL. Plant pubescent. 
N. Leaflets lanceolate, pubescent on both sides, obtuse. E. 

L. oregonensis 

NN. Leaflets oblong to ovate, pubescent beneath, glabrous above, acute. 
W. C. E. L. nuttallil 


JJ. Stem winged. W. E. L. palustris (MARSH PEA) 

CC. Stipules wide, ovate or somewhat half-hastate; their lobes wider than lanceo- 
late, acute or acuminate; plant glabrous throughout. 

O. Leaflets 10-20, peduncles shorter than the leaves; leaflets not cuspidate; 
stipules acuminate. W. C. L. polypbyllus (MANY-LEAVED PEA) 

OO. Leaflets 6-12. 

P. Leaflets elliptic to linear, cuspidate; stipules acuminate; peduncles exceeding 
the leaves. E. L- pauciflorus 

PP. Leaflets ovate-oblong, not cuspidate; stipules acute; peduncles not exceed- 
ing the leaves. W. L- maritimus (BEACH PEA) 
BB. Flowers ochroleucous. W. E. L. ochroleucus (CREAM-COLORED PEA) 


Herbs. Leaves toothed to compound. Flowers perfect, regular 
or irregular, on axillary peduncles. Sepals 5. Petals 5. Stamens 
5 or 10 ; filaments either dilated or monadelphous at base. Ovary 
superior; carpels 5, united around a central axis; ovules 2 in each 
cell. Capsule 5-lobed; carpels separating at maturity from the 
long-beaked central axis from below up; styles forming long carpel 
tails which become revolute or spirally twisted. 

A. Leaves palmately-compound or -lobed or -veined. GERANIUM (p. 143) 

AA. Leaves pinnately-compound or -lobed or -veined. ERODIUM (p. 143) 


Leaves simple, alternate, usually lobed to deeply dissected; stipules 
conspicuous. Peduncles i-3-flowered; pedicels with 4-bracted involucre 
at base. Sepals persistent. Stamens 5, or 5 longer and 5 shorter. Style 
i, split and curled at maturity; stigmas 5. Seed i in each cell. (Gk. 
geranos = a crane ; referring to the cranelike beak of the pod.) 

A. Annual; petals i cm. or less long. 

B. Plants single or scarcely tufted. W. E. G. vlscosissimum (STICKY GERANIUM) 
BB. Plants caespitose-tufted. E. G. fremontii 

AA. Perennial; petals 1.5-2 cm. long. 

C. Sepals awn-pointed; seeds reticulate or pitted. 

D. Flowers pale purple; seeds minutely reticulate. W. C. E. G. carolinianum 
DD. Flowers deep purple; seeds deeply pitted. W. 

CC. Sepals awnless; seeds smooth or striate. 

E. Anther-bearing stamens 10; ovary glabrous, transversely rugose. W. 

EE. Anther-bearing stamens 5; ovary pubescent, not rugose. W. E. 

G. pusillum (SMALL GERANIUM) 


Leaves opposite or alternate, simple or compound; stipules present. 
Flowers in axillary umbels, nearly regular. Upper 2 petals slightly smaller. 


Anther-bearing stamens 5, alternate with 5 sterile filaments. Stigmas 5. 
Styles coiled spirally at maturity. Seed i in each lobe. (Gk. erodios = a 
heron ; referring to the long beak of the pod.) The fruits bore into the wool 
and skin of sheep. 

A. Leaves round-reniform to triangular-ovate, crenately dentate. U. E. macrophyllum 
AA. Leaves pinnately compound or pinnatifid. 

B. Leaflets unequally and doubly serrate; sepals not bristle-tipped; plant with a 

musk odor; anther-bearing filaments 2-toothed. U. E. moschatum 

BB. Leaves laciniately pinnatifid into narrow acute lobes; sepals bristle-tipped; 

plant without musk odor; filaments not toothed. W. E. E. cicutarium 


Herbs, annual or perennial, with rhizomes; sap sour. Leaves 
with 3 obcordate leaflets. Flowers perfect, solitary or clus- 
tered. Sepals 5. Petals 5, variously colored. Stamens 10. 
Ovary superior, 5-celled, 5-lobed; styles distinct; ovules 2 to many 
in each cell. Fruit a capsule, loculicidal, globose or columnar. 
Only the following genus. 


Stamens monadelphous at base, 5 longer and 5 shorter, all anther-bear- 
ing. (Gk. oxus = sour ; from the taste of the herbage.) 

A. Flowers yellow ; stem erect, 1-3 dm. high. W. 


AA. Flowers white or pinkish; stem none; leaves and scapes from horizontal rhizomes. 

B. Scapes i-flowered, shorter than the leaves; petals 16-25 mm. long; capsule ovoid, 

i cm. long. W. C. O. oregana 

BB. Scapes about 6-flowered, as long as the leaves; petals 6-12 mm. long; capsule 

linear, 2-3 cm. long. W. C. O. trilliifolia 


Herbs. Leaves alternate or opposite; stipules small or none. 
Flowers perfect, regular. Sepals 5; persistent. Petals 5. Sta- 
mens 5, alternate with the petals; filaments monadelphous at base; 
anthers versatile. Styles 2-5. Fruit a capsule. Seeds 1-2 in each 
cell, oily. Only the following genus. 


Leaves sessile. Flowers clustered. Ovary 4~5-celled, or 8-io-celled 
by false partitions. (Gk. linon = a thread; L. linum = the flax plant; 
because cloth is made from the bast fibers.) 

A. Flowers white or pinkish or blue; leaves alternate, all entire. 
B. Petals blue, rarely white, 10-20 mm. long; leaves linear to lanceolate or oval. 


C. Perennial; petals 14-20 mm. long; stigma short, but little longer than wide; 

capsule much exceeding the calyx. E. L. lewisii 

CC. Annual; petals about 10 mm. long; stigma long, much longer than wide; 

capsule about as long as the calyx. W. E. The seeds furnish linseed oil; the 

stem is the source of linen. L. usitatissimum (CULTIVATED FLAX) 

BB. Petals white or rarely pinkish, never blue, 2-5 mm. long; leaves oblong-spatu- 

late; annual. W. L. micranthum (WHITE FLAX) 

AA. Flowers yellow; petals about 2 mm. long; plant annual; leaves mostly opposite, 

upper ones serrate, elliptic-spatulate. E. L. digynum (YELLOW FLAX) 


Herbs. Leaves alternate, simple, entire. Stipules none. 
Flowers in racemes, perfect, irregular. Sepals 5, very unequal, 
the lateral ones(wmgs) larger, colored. Petals 3, hypogynous, more 
or less united into a split tube. Stamens 6 or 8, monadelphous or 
diadelphous; the tube split and adhering to the petals. Capsule 
2-celled, loculicidal; cells i-seeded. Seed hairy. (Gk. polys = 
much; gala = milk; the name of some Greek plant used to in- 
crease the flow of milk.) U. Polygala calif ornica (MILKWORT) 


Herbs; juice often milky. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, 
variously arranged, mostly naked, or with normal calyx present, or 
a mere scale; in Euphorbia subtended by an involucre resembling 
a calyx. Stamens i to many. Styles 1-3, simple to many-cleft. 
Fruit a capsule, 2-3-celled, dehiscent; cells i-2-seeded. 

A. Flowers involucrate : stamens usually i ; both staminate and pistillate flowers 
with only a rudimentary calyx, or none at all; capsule 3-celled; cells each with i 
or more seeds. EUPHORBIA (p. 145) 

AA. Flowers not involucrate; stamens 6-7; staminate flowers with a s-6-parted 
calyx; pistillate flowers naked ; capsule i -celled, i -seeded. E. (L. piscaria = 
belonging to fish; the Indian stupefied fish by throwing the herbage into the water.) 

Piscaria setigera (TURKEY MULLEIN) 


Leaves alternate or opposite or whorled. Flowers small, naked; in- 
volucre top-shaped or campanulate. Staminate flowers many, of i naked 
stamen jointed upon a short pedicel which usually has a minute bract at the 
base. Pistillate flowers solitary, pedicelled, soon exserted. Styles 3, 
usually 2-cleft. (Honor of Euphorbus, the physician to King Juba.) 

A. Stems prostrate-spreading or nearly so; involucre glands bearing petal-like 

F. & R. EL. FL. IO 


B. Plant pubescent; seed black. E. Considered poisonous. 

E. maculata (MILK SPURGE) 
BB. Plant glabrous; seed gray. 
C. Seed with 5-6 sharp transverse ridges; leaves linear-oblong to ovate. E. 

E. glyptosperma (RIDGE-SEED SPURGE) 

CC. Seed pitted and somewhat transversely wrinkled; leaves oblong to spatulate. 
W. E. E. serpyllifolia (THYME-LEAVED SPURGE) 

AA. Stems erect or nearly so; involucre glands without petal-like appendages. 
D. At least the upper leaves serrulate. 

E. Seed pitted; glands with hornlike projections. U. E. crenulata 
EE. Seed reticulate; glands blunt. E. E. dictyosperma (NET-SEED SPURGE) 

DD. Leaves entire. 

F. Leaves round-obovate; umbel 3-rayed. W. E. peplus (PRETTY SPURGE) 
FF. Leaves linear to oblong; umbel 4- to many-rayed. 

G. Seed usually wrinkled; leaves linear to oblong. W. 

E. lathyrus (CAPER SPURGE) 
GG. Seed smooth; leaves filiform. E. E. cyparissias (CYPRESS SPURGE) 


Herbs, acquatic, or rarely terrestrial in mud; stem slender or 
capillary. Leaves opposite, spatulate or linear; stipules none. 
Flowers minute, axillary, rarely found. Perianth none. Bracts 
none, or 2 and saclike. Stamen i. Pistil i. Ovary 4-celled; 
styles 2. Fruit 4-lobed, 4-seeded. (Gk. kalos = beautiful, trichos 
= hair; from the slender stem.) Only the following genus. 

(F. & R. p. 246.) Callitriche (WATER STARWORT) 


Shrubs, low; branches densely leafy. Leaves small, narrow, 
entire, evergreen, nearly sessile, channeled on the lower side by 
the revolute margins; stipules none. Flowers small, dioecious or 
monoecious or polygamous, axillary. Sepals 3. Petals 2-3, or 
none. Stamens 2-4. Ovary 6~9-celled; style 6-9-lobed. Fruit 
berrylike, black or red, containing 6-9-nutlets. W. C . (Gk. 
en = upon, petros = a rock; often growing in rocky places.) 

Empetrum nigrum (CROWBERRY) 


Herbs, annual, glabrous. Leaves alternate, pinnately-dissected 
or -compound; stipules none. Flowers solitary, regular, perfect. 
Calyx tube saucer-shaped. Sepals 2-5, persistent. Petals 2-5. 
Stamens 4-10, somewhat perigynous. Styles united to near the 
top, basal, central between the ovaries; stigmas 2-5. Carpels 2-5, 
almost distinct, indehiscent, i -seeded. In wet places. 


A. Sepals 4-5; petals 4-5; stamens 10; stigmas 4-5. (Gk. limme = a lake; 

anthos = a flower; from the common lake-shore habitat.) (F. & R. p. 247.) 

AA. Sepals 2-3; petals 2-3; stamens 6; stigmas 1-3. (Honor of G. H. Floerke, 

a German botanist.) Floerkea proserpinacoides (FALSE MERMAID) 


Shrubs; juice resinous or milky. Leaves alternate, 3-foliolate 
or odd-pinnate. Flowers mainly regular, perfect or polygamo- 
dioecious. Calyx 3-y-cleft or -parted. Petals as many as the 
sepals, or rarely none. Stamens 5. Ovary in the stamina te 
flowers i -celled; ovary in the pistillate flowers i -celled; styles 3; 
cells i-ovuled. Fruit a small drupe. Only the following genus. 


Stipules none. Flowers in axillary or terminal clusters. (Celtic rhudd 
= red ; hence Gk. rhus = these plants, on account of the red fruit.) 

A. Leaflets 11-31; fruit red, pubescent. E. R. glabra (SMOOTH SUMAC) 

AA. Leaflets 3; fruit white or red, glabrous. 
B. Plant with unpleasant odor; flowers in spikes or heads; fruit red. W. C. E. 

R. trilobata (SKUNK BUSH) 
BB. Plant without unpleasant odor; flowers in panicles; fruit white, smooth or 


C. Leaflets mostly subentire, the lateral ones petioled. E. Poisonous to touch. 

R. toxicodendron (POISON IVY) 

CC. Leaflets mostly crenate, the lateral ones sessile. W. Poisonous to touch. 

R. diversiloba (POISON OAK) 


Shrubs. Leaves simple; stipules none or small. Flowers 
regular, small. Calyx 4~5-lobed or -parted, persistent. Petals 
4-5. Stamens alternate with the petals. Ovary free or united 
with the disk, i-5-celled; styles short, thick; stigma entire or 2-5- 
lobed; cells 2-4-ovuled. Fruit a capsule or follicle. 

A. Leaves opposite, ovate to lanceolate, serrulate; branches not spiny; stamens 
4 or 5. 

B. Shrub i m. or less high; leaves evergreen, 1.2-2.5 cm. long; flower parts in 4's; 
ovary 2-celled. W. C. E. (Gk. pachis = thick; + stigma.) 

Pachistima myrsinites 

BB. Shrub 2-5 m. high; leaves deciduous, 5-10 cm. long; flower parts in s's; 

ovary 3~5-celled. W. C. (Gk. eu = good, onoma = name; applied in irony, 

since it was thought to poison cattle.) Euonymus occidentals (WESTERN WAHOO) 

AA. Leaves alternate, deciduous, oblaneolate, entire; branches spiny; stamens 10; 

flower parts in s's. E. (Meaning undetermined.) Forsellesia spinescens 



Shrubs or trees; sap often sweet. Leaves opposite, simple or com- 
pound, palmately lobed or rarely pinnate. Flowers polygamous 
or dioecious, regular, cymose or racemose, axillary or terminal. 
Calyx usually 5-parted. Petals none or 5. Disk present or none. 
Stamens 3-12. Styles 2. Carpels 2, united at base, winged, 
indehiscent. Seeds i in each carpel. Many eastern species 
cultivated for shade.* Only the following genus. 


(Celtic ac = hard or sharp ; hence L. acer = these plants ; since their 
hard wood was prized for making weapons.) Maple sugar is derived from 
A. saccharinum of the east. 

A. Leaves simple or 3-foliolate; disk present. 

B. Leaves 7-Q-lobed, 7-5~i3 cm. wide; flowers in corymbs; fruit glabrous; mature 
carpels spreading at about 180, 2-3.2 cm. long. W. C. E. 

A. circinatum (VINE MAPLE) 

BB. Leaves s-7-lobed, 15-37 cm. wide; flowers in racemes; fruit hispid; mature 

carpels spreading at about 90 or less, 3.7-5 cm. long. W. C. E. Our finest 

native shade tree. A. macrophyllum (LARGE-LEAVED MAPLE) 

BBB. Leaves 3~5-lobed or 3-foliolate, 2.5-7.5 cm. wide; flowers in corymbs; fruit 

glabrous; mature carpels spreading at about 90 or less, 2-3 cm. long. W. C. E. 

AA. Leaves 3-9-foliolate; disk none. W. E. Often planted for shade. 

A. negundo (BOX ELDER) 


Herbs, annual, glabrous, succulent. Leaves alternate, thin, simple, 
dentate, petioled. Flowers somewhat clustered, axillary, showy, 
very irregular. Sepals apparently 4, the i notched at apex is prob- 
ably 2 combined; rear one large, petal-like, saccate, often spurred. 
Petals 2-5. Stamens 5, short; filament with scales on inner side, 
somewhat united; anthers somewhat united. Ovary oblong, 
when young 5-celled; cells several-ovuled. Fruit in ours a capsule, 
oblong or linear, dehiscent into 5 valves. Only the following 



Petals 4, apparently only 2 by the union of the lateral with the lower. 
(Impatient in that the ripe capsule flies into pieces when touched.) 

* See Gray's New Manual, American Book Co. 


A. Posterior sepal spurred ; corolla often spotted. 

B. Spurred sepals slightly longer than wide ; sac at least f as wide as long, abruptly 
contracted into a spur; corolla with large spots, or rarely unspotted. E. 


BB. Spurred sepal much longer than wide; sac not over ^ as wide as long, gradually 
tapering into a spur; corolla unspotted. W. C. 

I. nolitangere (GARDEN TOUCH-ME-NOT) 

AA. Posterior sepal unspurred, wider than long; corolla pale yellow, unspotted. E. 

I. ecalcarata (SPURLESS TOUCH-ME-NOT) 


Shrubs or trees. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite; stipules 
minute. Flowers small, perfect or imperfect. Calyx 4~5-cleft. 
Petals none or distinct, each wrapped around a stamen, on the 
calyx throat. Stamens as many as calyx lobes, alternate with 
them. Ovary superior or partly inferior; styles more or less united 
into i,' stigmas 24. Fruit either fleshy, or dry and the 2-4 carpels 
at length separating. 

A. Calyx lobes erect or spreading; fruit berrylike. RHAMNUS (p. 149) 

AA. Calyx lobes connivent; fruit dry or nearly so. CEANOTHUS (p. 149) 


Leaves alternate, pinnately veined, deciduous. Flowers in* axillary 
clusters. Calyx tube urn-shaped. Petals 4-5 or none. Fruit berrylike, 
oblong or globose, 2 4-seeded. (Gk. rhamnos = the name of these plants.) 

A. Leaves acute at each end; petals none; seed grooved on the back; plants 1.2 m. 

or less high. E. R. alnifolia 

AA. Leaves acute at one end or at neither; petals 5, small; seed not grooved on the back. 

B. Plant 5 m. or less high; leaves somewhat revolute at margin; carpels 3. E. 

R. calif or nica 

BB. Plants 15 m. or less high; leaves not revolute at margin; carpels 2. W. C. E. 
Bark much used in medicine. R. purshiana (CASCARA) 


Leaves pinnately veined or with several chief veins from the base. Flowers 
in lateral and terminal clusters. Calyx 5 -cleft; lobes deciduous; tube 
persistent, turbinate or hemispheric. Petals 5, longer than the calyx. 
Styles 3. Fruit subglobose, 3-lobed, the 3-crustaceous carpels ultimately 
separating. (Gk. keanothos = the name of a kind of thistle ; probably 
transferred on account of the spiny branches of some.) 

A. All of the leaves alternate, with 3 chief veins from the base, glandular-toothed or 

entire; fruit not crested. 
B. Flowers in thyrses; leaves often longer than 30 mm.; branches not strikingly 

rigid, not spiny. 

C. Leaves evergreen, shining above as if varnished, sticky above, with strong 
cinnamon odor; flowers white. W. C. E. C. velutinus (MOUNTAIN BALM) 


CC. Leaves deciduous, not as if varnished above, not sticky above, without strong 

D. Leaves ovate to elliptic; flowers white; twigs terete. W. C. E. 

C. sanguineus (BUCK BRUSH) 

DD. Leaves oblong to lanceolate; flowers mostly blue; twigs more or less angular. 
E. Leaves entire or serrulate only near the apex. W. E. 

C. integerrimus (CALIFORNIA LILAC) 
EE. Leaves serrulate to base, or nearly so. U. 

C. thyrsiflorus (CALIFORNIA LILAC) 
BB. Flowers in racemes; leaves 8-30 mm. long; branches usually rigid and 


F. Leaves ovate; inflorescence 5-7.5 cm. long, dense; flowers pale blue or white; 
capsules not lobed; shrub tall, usually arborescent. C. E. C. divaricatus 

FF. Leaves elliptic; inflorescence about 2-3 cm. long, loose; flowers white; cap- 
sules lobed at the top; shrub low, flat-topped. U. C. cordulatus 
AA. Most of the leaves opposite, with one chief vein from the base, with numerous 
straight parallel lateral veins, spine-toothed or entire; fruit crested with 3 hornlike 
or wartlike processes below the summit. 
G. Flowers white; plant erect or depressed but not prostrate; leaves entire. W. 

C. cuneatus (CHAPARRAL) 

GG. Flowers blue or purple; plants prostrate; leaves with several teeth near the 
apex. U. C. E. C. prostratus (MAHALA MATS) 


Shrubs, viney, climbing by tendrils. Leaves simple, opposite, 
palmately veined. Flowers in racemes or panicles, small. Calyx 
minute, 4-5- toothed or nearly entire. Petals 4-5. Stamens as 
many as petals, opposite them; style short or none; stigma i. 
Fruit a berry, globose, pulpy, i-2-celled, with 1-4 seeds. U. 
(L. vitis = a vine; hence the name of the chief vine, the grape.) 

Vitis calif or nica (WILD GRAPE) 


Herbs. Leaves alternate, mostly palmately veined; stipules 
small, deciduous. Flowers regular, perfect. Sepals 5, somewhat 
united. Petals 5, hypogynous. Stamens many, monadelphous, 
forming a central column around the style, united with the bases 
of the petals. Ovary several-celled; styles united below, distinct 
above. Fruit a capsule, often cheese-shaped. 

A. At least the upper leaves lobed, usually all lobed; palmately veined. 
B. Style-branches filiform, not headlike at tip; carpels i-ovuled, i-seeded. 
C. Stamens in i series, united; involucre bracts below the calyx 3; carpels 15-20. 

MALVA (p. 151) 

CC. Stamens in 2 series, united in the outer, distinct in the inner; involucre 
bracts below the calyx none; carpels 5-9. SIDALCEA (p. 151) 

BB. Style-branches tipped with a headlike stigma. 


D. Carpels i-ovuled, i-seeded; upper leaves palmately parted; fruit flat, cheese- 
shaped. E. (Malva another genus; + Gk. astron = a star; application 
not apparent.) Malvastrum coccineum (FALSE MALLOW) 

DD. Carpels i-3-ovuled, i-3-seeded; none of the leaves more deeply lobed than 
halfway to the base; fruit conic. SPHAERALCEA (p. 152) 

AA. Leaves not lobed; palmately or pinnately veined. 
E. Leaves 5 cm. or less wide; carpels 6-10, i-2-seeded; plants often not densely 


F. Petals red or rose-colored; carpels i-2-seeded, extended upward as an empty 

portion. SPHAERALCEA (p. 152) 

FF. Petals white or yellow; carpels i-seeded, filled by the seed. SIDA (p. 152) 

EE. Leaves 10-20 cm. wide; carpels 12-15, 3-seeded; plants densely and finely 

velvety-pubescent. W. (Meaning unknown.) 

Abutilon theophrasti (VELVET-LEAF) 


Flowers solitary in the leaf axils, or rarely in terminal racemes. Petals 
obcordate. Carpels many, i-ovuled, in a ring around a broad central axis, 
free, separating, indehiscent, beakless ; axis not projecting beyond the car- 
pels. (Gk. malache = soft ; because the crushed herbage is mucilaginous.) 

A. Stem leaves dissected into linear lobes; carpels very hairy; plant erect; flowers 

2.5-5 cm. wide. W. M. moschata (MUSK MALLOW) 

AA. Stem leaves merely crenate or with rounded shallow lobes; carpels glabrous or 

puberulent; flowers o. 8-1.4 cm. wide. 

B. Stems procumbent; leaves rounded; carpels puberulent, not reticulate on the 

back. W. E. M. rotundifolia (FAIRY CHEESES) 

BB. Stems erect or ascending; leaves somewhat angular-lobed; carpels glabrous, 

reticulate on the back. W. M. parviflora 


Annual or perennial. Flowers purple or white, in terminal racemes or 
spikes. Involucre none. Outer stamens united into 5 sets opposite the 
5 petals. Style filiform. Carpels 5-9, i-seeded, separating at maturity, 
indehiscent. (Sida = another genus of this family ; + Gk. alkea = a 

A. Petals 8-13 mm. long; calyx 4-8 mm. long. 
B. Flowers in racemes, either simple or paniculate. 

C. Calyx lobes attenuate-acuminate from a wide base. W. S. glaucescens 

CC. Calyx lobes broadly deltoid. W. E. S. oregana 

BB. Flowers in long dense spikes. U. S. spicata 

AA. Petals 15-30 mm. long; calyx 8-15 mm. long. 

D. Petals rose-colored; calyx 6-10 mm. long; mature carpels more or less reticulate 
on the back. 

E. Stems 4-7 cm. high; carpels glabrous. E. S. nervata 
EE. Stems 6-15 dm. high; carpels pubescent. W. E. S. campestris 

DD. Petals red; calyx 12-15 mm. long; mature carpels smooth. W. 

S. bendersoni 



Perennial. Involucre 2-3-leaved, setaceous, often deciduous. Stamen 
column simple; filaments distinct above, many. Styles 5 or more. Seed 
reniform. (Gk. sphaira = a sphere, alkea = a mallow : referring to the 
commonly spherical fruit.) 

A. Leaves canescent, 2.5-5 cm. long, 3-5-lobed,or not lobed; flowers usually scarlet; 
calyx lobes 4-6 mm. long. E. S. munroana 

A A. Leaves not canescent, 5-15 cm. long, 3-y-lobed or -cleft; flowers usually rose- 
B. Calyx lobes ovate, 4-6 mm. long; pedicels usually less than 6 mm. long. E. 

S. rivularis 

BB. Calyx lobes caudate-acuminate, 15-25 mm. long; pedicels 10 mm. or more 
long. E. S. longisepala 


Pubescent or tomentose. Leaves pinnately or palmately veined. Stamen 
tube simple. Petals oblique. Styles 5 or more. Carpels 6-10, separating 
from the axis. (Greek name of some plant.) 

A. Plant scurf y-canescent, perennial; leaves reniform to ovate-cordate; calyx sub- 
tended by an involucre of 2-3 bractlets. E. S. hederacea 

AA. Plant glabrous or puberulent, annual; leaves lanceolate to ovate-cordate; calyx 
not subtended by an involucre. W. S. acuta 


Herbs. Leaves opposite, entire, pellucid- punctate or black-dotted; 
stipules none. Flowers regular, perfect. Sepals 5. Petals 5. 
Stamens 5 to many. Ovary superior; styles 1-7. Fruit a capsule, 
septicidal. Seeds many. Only the following genus. 


Petals yellow. Capsule i-6-celled. (Said to be from Gk. hyper = 
under ; + erica = a heather.) 

A. Plants low, often prostrate or ascending, often matted. W. C. E. 

H. anagalloides (CREEPING ST. JOHN'S-WORT) 
AA. Plants erect. 

B. Plant annual; stamens 5-10; capsule i-celled. W. H. majus 

BB. Plant perennial; stamens more than 12; capsule 3-celled. 
C. Sepals lanceolate, acute or acuminate; capsule not lobed. W. 

H. perforatum (COMMON ST. JOHN'S-WORT) 
CC. Sepals oval or oblong, obtuse; capsule 3-lobed. W. E. H. formosum 


Herbs. Leaves opposite, entire or serrate; stipules present. 
Flowers small, axillary, solitary or fascicled, perfect, regular. 


Sepals 2-5. Petals 2-5. Stamens i or 2 times as many as sepals. 
Ovary superior, 2-5-celled; styles 2-5. Capsule septicidal; 
placentae central. Seeds many. 

A. Flower parts in 2's or a's or 4*3; plant glabrous, aquatic or creeping; sepals 
obtuse, without midvein. ELATINE (p. 153) 

AA. Flower parts in s's; plant pubescent, ascending or diffuse; sepals pointed or 
acute, with midvein. E. (Honor of J. P. Bergius, a Swedish botanist.) 

Bergia tezana 

Leaves entire. Flowers minute. Sepals 2-4, persistent, membranous. 
Petals white or rose-colored or purplish. Styles or stigmas 2-4. Pod 
glabrous. (Gk. elate = the Fir ; because some species have narrow, firlike 

A. Sepals and petals and carpels and stamens 2-3; seed nearly straight; petals rose- 
colored or purplish. 

B. Sepals and petals and stamens usually 3; seeds but little sculptured; leaves 

oblanceolate. E. E. triandra 

BB. Sepals and petals and stamens usually 2; seeds distinctly sculptured; leaves 

obovate. W. E. E. americana 

AA. Sepals and petals and carpels 3-4; stamens 6-8; seeds curved into a hook or 

partial ring; petals white; leaves obovate. E. 



Herbs. Leaves simple; entire to laciniate, pinnately or pal- 
mately veined; stipules present. Flowers perfect, mostly irregular. 
Sepals 5. Petals 5, hypogynous. Anthers connivent in a ring or 
syngenesious. Ovary i, i-celled; placentae 3, parietal; style simple. 
Capsule dehiscent by valves. Only the following genus. 


Leaves alternate or all basal, evergreen or deciduous. Flowers solitary 
or rarely 2 together, long-peduncled. Lower petal large, spurred or saccate. 
Stamens 5. (The Latin name.) 

A. Leaves cleft or more deeply separated into lobes or divisions; stem present; petals 

yellow, the upper one brownish or purplish. 

B. Leaves once lobed or dissected into 5-9 lobes or teeth; with creeping rhizomes. 

U. V. lobata 

BB. Leaves 2-3 times dissected or lobed; lobes usually more than 9; without 

creeping rhizomes. 

C. Petals beardless, yellow or the upper one brownish. 
D. Leaves short-pubescent, ternately divided into 3 segmented lobes. U. 

V. chrysantha 

DD. Leaves glabrous, pinnately divided into 5 or more segmented lobes. U. C. 

V. sheltonl 


CC. Lateral petals bearded with a tuft of hairs; upper petals deep blue or violet- 

E. Plant pubescent; leaves rounded in general outline, and their segments linear 

or linear-spatulate. C. E. V. beckwithii 

EE. Plant glabrous; leaves either not rounded in general outline, or else their 

lobes lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate. 

F. Leaf segments veinless or obscurely veined; stipules adnate, often large, 
laciniate or entire. W. V. hallii 

FF. Leaf segments prominently 3-veined; stipules free, small, entire. E. 

V. trinervata 

AA. Leaves very shallowy lobed or merely toothed or even entire. 
G. Petals yellow. 

H. Stems prostrate, stolon-like; leaves evergreen. 

I. Leaves cordate; leafy branches producing petal-bearing flowers. W. C. E. 

V. sempervirens (EVERGREEN VIOLET) 
n. Leaves reniform; leafy branches producing only apetalous flowers. C. E. 

V. orbiculata 

HH. Stems erect, not stolon-like; leaves not evergreen. 
J. Plant glabrous. 

K. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or obtuse; capsule globose, pubescent. 
W. C. E. V. venosa 

KK. Leaves round-cordate or reniform, acuminate or acute; capsule oblong, 
glabrous. W. C. E. V. glabella 

JJ. Plant pubescent. W. C. E. V. nuttallii (HAIRY YELLOW VIOLET) 

GG. Petals some other color. 
L. Plants stemless. 

M. Plant hirsute or villous, not stoloniferous; petals 10-17 mm - long, blue or 
violet, all bearded at base. E. V. cuspidata 

MM. Plant glabrous or very nearly so. 

N. Leaves ovate to spatulate-oblong, attenuate to the petiole; plant stolonif- 
erous. U. V. primulaefolia (PRIMROSE VIOLET) 
NN. Leaves truncate to cordate at base, not attenuate to the petiole. 
O. Petals 6-8 mm. long, white or light blue or violet, lower ones with purple 

veins; plants stoloniferous. 

P. Corolla white; lower 3 petals with purple lines. W. C. E. V. blanda 

PP. Corolla violet. W. C. E. V. palustris (MARSH VIOLET) 

OO. Petals 10-25 mm. long, violet. 

Q. Petals 10-17 mm. long; plant not stoloniferous; stipules less than 12 mm. 

long. W. E. V. nephrophylla 

QQ. Petals 19-25 mm. long; plant stoloniferous; stipules 12-21 mm. long. 

W. V. langsdorfii 

LL. Plants with stems. 

R. Stipules or at least those of the basal leaves serrate or laciniate, scarious or 


S. Plant puberulent or glabrous; stipules herbaceous. 

T. Leaves usually brown dotted at least beneath; none of the stipules entire. 
U. Plant usually 7-30 cm. high, glabrous; leaves 1.3-3.8 cm. long. W. C. E. 

V. adunca 
UU. Plant 3-5 cm. high, densely puberulent; leaves 1-2 cm. long. W. C. 

V. arenaria (SAND VIOLET) 

TT. Leaves not dotted; stipules of the stem leaves entire. W. V. howellil 

SS. Plant pubescent. 
V. Pubescence retrorse; stipules herbaceous; flowers violet. W. C. E. 

V. retroscabra 


W. Pubescence not retrorse; stipules scarious; flowers white or somewhat 
yellowish, with purplish veins. U. V. ocellata 

RR. Stipules all entire, scarious. 
W. Leaves rhombic-ovate with cuneate bases, except sometimes the basal. U. 

V. cuneata 

WW. Leaves cordate or reniform. 

X. Leaves cordate, acuminate. E. V. canadensis (CANADA VIOLET) 

XX. Leaves reniform, obtuse. W. V. flettii 


Herbs, erect often with hooked or stinging or viscid hairs. Leaves 
alternate, pinnately veined, simple; stipules none. Flowers regular, 
perfect, white or yellow. Calyx 5-lobed, persistent. Petals on 
the calyx, 5-10. Stamens many, on the calyx. Ovary inferior, 
i-celled; placentae 2-3, parietal. Capsule i -celled. Only the 
following genus. 


Leaves mostly coarsely toothed or pinnatifid. Calyx tube cylindric to 
obconic. Stamens 20-300. (Honor of C. Mentzel, a German botanist.) 

A. Biennials; flowers 2.5-6.3 cm. long; each placenta with 2 rows of ovules; capsule 


B. Leaves lanceolate; petals 10. 

C. Outer petals less than 5 cm. long; plant 2-2.5 dm. high; some of the anther- 
bearing filaments dilated. E. M. pumila 
CC. Outer petals 5-6.2 cm. long; plant 6-9 dm. high; all of the filaments filiform. 
E. M. laevicaulis 
BB. Leaves linear; petals 5. E. M. brandegei 
AA. Annual; flowers 0.3-1.6 cm. long; each placenta with i row of ovules; capsule 


D. Seed tuberculate, more or less grooved along the angles; leaves usually sinuate- 
toothed. E. M. integrifolia 
DD. Seed smooth or striate. 

E. Flowers not bracted; seed 0.7-1.4 mrrf. long. E. M. albicaulis 

EE. Flowers conspicuously bracted with wide-toothed bracts; seed almost 2 mm. 

long. E. M. congesta 


Stems fleshy, spiny, the spines arising from cushions of minute 
bristles. Leaves none or mere spines. Flowers perfect, regular, 
showy. Calyx many-lobed or of distinct sepals. Petals many. 
Stamens many. Ovary inferior, i-celled; placentae several, parietal. 
Fruit mostly fleshy. Seeds many. 

A Stems not jointed, ovoid, not branched; " eyes" raised on tubercles. E. 
(L. mamilla = a nipple; referring to the tubercles.) 

Mamillaria vivipara (BALL CACTUS) 
AA. Stems jointed, branched; " eyes " not raised on tubercles. OPUNTIA (p. 156) 



" Eyes " spine-bearing. Flowers lateral. Calyx lobes spreading. Ovary 
cylindric. Fruit pear-shaped. (Grew in Greece near the town of Opun- 

A. Joints of the stem decidedly flattened; spines 8-15 from the same place. E. 

O. polycantha (SPINY OPUNTIA) 

AA. Joints of the stem ovate or subglobose, nearly terete; spines 1-4 from the same 
place. W. E. O. fragilis (FRAGILE OPUNTIA) 


Shrubs, silvery-scaly or stellate-pubescent. Leaves opposite. Flow- 
ers imperfect, clustered or rarely solitary. Perianth of pistillate 
flowers tubular or urn-shaped below; limb 4-cleft, deciduous. 
Corolla none. Stamens 8. Ovary i -celled. Fruit drupelike, 
red. Seed i. W. C. E. (Honor of J. Shepherd, curator of the 
Liverpool Botanic Gardens.) Shepherdia canadensis (SOAP-OLALLEE) 


Herbs; stem 4-angled. Leaves opposite or alternate. Flowers 
perfect. Calyx persistent, free from the ovary but usually inclos- 
ing it, toothed. Petals as many as the sepal teeth of the calyx. 
Stamens various in number, on the calyx. Ovary i-6-celled; style 
i. Fruit a capsule. 

A. Calyx tube campanulate, 4-striate; leaves all opposite, not rounded at base. 

B. Leaves linear-lanceolate, sessile, cordate-auricled and somewhat clasping at 

base; capsule bursting irregularly. W. E. (Honor of P. Ammann, a German 

botanist.) Ammania coccinea 

BB. Leaves oblong or linear-oblong, sessile or petioled, narrowed at base, not 

auricled nor clasping; capsule septicidal. E. (Diminutive of L. rota = a 

wheel; referring to whorled leaves of some species.) Rotala ramosior (ROTALA) 

AA. Calyx tube cylindric, 8-i2-striate; leaves alternate or the lower opposite, 

sessile, rounded at base, not clasping. W. (Gk. lythron = blood; from the 

purple flowers of some.) Lythrum hyssopifolium (LOOSESTRIFE) 


Herbs. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite; stipules none or 
mere glands. Flowers perfect, regular or irregular. Calyx tube 
adherent to the ovary, often prolonged beyond it; calyx limb 
2-6-lobed, but usually 4-lobed. Petals o or 2 or 4. Stamens usually 
as many or twice as many as the sepals. Ovary inferior, 1-6- 
celled; style i. Fruit a capsule or nutlet. 


A. Leaves opposite, not all basal. 

B. Calyx segments 2, petals 2, stamens 2; capsule obovate, leaves ovate to cor- 
date. CIRCAEA (p. 161) 
BB. Calyx segments 4, petals 4, stamens 4 or 8; capsule mostly not obovate; 
leaves in most species narrow. 

C. Stems procumbent or floating; leaves entire; stamens 4; capsules about 
3 mm. long; calyx segments persistent on the capsule; seeds not hairy. W. E. 
(Honor of C. G. Ludwig, a German botanist.) 

Ludwigia palustris (WATER PURSLANE) 

CC. Stems neither procumbent nor floating, erect to decument or caespitose; 
leaves often not entire; stamens 8; capsule 10 mm. or more long; calyx seg- 
ments deciduous from the capsule; seed long-hairy at one end. 

EPILOBIUM (p. 158) 
AA. Leaves alternate or all basal. 
D. Plants with evident stems. 

E. Lower leaves often opposite; stamens 8; seed with a tuft of long hairs at one 
end. EPILOBIUM (p. 158) 

EE. Leaves all alternate; stamens 4 or 8; seed without a tuft of hairs at one end. 
F. Anthers versatile. 

G. Stigma plainly 4-lobed or -cleft; leaves not entire. 

H. Flowers axillary, white, becoming rose-colored in age; some species with 

pinnatifid leaves; capsule not nutlike, elongated, many-seeded; seeds in 

i row in each cell of the pod. ANOGRA (p. 160) 

HH. Flowers in terminal spikes, yellow or rose-colored; no species with 

pinnatifid leaves. 

I. Petals yellow, sometimes becoming pink in age, obcordate; capsule 
elongated, not nutlike, many -seeded; seeds in two rows in each cell. 

ONAGRA (p. 159) 

II. Petals rose-colored, spatulate; capsule oblong, nutlike, i-4-seeded. 
E. (Gk. gauros = superb; some species have fine flowers.) 

Gaura parviflora (SMALL-FLOWERED GAURA) 

GG. Stigma either 2-lobed or else capitate and not lobed; leaves entire or not. 
J. Leaves lyrafely pinnate or pinnatifid. CHYLISMA (p. 161) 

JJ. Leaves entire or denticulate. 

K. Leaves denticulate or entire, linear or wider; calyx tube prolonged be- 
yond the ovary; ovary 4-celled. SPHAEROSTIGMA (p. 160) 
KK. Leaves entire, linear; calyx tube not prolonged beyond the ovary; 
ovary 2-celled. GAYOPHYTUM (p. 161) 
FF. Anthers not versatile. 

L. Fruit dehiscent by valves, elongated, not nutlike, many-seeded; leaves 
entire to dentate. 

M. Calyx lobes erect; petals 2-lobed, sessile. BOISPUVALIA (p. 158) 

MM. Calyx lobes reflexed; petals 3-lobed or entire. 

N. Petals sessile, entire, rose or violet; leaves entire. GODETIA (p. 159) 

NN. Petals clawed, 3-lobed or entire, purple or violet; leaves entire to 

dentate. CLARKIA (p. 158) 

LL. Fruit indehiscent, nutlike, i-2-seeded; stigma disklike, entire; petals 

clawed; leaves entire. U. (Gk. heteros = unlike; + Gaura = another 

genus.) Heterogaura californica 


DD. Plants stemless or nearly so, the stems not over 3 cm. long. 
O. Stigma capitate, entire or rarely with 4 shallow lobes; stamens of equal 
length; petals white or yellow; pod not winged. TARAXIA (p. 160) 

OO. Stigma deeply cleft into 4 linear lobes; outer 4 stamens longer than the 

inner 4; petals white or rose-colored. 

P. Capsule not wing-angled; seed grooved on one side; leaves entire to pin- 
natifid. PACHYLOPHUS (p. 160) 

PP. Capsule wing-angled; seed not grooved; leaves pinnatifid. E. (Honor 
of Delavaux, the founder of a French botanical garden.) 

Lavauxia trilobata (3-LOBED PRIMROSE) 


Annual or perennial. Leaves nearly sessile, entire or denticulate. 
Flowers variously colored, racemose or paniculate. Calyx tube not con- 
spicuously prolonged beyond the ovary; calyx deeply 4-lobed. Petals 4. 
Stamens 8, 4 shorter. Capsule linear, 4-sided, 4-celled, 4-valved. Seeds 
many, with a tuft of hair at the summit. (Gk. epi = on, lobion = a little 

A. Calyx tube not extending beyond the ovary; flowers pink, 15 mm. or more wide. 

B. Stem 10-20 dm. high; leaves with a conspicuous vein along the margin; bracts 

small, not leaflike. W. C. E. E. angustifolium (FIREWEED) 

BB. Stem 1.5-5 dm. high; leaves without vein along the margin; bracts large, 

leaflike. W. C. E. E. latifollum 

AA. Calyx tube extending beyond the ovary; flowers white or pink or yellow, often 

less than 15 mm. wide. These, though common, are too difficult for beginners. 

(F. & R. pp. 262-264.) 


Annual. Leaves sessile. Flowers small, in spikes; spikes leafy, simple 
or compound. Calyx tube funnelform, deciduous. Petals 4, white to 
purple. Stamens 8, 4 shorter. Capsule membranous, 4-celled, nearly 
terete, sessile, acute. (Honor of J. H. Bois Duval, a French naturalist.) 

A. Upper leaves much wider than the lower ones; flowers often in numerous lateral spike- 
lets. W. E. B. densiflora 
AA. Upper leaves not wider than the lower ones; flowers in simple terminal spikes 

or solitary in the leaf axils. 

B. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, pubescent; capsule linear-acuminate, 8-12 mm. 

long, its cells 6-8-seeded. W. E. B. stricta 

BB. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, often glabrous; capsule ovate-oblong, 4-8 mm. long, 

its cells 4-6-seeded. E. B. glabella 


Annual, erect; stems brittle. Leaves entire. Flowers showy, in 
terminal racemes. Calyx tube obconic, deciduous; calyx limb 4-cleft. 
Petals 4. Stamens 8, 4 often rudimentary. Capsule 4-celled, coriaceous, 
erect, angled, 4-celled. Seeds many. (Honor of W. Clark, of the Lewis 
and Clark Expedition.) 


A. Petals 3-lobed, their claws long; alternate stamens rudimentary; capsule 8-angled; 

pedicel 4-6 mm. long. E. C. pulchella 

AA. Petals entire, their claws short, wide; all stamens pollen-bearing; capsule 4- 

angled; pedicel 1-3 mm. long. C. E. C. rhomboidea 


Annual; stems erect. Flowers showy, in racemes or spikes. Calyx 
tube obconic or shortly funnelform, deciduous. Petals 4. Stamns 8, 
4 shorter. Capsule 4-celled, 4-sided, somewhat coriaceous, loculicidal. 
(Honor of M. Godet, a Swiss botanist.) 

A. Flowers in a narrow compact spike, erect in the bud; capsule ovate to oblong; 

seeds in i or 2 rows; leaves close together. 

B. Tips of the calyx lobes not at all free in the bud; sides of the capsule not 2-ribbed; 

seeds in 2 rows in each cell. W. G. purpurea 

BB. Tips of the calyx lobes slightly free in the bud; capsule 2-ribbed at least on the 

alternate sides; seeds in one row in each cell. 

C. Flowers in a short simple spike. W. G. lepida 

CC. Flowers in many short lateral spikelets. W. G. albescens 

AA. Flowers in a loose spike or a raceme, nodding in the bud; capsule linear; seeds 

in i row; leaves distant. 
D. Capsule sessile; calyx tips mostly free. 
E. Petals 6-12 mm. long. 
F. Ovary and capsule villous; capsule 2-ribbed at the alternate sides. W. E. 

G. quadrivulnera 
FF. Ovary and capsule puberulent; capsule nearly flat at the sides. U. 

G. tenella 

EE. Petals 18-30 mm. long. W. C. G. viminea 

DD. Capsules with pedicels; calyx tips mostly not free. 
G. Petals 6-12 mm. long; pedicel of capsule 1-4 mm. long. W. E. 

G. epilobioides 

GG. Petals 12-30 mm. long; pedicel of capsule 4-15 mm. long. 
H. Plant minutely puberulent; stem somewhat branched above. 
I. Anthers sparingly hairy, large, the terminal part sterile and often hooked. W. 

G. caurina 
IE. Anthers glabrous, small, fertile to the tips. W. C. E. 

HH. Plant hispid with short spreading hairs; stem simple. W. G. hispidula 


Annual or biennial; stems 3-15 dm. high, coarse. Leaves alternate. 
Flowers yellow, changing to pink in age, nocturnal, erect before opening. 
Calyx tube more or less prolonged above the ovary, deciduous; calyx 
segments 4, reflexed. Petals 4, equal, sessile, obcordate to obovate. 
Stamens 8, equal; anthers versatile. Stigma deeply 4-cleft. Seeds in 
2 or rarely more rows, prismatic-angled. (Said to be from Gk. onagros = 
the wild ass, whose ears the leaves resemble.) 

A. Petals 1-2 cm. long; calyx lobes shorter than the calyx tube. W. E. O. strigosa 
AA. Petals 2.5-4 cm. long. 

B. Calyx lobes nearly glabrous, shorter than the calyx tube; annual, erect. E. 

O. macbrideae 


BB. Calyx lobes densely hairy, as long as or longer than the calyx tube; biennial. 

C. Flowers yellow or purplish, drying lighter; stems erect. W. E. O. hookeri 
CC. Flowers yellow, drying darker; stems spreading. E. O. ornata 


Annual or perennial. Flowers diurnal, nodding in bud. Calyx tube 
prolonged above the ovary, deciduous ; calyx segments 4, narrow. Stamens 
8, unequal ; anthers versatile. Capsule loculicidal. (An anagram of 

A. Calyx villous or densely strigose; at least some of the leaves deeply pinnatifid. E. 

A. trichocalyx 

AA. Calyx glabrate or sparsely hairy; leaves entire to merely short-lobed. 
B. Leaves glabrous; capsules divaricate, usually some of them contorted or twisted. 
E. A. pallida 

BB. Leaves pubescent beneath; capsules ascending, straight. E. A. nuttallii 


Herbs, perennial. Flowers large, white or rose-colored. Calyx tube 
elongated ; limb 4-parted, erect in the bud. Petals 4, .sessile, white but 
changing to red in age. Capsule ovate or ovate-oblong, large, rigid, 4- 
angled. Seeds in i or 2 rows. (Gk. pachys = thick, lophis = a crest ; 
referring to the warty edges of the capsule.) 

A. Plant wholly glabrous throughout; petals 2-4 cm. long. E. P. caespitosus 
AA. Plant more or less pubescent or hairy; petals 4-6 cm. long. 

B. Leaves green, glabrous except for the villous margin. E. P. marginatus 

BB. Leaves canescent-puberulent on both sides. E. P. canescens 


Leaves entire to pinnatifid. Flowers axillary. Calyx tube filiform, 

longer than the ovary; limb 4-parted. Petals 4. Stamens 8. Capsule 

sessile. Seeds in 2 rows in each cell. (Gk. taraxis = trouble or con- 
fusion ; apparently a puzzling genus.) 

A. Leaves deeply pinnatifid. 

B. Plant white-pubescent. E. T. breviflora 
BB. Plants glabrous or nearly so. (See D.) 

AA. Leaves entire to repand-denticulate. 

C. Plant perennial, glabrous or somewhat pubescent; leaves oblong-lanceolate. 

D. Plant glabrous; capsule 1.5-2 cm. long; seeds many. E. T. heterantha 
DD. Plant somewhat pubescent; capsule 1.2 cm. long; seeds few. E. T. ovata 

CC. Plant annual, villous; leaves linear. E. T. gracilliflora 


Flowers solitary or in spikes, white or rose-colored or yellow. Calyx 
tube obconic or shortly funnelform; calyx segments 4, reflexed. Petals 4, 
Stamens 8, somewhat unequal. Stigma capitate, entire. Capsule elongated. 
Seeds in i row in each cell. (Gk. sphaira = sphere ; -f stigma ; because 
the stigma is capitate.) 


A. Flowers yellow or yellowish, sometimes turning red or green. 
B. Capsule linear, more or less contorted. 

C. Stem glabrous; leaves 6-18 mm. long; petals 2-4 mm. long. W. E. 

S. contortum 

CC. Stems not glabrous; leaves longer; petals 6-8 mm. long. 

D. Stem puberulent; capsule 20-25 mm. long. E. S. implexum 

DD. Stem pubescent; capsule 8-16 mm. long. U. S. spirale 
BB. Capsule attenuate upward from a wider base, straight. 

E. Seeds pale, linear; flowers barely 2 mm. long. E. S. andinum 

EE. Seeds dark, obovate or clavate; flowers 2-4 mm. long. E. S. hilgardi 
AA. Flowers white or rose-color. 

F. Leaves oblanceolate. E. S. tortum 

FF. Leaves ovate. E. S. booth!! 


Annual. Flowers yellow or rose-colored, in terminal racemes. Calyx 
tube funnelform or obconic ; calyx segments 4. Petals 4, entire. Stamens 
8, 4 shorter. Stigma capitate, entire. Capsule long, membranous, not 
sessile. Seeds in i row in each cell. (Probably Gk. chylos = plant juice.) 

A. Flowers yellow. E. C. scapoidea 

AA. Flowers rose-colored. E. C. cruciformis 


Annual. Flowers axillary. Calyx segments 4. Petals 4, white or rose- 
colored, very small. Stamens 8, 4 shorter. Stigma entire. Capsule 
membranous, clavate, 2-celled, 4-valved. Seeds in i row in each cell. 
(Probably Gk. gaios = on land, phyton = a plant.) 

A. Seed hairy. 

B. Stem 2-3 dm. high; petals about 2 mm. long; pod scarcely torulose. C. E. 

G. lasiospermum 

BB. Stems 3-5 dm. high; petals 6-8 mm. long; pod torulose. E. G. eriospermum 
AA. Seed glabrous. 

C. Capsule nearly sessile; branches nearly all from near the base of the stem. C. E. 

G. racemosum 

CC. Capsules on elongated pedicels; branches mostly from the upper part of the 

D. Flowers 5-12 mm. wide. E. G. diffusum 
DD. Flowers 2-4 mm. wide. C. E. G. ramossissimum 


Perennial, low. Flowers small, white, in terminal and lateral racemes. 
Stamens alternate with the petals. Fruit a capsule, small, densely hispid 
with hooked hairs, indehiscent, i-celled, i-seeded. (Honor of Circe, a 
Greek enchantress, who is said to have used these plants.) 

A. Leaves dentate; racemes with minute setaceous bracts subtending the pedicels. 

W. C. E. C. alpina 

AA. Leaves undulate-denticulate; racemes bractless. W. C. E. C. pacifica 

F. & R. EL. FL. II 



Herbs glabrous, aquatic. Some of the leaves whorled, the sub- 
merged ones often pectinate-pinnatifid. Flowers rare. Calyx 
entire or 2~4-lobed. Petals none or 2-4. Stamens 1-8. Ovary 
inferior. Fruit a nutlet or drupe. 

A. Submerged leaves pinnatifid into capillary segments, 3-5 in a whorl or rarely 
some scattered; stem not Equisetum-\ike. (Gk. myrios = numberless, phyllon 
= a leaf; the leaves are split into very many segments.) Species too difficult. 
(F. & R. p. 269.) Myriophyllum (WATER MILFOIL) 

AA. All leaves linear or wider, simple, entire, 4-12 in a whorl; stem conspicuously 
jointed and somewhat Equisetum-\ike. W. C. E. (Gk. hippos = a horse, oura 
= a tail; from the resemblance of the leafy stem.) 

Hippuris vulgaris (MARE'S TAIL) 


Herbs or shrubs, perennial. Leaves alternate or whorled. 
Flowers perfect or polygamous, clustered. Calyx limb truncate 
or toothed or none. Petals usually 5. Stamens as many as the 
petals and alternate with them, rarely more on the epigynous disk. 
Ovary usually inferior. Fruit a berry or drupe. 

A. Shrubs ; leaves simple. 

B. Erect or decumbent, not vining, very prickly; twigs 1-2.5 cm. thick; leaves 
deciduous, prickly, 15-50 cm. long. W. C. E. (The Japanese common name 
for one of the species.) Fatsia horrida (DEVIL'S CLUB) 

BB. Vining, climbing by roots from the vines, not prickly; twigs smaller; leaves 
evergreen, smooth, 3-15 cm. long. W. Planted for decorating walls. (Celtic 
hedra = a cord; from the vining stems.) Hedera helix (ENGLISH IVY) 

AA. Herbs; leaves compound. 

C. Leaves not whorled, pinnate or ternate, usually 2-compound; fruit not red. 

ARALIA (p. 162) 

CC. Leaves 3 in a whorl, palmate, i-compound; fruit red. W. Cultivated for 
its medicinal roots. (Gk. pan = all, akos = a cure; from reputed medicinal 
properties.) Panax quinquefolium (GINSENG) 


Herbs. Leaves alternate. Flowers small, in umbels, white or greenish. 
Calyx truncate or 5-toothed. Petals 5. Styles 5. Fruit a small berry. 
Seeds about 5. (Meaning undetermined.) 

A. Plant stemless or nearly so; leaf i, ternate and each division ternately or pin- 
nately 3-s-foliolate; umbels commonly 3, simple, not involucrate. E. 

A. nudicaulis (WILD SARSAPARILLA) 

AA. Plant with stem 2-3 m. high; leaves many, i-2-pinnate; umbels many, involu- 
crate. C. A. californica (CALIFORNIA SPIKENARD) 



Herbs. Leaves simple to decompound, alternate; stipules none 
or minute. Flowers small, usually in umbels, rarely in heads or 
headlike clusters, umbels simple or compound. Calyx limb 
none or $-lobed; lobes inconspicuous. Petals 5, on the calyx. 
Stamens 5, on the epigynous disk; anthers versatile. Ovary inferior, 
2-celled; styles 2, persistent, often on a conic or depressed stylo- 
podium. Fruit dry; carpels 2, 1 -seeded, with o or 5 chief ribs, 
sometimes with 4 other smaller ribs, usually separating at maturity 
along their plane of union (commissure), after separation borne 
on a slender axis (carpophore); ribs often winged; oil tubes usually 

This difficult family depends upon the oil tubes in the fruit for 
the separation of the genera. To see these, cut a thin cross section 
of a carpel with a sharp knife and examine with the low power of 
the compound microscope. The oil tubes are hollows just outside 
the seed cavity. The key is given mostly to the genera only. 
It is doubtful whether beginners should go beyond the family. 
(F. & R. pp. 271-290.) 

A. Leaves simple. 
B. Leaves awl-shaped to lanceolate or oblanceolate or oblong. 

C. Leaves entire; flowers white or yellow, in umbels. GROUP 3, BB (p. 165) 
CC. Leaves lobed to dentate; flowers white or blue, in dense somewhat spiny 

heads. GROUP 1, A (p. 163) 

BB. Leaves ovate to orbicular or kidney-shaped. 

D. Marsh or water plants ; leaves kidney-shaped, wider than long ; umbel simple. 

GROUP 3, B (p. 165) 

DD. Not marsh nor water plants; leaves ovate or longer, at least longer than 
wide; umbel compound. GROUP 1, B (p. 163) 

AA. Leaves compound or very deeply dissected. 

E. Fruit conspicuously bristly or scaly. GROUP 1 (p. 163) 

EE. Fruit not bristly nor scaly. 

F. Fruit strongly flattened dorsally ; lateral ribs more or less prominently winged. 

GROUP 2 (p. 164) 

FF. Fruit not strongly flattened dorsally, usually somewhat flattened laterally. 
G. Oil tube o-i in each interval. GROUP 3 (p. 165) 

GG. Oil tubes more than i in each interval. GROUP 4 (p. 166) 


A. Flowers in dense bracted prickly heads. (Said to be from Gk. erygein = to 
belch; some were thought a remedy for flatulency.) Eryngium (ERYNGO) 

AA. Flowers in compound umbels, the umbellets often in headlike clusters, but 
then not or hardly bracted. 


B. Fruit covered with hooked bristles; leaves merely coarsely lobed or i-com- 
pound. (L. sanare = to heal; because a common European species is vul- 
nerary.) Sanicula (.SANICLE) 
BB. Fruit with bristles only on the ribs; leaves finely dissected or more than 

i -compound. 
C. Bristles of the fruit barbed with arrowhead-like tips; stylopodium none. 

DAUCUS (p. 167) 

CC. Bristles of the fruit not barbed, or merely hooked by the curved tips; stylo- 
podium conical or short. 

D. Calyx lobes prominent ; fruit ovate or oblong ; oil tube i in each interval ; 
leaves pinnately dissected into small narrow divisions. W. E. (The Greek 
name.) Caucalis microcarpa (HEDGE PARSLEY) 

DD. Calyx lobes none ; fruit linear-oblong or linear ; oil tubes none or nu- 
merous; leaves ternately decompound; leaflets wide, ovate, toothed. 
(Honor of George Washington, the first President.) 

Washingtonia (SWEET CICELY) 


A. Oil tube i in each interval. 
B. Plant with a leafy stem. 
C. Flowers greenish or white or purplish. 

D. Plant either slender or else pubescent at least in the umbels; stylopodium 

E. Plant slender, glabrous; fruit glabrous. E. (Probably Gk. oxys = 
sharp, polion = a plant with a strong odor.) 

Oxypolis occidentalis (COWBANE) 

EE. Plant stout, pubescent at least in the umbels; fruit hairy. 
F. Leaves i-2-pinnate; leaflets oblong to linear-lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm. long. 
E. (Gk. sphen = a wedge, skiadion = an umbrella; probably referring to 
the form of the fruit.) Sphenosciadium capitellatum 

FF. Leaves large, ternate; leaflets round-cordate, 10-25 cm. long. W. C. E. 
(Honor of Hercules.) Heracleum lanatum (cow PARSNIP) 

DD. Plant stout and glabrous; stylopodium flat or none. (See H.) Angelica 
CC. Flowers yellow. W. E. Raised for the edible roots. (L. paslus = food.) 

Pastinaca sativa (CULTIVATED PARSNIP) 

BB. Leafy stem none or almost none. (Gk. lotna = a border; referring to the 
fruit wings.) Lomatium (HOG FENNEL) 

AA. Oil tubes more than i in each interval. 
G. Stem leafy, branching. 

H. Leaves ternately or pinnately i-3-compound. (Angelic in its supposed 
medicinal value.) Angelica (ANGELICA) 

HH. Leaves many times compound. (From the genera Conium and Selinum, 
both of which these plants resemble.) Conioselinum (HEMLOCK PARSLEY) 

GG. Stem none or leafless and unbranched. 
I. Lateral wings of the fruit thin. 

J. Stylopodium none; calyx teeth minute or none; dorsal ribs of the carpels 


K. Leaves ternate to dissected; leaflets narrow or small. 

(See BB.) Lomatium (HOG FENNEL, 

KK. Leaves i-2-compound; leaflets wide, sharply toothed. U. (Gk. 
eryon = extended, pteron = wing; referring to the fruit wings.) 

Eryptera howellii 

JJ. Stylopodium evident but flat; calyx teeth evident; dorsal ribs of the 
carpels sharp or winged. C. E. (Gk. kyon = a dog, marathron = fennel; 
application not apparent.) Cynomarathrum brandegei 

II. Lateral wings of the fruit thick. 

L. Dorsal ribs of the carpels very prominent or slightly winged. (Gk. 
pseudos = false ; + Cymopterus, a related genus.) Pseudocymopterus 

LL. Dorsal ribs of the carpels filiform. 

M. Plant dwarf; leaves small, lobed or pinnate. E. (Gk. cyma = a wave, 
pier on = a wing; the wings of the fruit are often wavy.) 

Cymopterus leibergii 

MM. Plant tall, stout; leaves large, pinnately decompound. (Gk. leptos = 
slender, taenion = a band; referring to the filiform fruit ribs.) Leptotaenia 


A. Leaves simple. 

B. Leaves kidney-shaped, 3~7-lobed and somewhat crenate. W. (Gk. hydor = 
water, kotyle = a flat cup; some species have somewhat cup-shaped peltate 
leaves.) Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (WATER PENNYWORT) 

BB. Leaves linear to oblong, entire. 

C. Leaves awl-shaped, hollow, with cross partitions ; flowers white ; umbel 
simple. W. (From Lilaea, a genus which it resembles ; + Gk. opsis = like.) 

Lilaeopsis occidentalis 

CC. Leaves linear to lanceolate, not hollow, without cross partitions ; flowers 
yellow; umbel compound. (Gk. bous = an ox, pleuron = a rib ; referring to 
the conspicuous leaf veins of some species.) 

Bupleurum americanum (THOROUGHWAX) 
AA. Leaves compound or very nearly so. 
D. Oil tubes none; carpels smooth, linear. 

E. Fruit acute-ribbed. (Honor of George Washington, the first President.) 

Washingtonia (SWEET CICELY) 
EE. Fruit not ribbed except at the beak. E. (The Latin name.) 

Anthriscus cerefolium (BEAKED PARSLEY) 
DD. Oil tube i at the base of each groove. 

F. Flowers white or rose color. 
G. Stylopodium conic. 

H. At least the upper leaflets linear or filiform. 

I. Involucre none; leaflets flabelliform or the upper leaves merely cleft. 
W. Cultivated for its seed as a spice. (Gk. koris = a bug; from the 
buglike odor of the leaves.) Coriandrum sativum (CORIANDER) 

n. Involucre present; leaflets dissected into filiform divisions. 

CARUM (p. 167) 
HH. Leaflets wider than linear. 

J. Involucre bracts few or none. Roots poisonous. (The Latin name.) 



JJ. Involucre bracts conspicuous. U. (Gk. taenion = a band ; pleuron = 
a rib; referring to the wide ribs of the carpels.) Taeniopleurum howellii 
GG. Stylopodium flat or none. 

K. At least the lateral ribs thick and corky. 

L. Plants in water or very wet places; dorsal ribs of the carpels filiform. 

W. C. (Gk. oinos = wine, anthos = a flower; some species were used 

for scenting wine.) Oenanthe sarmentosa (WATER CELERY) 

LL. Plants of rather dry soil; dorsal ribs of the carpels prominent and 


M. Ribs of the carpels much wrinkled when old; involucre none; fruit 

3 mm. long. E. (Gk. rhysos = wrinkled, pteron = a wing; referring 

to the fruit wings.) Rhysopterus plurijugus 

MM. Ribs of the carpels not wrinkled; involcre present; fruit not over 

2 mm. long. W. (Greek name for some plant of this family.) 

Ammi visnaga (TOOTHPICK PLANT) 

KK. Ribs obscure or none. E. (Honor of Mr. Leiberg, an American 
botanist.) Leibergia orogenioides 

FF. Flowers yellow; stylopodium flat or none. 

N. Ribs of the carpels conspicuously winged. E. (A modification of Thapsia, 
a related genus.) Thaspium aureum (GOLDEN MEADOW PARSNIP) 

NN. Ribs of the carpels filiform. E. (Honor of I. B. Ziz, a Rhenish bota- 
nist.) Zizia cordata (HEART-LEAVED ALEXANDERS) 


A. Stylopodium conic. 

B. Fruit round; carpels globose; carpel ribs very slender, inconspicuous. W. E. 
(The Latin name of the Water Cress.) Berula erecta 

BB. Fruit ovate or oblong. 
C. Ribs of the carpels prominent, equal. 

D. Umbel is-25-rayed; fruit oblong to ovate; carpels flattened laterally if 
at all. (From the country Liguria where garden Lovage was first found.) 

Ligusticum (LOVAGE) 

DD. Umbels 5- 1 2 -rayed; fruit oblong to linear; carpels slightly flattened dor- 
sally if at all. (Honor of George Washington, the first President.) 

Washingtonia (SWEET CICELY) 

CC. Ribs of the carpels filiform or almost none. E. (Gk. eu = well, lophos = 
a plume; apparently referring to the plumelike leaves.) Eulophus bolanderi 
AA. Stylopodium flat or none. 
E. Seed face sulcate or decidedly concave. 

F. Carpels flattened dorsally. E. (Gk. aulos = a tube, sperma = a seed; 
apparently from the many oil tubes in the fruit.) Aulospermum glaucum 

FF. Carpels terete. (Probably in honor of O. Drude, a European botanist ; 
Gk. phyton = a plant.) Drudeophytum 

EE. Seed face plane or but slightly concave. 

G. All of the ribs of the carpels conspicuously winged. 

H. Plant of the seashore, tomentose; wings of the carpels corky-thickened. 
W. (Possibly Gk. glenos = a thing to stare at, because it is so woolly.) 

Glehnia littoralis 


HH. Plants of mountains and plains, glabrous or merely pubescent; wings of 
the carpels thin. 

I. Leaves pinnate; leaf segments wide, crowded, more or less confluent ; 
flowers purple or pinkish. E. (Gk. phellos cork, pteron = wing; re- 
ferring to the fruit-wings.) Phellopterus purpurascens 

II. Leaves ternate and then pinnate; leaf segments linear, not crowded, more 
or less hard-tipped; flowers yellow or white. (Gk. pteryx = a bird's wing; 
referring to the wide fruit-wings.) Pteryxia 

GG. Ribs of the carpels not winged. 

J. Stem leaves simple, entire, clasping or perfoliate. E. (Gk. bous = an 
ox, pleuron = a rib; referring to the conspicuous leaf veins of some species.) 

Bupleurum americanum (THOROUGHWAX) 
JJ. Stem leaves none or not as above. 

K. Flowers yellow; carpel rib all filiform; plant without leafy stem. C. 
(Gk. hespera = evening or western, gennao = to beget; a western genus.) 

Hesperogenia Strickland! 

KK. Flowers white or greenish; at least the lateral carpel ribs corky. 
L. Stem 3 dm. or less high; lateral carpel ribs thick and corky, the dorsal 
filiform. (.Gk. oros a mountain, gennao = to beget; they are mountain 
plants.) Orogenia 

LL. Stem 5 dm. or more high; all the carpel ribs corky and equally prominent. 
M. Calyx teeth minute; fruit flattened laterally; leaves pinnate. W. E. 
(Gk. sion = the name of some marsh plant.) 

Slum cicutaefolium (WATER PARSNIP) 

MM. Calyx teeth none; fruit not or hardly flattened either way; leaves 
2-3 -terminate. W. (Gk. koilos = hollow, pleuron = a rib; from the 
hollow fruit ribs.) Coelopleurum 


Glabrous, erect. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets few. Flowers white ; in- 
volucre and involucels present. Fruit flattened laterally, oblong to orbicular, 
glabrous ; ribs filiform or inconspicuous ; oil tubes large, i in each interval, 
2-6 on the commissure side. (From Caria, a country in Asia Minor, where 
first found.) 

A. Even the upper leaves twice pinnate; fruit oblong, 4-5 mm. long. W. Culti- 
vated for the seed, as a spice. C. carui (GARDEN CARAWAY) 
AA. At least the upper few leaves only once pinnate. 

B. Fruit orbicular, 2 mm. long. W. C. E. C. gairdneri 
BB. Fruit oblong, 3-4 mm. long. 

C. Fruit rounded at both ends. C. E. C. oreganum 

CC. Fruit narrowed at both ends. U. C. lemmon 


Annual or biennial. Flowers white; umbels compound. Calyx teeth 
obsolete. Fruit oblong, somewhat flattened dorsally; primary ribs 5, 
slender; secondary ribs 4, winged; oil tubes i in each interval, 2 on the 
commissure side. (Daukos was the Greek name for the Carrot.) 


A. Leaf segments narrowly linear. W. E. Common weed in meadows. 

D. pusillus (WILD CARROT) 
AA. Leaf segments lanceolate. W. Cultivated for its yellow edible root. 



Herbs or shrubs or trees. Leaves opposite, mostly entire, pinnately 
veined; stipules none. Flowers in cymes or heads or ament-like 
clusters. Calyx limb 4~5-toothed or -lobed. Petals none or dis- 
tinct, 4-5. Stamens 4, alternate with the petals. Ovary inferior, 
i-2-celled; ovules 1-2 ; styles 1-2. Fruit fleshy, a drupelet or a 

A. Leaves deciduous, herbaceous ; flowers perfect; petals present ; fruit a drupe. 

CORNUS (p. 1 68) 
AA. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous; flowers dioecious; petals none; fruit a berry. 

GARRYA (p. 168) 

Herbs or shrubs or trees. Leaves entire, sometimes apparently whorled. 
Flowers variously colored, in cymes or heads, often involucrate with large 
white bracts. Calyx limb minutely 4-toothed. Petals 4. Ovary 2-celled ; 
style i. Drupe globose to oblong. Seeds 2. (L. cornu = a horn; re- 
ferring to the hardness of the wood.) 

A. Flowers in loose cymes, white or cream-colored, not involucrate; fruit white or 


B. Leaves 5-10 cm. long; calyx teeth prominent. 
C. Cyme branches hairy; leaves loosely pubescent beneath. W. C. 

C. occidentalis (WESTERN DOGWOOD) 
CC. Cyme branches glabrous; leaves appressed-pubescent beneath. C. E. 

C. stolonifera (RED-OSIER DOGWOOD) 
BB. Leaves 2.5-5 cm. long, acute at both ends; calyx teeth minute. U. 

C. glabrata 

AA. Flowers in sessile umbels, yellowish, involucrate; involucre bracts 4, 5-7 mm. 
long; fruit blue-black; shrub 3-4.5 m. high. U. C. sessilis 

AAA. Flowers in dense heads, greenish, involucrate; involucre bracts 4-6; fruit red. 
D. Plant 8-20 cm. high, herbaceous; involucre bracts 1-2 cm. long. W. C. E. 

C. canadensis (BUNCHBERRY) 

DD. Plant 10-20 m. high, shrub or tree; involucre bracts 4-8 cm. long. W. C. 



Shrubs ; bark greenish ; branchlets 4-angled. Leaves entire or undulate. 
Flowers in ament-like clusters ; clusters axillary, pendulous, solitary or in 
3's between the bracts. Calyx of the sterile flowers 4-parted ; ovary none. 
Calyx of the fertile flowers shortly 2-lobed or entire ; stamens none ; ovary 
i-celled; styles 2. Berry blue or purple. Seeds 1-2. (Honor of M. 
Garry, of the Hudson Bay Company.) 


A. Leaves mostly truncate or rounded at base, rounded or acute at apex, undulate, 
densely tomentose beneath. W. G. elliptica 

AA. Leaves acute at both ends, entire. 
B. Leaves 3.7-6.2 cm. long, glabrous or nearly so beneath. W. C. 

G. fremontii (BEAR BUSH) 
BB. Leaves 2.5-3.7 cm. long, densely white appressed-silky beneath. U. 

G. burifolia 


Herbs or shrubs, low, perennial. Leaves none or evergreen 
and coriaceous, simple, petioled. Flowers perfect, nearly regular, 
solitary or racemose or corymbose, variously colored. "Calyx 
segments 4-5. Petals 4-5, nearly or quite distinct. Stamens 
twice as many as the petals; anthers opening by pores or slits at 
one end. Ovary superior, 4~5-celled; stigma 4~5-lobed or -crenate. 
Fruit a capsule, loculicidal, dehiscent. Seeds many, minute. 

A. Leaves opposite or whorl ed; flowers solitary or in corymbs or umbels. 
B. Flowers in corymbs or umbels; style very short; leaves on erect or ascending 
branches. CHIMAPHILA (p. 169) 

BB. Flowers solitary; style long; leaves much clustered at base. W. C. E. 
(Gk. monos = i, esis = delight; referring to the single beautiful flower.) 

Moneses uniflora (SINGLE BEAUTY) 
AA. Leaves basal and not showing opposite if so; flowers in racemes. 

PYROLA (p. 169) 


Herbs or shrubs, 3 dm. or less high ; stems decumbent. Leaves opposite 
or whorled, serrate. Flowers white or purplish. Calyx 5-cleft or -parted, 
persistent. Petals 5, nearly orbicular. Capsule erect, globose, 5-lobed, 
5-celled ; valve margins not woolly. (Gk. cheima = winter, phileo = I 
love ; because it is evergreen.) 
A. Leaves cuneate-oblanceolate, not white-mottled; flowers usually more than 3. 

W. C. E. C. umbellata 

AA. Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, often white-mottled; flowers 1-3. W. C. E. 



Herbs, glabrous, stoloniferous. Flowers nodding, on erect bracted scapes. 
Calyx 5-parted, persistent. Petals 5. Capsule subglobose, 5-lobed, 5- 
celled. (Diminutive of L. pyrus = the pear-tree ; from the similarity of 
the leaves.) 

A. Green leaves none or very rudimentary. 

B. Flowers red. W. C. E. P. aphylla (FALSE CORAL ROOT) 
BB. Flowers white. W. C. E. P. picta (VARIABLE WINTERGREEN) 

AA. Green leaves plainly present. 

C. Style curved downwards. 
D. Flowers white or greenish. 


E. Calyx lobes obtuse; flowers greenish; leaves orbicular or nearly so. W. C. E. 

P. chlorantha (GREEN WINTERGREEN) 

EE. Calyx lobes acute; flowers white; leaves broadly ovate to spatulate-oblong. 

DD. Flowers red or pink. 

F. Leaves thin, dull, obtuse. W. C. E. 

FF. Leaves coriaceous, shining, acute. W. C. E. 

CC. Style straight. 

G. Leaves ovate; raceme i-sided; style equaling or exceeding the petals. W. C. E. 


GG. Leaves orbicular; raceme not i -sided; style shorter than the petals. W. C. E. 



Herbs, leafless, fleshy, white to red or brown, without green. 
Flowers either terminal and solitary, or else in a terminal spicate or 
racemose or headlike cluster. Flowers regular, perfect. Sepals 2-6. 
Petals 3-6, rarely none. Stamens 6-12, hypogynous; anthers opening 
by slits (except Sarcodes}. Ovary superior, 4-6-lobed, i-6-celled. 
Fruit a capsule, loculicidal, 2-6-valved. Seeds many, minute. 

A. Corolla none; flowers spicate. W. C. E. (Gk. olios = another, tropa = a 
turn; because there are many reflexed flowers.) Allotropa virgata 

AA. Corolla of distinct petals; flowers solitary or racemose. 
B. Ovary 3-s-celled; disk io-i2-toothed. 

C. Stems i-flowered; plant pure white; bracts entire. W. C. E. (Gk. 
monos = i, tropa = a turn; referring to the single reflexed flower.) 

Monotropa uniflora (INDIAN PIPE) 

CC. Stems 3-2O-flowered; plant yellowish or reddish; bracts erose to fimbriate. 

HYPOPITYS (p. 171) 

BB. Ovary i-celled; disk inconspicuous or none; bracts laciniate-toothed or 
fimbriate. PLEURICOSPORA (p. 171) 

AAA. Corolla of united petals; flowers racemose or spicate or capitate. 
D. Flowers in a raceme or spike; sepals 5; ovary 5-celled, none of these centrally 

E. Plant 3-9 dm. high; flowers rather distant, in a long and not densely scaly 
raceme; corolla globose ovate; corolla lobes recurved; anthers 2-awned on 
the back. W. C. E. (Gk. pieron = a wing, spora = a seed; the seeds are 
winged.) Pterospora andromedea (PINEDROPS) 

EE. Plant 1.5-3 dm. high; flowers in a short densely scaly raceme or spike; 
corolla campanulate; corolla lobes erect; anthers not awned. U. C. (Gk. 
sarkos = flesh, eidos = like; the plant is fleshy.) 

Sarcodes sanguinea (SNOW PLANT) 

DD. Flowers in a headlike cluster; sepals 2, bractlike; ovary i-celled, but 
apparently of i cell with 4 others surrounding it. W. C. (Gk. hcmi = half, 
tomos = a cutting; probably because the calyx is split into 2 sepals.) 

Hemitomes congestum (CONE PLANT) 



Plants under conifers; stem simple to the inflorescence, leafy-bracted. 
Flowers racemose, reflexed. Sepals 3-5, deciduous. Petals 3-5, saccate 
at base. Stamens 6-10. (Gk. hypo = under, pitys = a Fir tree; refer- 
ring to the habitat.) 

A. Bracts ovate-lanceolate, entire or slightly erose. W. C. E. H. hypopitys 

AA. Upper bracts obovate to cuneate, erosely or laciniately fimbriate. W. C. 

H. fimbriata 


Less than 3 dm. high, white or yellowish; scales fimbriate. Flowers 
white, in a short terminal raceme. Sepals 4-5, scalelike. Petals 4-5, 
similar to the sepals. Stamens 8 or 10; anthers linear, apiculate. Seeds 
ovate, smooth. (Gk. pleurikos = pertaining to ribs, spora = seed. Not 
clear why.) 

A. Petals about 8 mm. or less long, little or not at all exceeding the sepals and bracts. 
C. P. fimbriolata 

AA. Petals about 12 mm. long, much exceeding the sepals and bracts. C. 

P. longipetala 


Shrubs or trees. Leaves simple; stipules none. Calyx 4-5- 
parted or -cleft. Corolla mostly gamopetalous, of segments as 
many as the calyx. Stamens hypogynous; anther cells opening by 
pores or slits; pollen grains united into 4'$. Ovary superior in 
flower, often inferior in fruit, 2-5-celled; style i. Fruit a capsule 
or berry or drupe. 

A. Leaves coriaceous, evergreen. 
B. Leaves opposite. 

C. Shrub of peat bogs; leaves not densely crowded, not imbricate, lanceolate 
to oval, 2-4 cm. long; flowers in terminal clusters; corolla saucer-shaped. 
W. C. E. Poisonous to sheep. (Honor of P. Kalm, a Finnish botanist.) 

Kalmia polifolia (SWAMP LAUREL) 

CC. Shrub of high mountains; leaves densely crowded, imbricate, almost scale- 
like, 2-4 mm. long; flowers solitary, axillary; corolla campanulate. 

CASSIOPE (p. 173) 
BB. Leaves alternate. 

D. Leaves 4-15 mm. long, linear or oblong; shrubs low, matted, on high moun- 

E. Flowers in terminal clusters, yellowish or rose-colored; anthers awnless. 

PHYLLODOCE (p. 173) 

EE. Flowers terminal, solitary, white; anthers 2-awned. C. (Honor of 
E. H. Harriman, an American financier.) 

Harrimanella stelleriana (ALASKA HEATHER) 


DD. Leaves either 2 cm. or more long, or else wider for their length; shrubs or 

trees, various in form and in the altitude of their habitat. 
F. Leaves strongly re volute; fruit a dry capsule. 

G. Leaves 7-5~i5 cm. long; shrubs on dry soil; flowers rose-colored; corolla 
about 5 cm. long, campanulate. RHODODENDRON (p. 173) 

GG. Leaves 3-7.5 cm. long; shrubs in peat bogs; flowers white; corolla less 
than i cm. long, either urn-shaped or of distinct petals. 

H. Corolla gamopetalous, urn-shaped; anthers 2-awned; capsule loculicidal; 

leaves without hairs beneath. C. (Andromeda was a mythological Greek 

. beauty, the daughter of Cassiope.) Andromeda polifolia (BOG ROSEMARY) 

HH. Corolla of separate petals; petals widely spreading; anthers awnless; 

capsule septicidal; leaves with or without hairs beneath. LEDUM (p. 172) 

FF. Leaves not revolute; fruit a berry or drupe, fleshy. 

I. Leaves entire, not over 7.5 cm. long; fruit red, i-7-seeded. 


II. Leaves serrulate or if entire 7.5-12.5 cm. long; fruit red or black, many- 

J. Shrub; bark not red; calyx becoming large and fleshy; leaves either 

ovate to cordate or else not over 3.7 cm. long; flowers solitary or racemose, 

in the axils; berry red or black. GAULTHERIA (p. 173) 

JJ. Shrub or tree; bark red; calyx remaining small; leaves oval or oblong 

and 7-12 cm. long; flowers paniculate, terminal; berry red. W. The 

Trailing Arbutus of eastern U. S. goes to another genus, Epigaea. (The 

Latin name.) Arbutus menziesii (MADRONA) 

AA. Leaves herbaceous, deciduous. 

K. Corolla of separate petals, copper-colored; flowers solitary, the parts in 5's. 
C. (Gk. klados a branch, thamnos = a shrub; the branches are numerous.) 

Cladothamnus pryolaeflorus (COPPER BUSH) 

KK. Corolla gamopetalous, cylindric or urn-shaped or campanulate or funnel- 
form, not copper-colored; flowers clustered, the parts in 4's or 5*5. 
L. Flower parts in 4's; corolla 5 mm. or less long, urn-shaped or cylindric, 
greenish or purplish; ovary 4-celled. W. C. E. (Honor of A. Menzies, 
surgeon and naturalist under Vancouver.) 

Menziesia ferruginea (FOOL'S HUCKLEBERRY) 

LL. Flower parts in s's; corolla 8-50 cm. long, campanulate or funnelform, 
white or cream-colored; ovary 5-celled. RHODODENDRON (p. 173) 


Shrubs, low. Leaves more or less resinous-dotted. Flowers fascicled; 
pedicels recurved in fruit. Calyx 5-lobed or -parted. Stamens 4-10; 
anther cells opening by terminal pores. Capsule oval or oblong, 5-valved 
from the base. Seed slender. In peaty bogs. (Gk. ledon = the name of 
the Rock Rose, Cistus; from the resemblance.) 

A. Leaves lanceolate; leaf margin revolute. 

B. Leaves rusty-tomentose beneath. W. L. groenlandicum 

BB. Leaves glaucous and not hairy beneath. W. L. columbianum 

AA. Leaves oval or oblong, not hairy beneath; leaf margin not revolute. E. 

L. glandulosum 



Leaves evergreen or deciduous, alternate, entire or nearly so. Flowers 
white or rose-colored or purple, large, in terminal umbels or lateral fascicles. 
Calyx 5-parted or -lobed. Corolla funnelform or campanulate, 5-lobed, 
regular or slightly 2-lipped. Stamens 5 or 10; anther cells opening by 
pores. Ovary 5~2o-celled. Capsule 5~20-valved from tip. Seeds many, 
minute. (Gk. rhodon = a rose ; dendron a tree ; hence rose tree.) 

A. Leaves thick, coriaceous, evergreen; corolla rose-colored. W. C. 

R. californicum (RHODODENDRON) 

AA. Leaves of ordinary thickness, not coriaceous, deciduous; corolla white or yel- 

B. Leaves lanceolate or oblong; flowers in lateral clusters of 1-3; corolla 1.5-2 cm. 

long; stamens 10; capsule 6-8 mm. long. W. C. E. R. albiflorum (SMALL AZALEA) 

BB. Leaves obovate-oblong; flowers in terminal umbels; corolla about 5 cm. long; 

stamens 5; capsule 16-25 mm. long. U. R. occidentalis (LARGE AZALEA) 


Low. Leaves crowded. Calyx 4-6-parted. Corolla campanulate or 
ovoid, 5-lobed. Stamens 10. Capsule 5-celled, globose to short-oblong, 
septicidal, 5-valved. Seeds many, minute. (Phyllodoce was a sea-nymph 
mentioned by Virgil.) 

A. Corolla red, campanulate. W. C. E. P. empetrifonnis (RED HEATHER) 

AA. Corolla yellowish, ovoid. W. C. E. P. glanduliflora (YELLOW HEATHER) 


Low, matted. Leaves sessile, entire, apparently veinless, 4-ranked. 
Flowers peduncled, nodding, white or pink. Sepals 4 or 5. Corolla 4-5- 
lobed or -parted. Stamens 8 or 10 ; anther cells opening by pores, tipped 
with a recurved awn. Capsule globose or ovoid,' 4~5-celled, 4~5-valved. 
Seeds many, minute. (Cassiope was the mother of Andromeda.) 

A. Leaves furrowed on the back. C. C. tetragona 

AA. Leaves keeled on the back. W. C. E. C. mertensiana 


Leaves wide. Flowers small, nodding, either solitary in the leaf axils or 
in axillary racemes. Calyx 5-cleft or -lobed. Corolla urn-shaped to cam- 
panulate. Stamens 10; anther-cells opening by a pore at tip. Ovary 
5-celled. Berry composed of the fleshy calyx inclosing the ovary. (Honor 
of H. Gaulthier, a French naturalist, court physician at Quebec.) 

A. Plant 3-30 dm. high; leaves 2.5-10 cm. long; corolla urn-shaped; filaments 
hairy; fruit black. W. C. G. shallon (SALAL) 

AA. Plant 0.5-2 dm. high; leaves 3.7 cm. or less long; corolla campanulate; fila- 
ments glabrous; fruit scarlet. 


B. Leaves broadly ovate or subcordate, 2-3.7 cm. long; corolla twice as long as the 
calyx lobes. W. C. E. G. ovatifolia 

BB. Leaves oval or rounded, 1-2 cm. long; corolla a little surpassing the calyx lobes. 
C. E. G. humifusa 


Shrubs or small trees. Leaves wide, usually vertical by a twist of the 
petiole. Flowers small, white to light red, in racemes or panicles ; clusters 
terminal. Calyx deeply 4-5 -parted. Corolla urceolate. Stamens 8 or 10; 
anther cells with reflexed awns, opening by pores. Berry 4-io-celled. 
(Gk. arktos = a bear, staphyle = a bunch of grapes ; hence a bearberry.) 

A. Plant trailing or with branches erect or ascending; ovary and fruit glabrous 


B. Leaves obtuse or retuse; leaf blade widest above the middle, gradually tapering 
to the petiole. W. C. E. A. uva-ursi 

BB. Leaves cuspidate; leaf blade often widest below the middle, abruptly petioled. 
C. A. nevadensis 

AA. Plant erect; ovary and fruit glabrous or hairy. (MANZANITA.) 

C. Ovary glabrous; leaves glabrous. 

D. Leaves dark green; pedicels glabrous; twigs glandular. 
E. Bracts longer than the pedicels. 

F. Leaves acute at both ends. U. A. hispidula 

FF. Leaves obtuse at both ends. E. A. obtusifolia 

EE. Bracts shorter than the pedicels. U. A. manzanita 

DD. Leaves whitish-green; pedicels glandular or pubescent; twigs not glandular, 
glabrous or short hairy. U. A. viscida 

CC. Ovary hairy at the top; leaves glabrous, whitish-green; twigs ashy-gray; 
pedicels minutely hairy, longer than the bracts. U. A. cinerea 

CCC. Ovary densely pubescent or tomentose; leaves somewhat tomentose espe- 
cially when young; pedicels glandular or hairy. W. C. A. tomentosa 


Shrubs, erect or trailing. Leaves alternate, simple, evergreen 
or deciduous. Flowers small, white or pink, perfect. Calyx 
4~5-lobed to -divided. Corolla 4-5-lobed, or rarely of separate 
petals. Stamens 8 or 10, epigynous or on the base of the corolla; 
anthers often awned, opening by pores. Ovary inferior, 2-io-celled. 
Fruit a berry. 

A. Corolla segments less than half as long as the tube; plants erect or trailing, 
usually not in peat bogs; leaves deciduous or evergreen; berry red or black or 
blue. VACCINIUM (p. 175) 

AA. Corolla segments distinct nearly or quite to the base; plants trailing, in peat 
bogs only; leaves evergreen; berry red. W. C. The cultivated cranberry is 
V. macrocarpon, which has a larger berry than ours. (Gk. oxus = sour, kokkus 
a berry; the berries are somewhat acid.) Oxycoccus oxycoccus (CRANBERRY) 



Flowers in racemes or clusters, rarely solitary in the leaf axils. Calyx 
persistent. Corolla urn-shaped to campanulate. Ovary 4-io-celled. 
Seeds many. (L. vacca = a cow ; perhaps because they are often pasture 
plants.) Fruits edible. 

A. Leaves deciduous; filaments glabrous; anthers 2-awned. 
B. Flowers solitary; corolla 5-lobed; calyx entire to s-cleft; leaves often not entire; 

twigs often angled. 

C. Twigs terete; plants dwarf, caespitose, less than 5 dm. high; leaves mostly ser- 

D. Leaves bright green on both sides, rather thin; corolla ovate or oblong. W. 
C. E. V. caespitosum (DWARF BILBERRY) 

DD. Leaves pale and glaucescent, thicker; corolla globose. W. C. 

V. deliciosum (SWEET BILBERRY) 

CC. Twigs slightly to sharply angled; plants 10-20 dm. high when twigs are only 
slightly angled. 

E. Leaves serrate or serrulate; plants 1-15 dm. high. 

F. Leaves 4-8 mm. long; berries red; plant 1-4.5 dm. high. C. E. 

V. scoparium 
FF. Leaves 12-16 mm. long; berries black; plant 1-3 dm. high. E. 

V. oreophilum 
FFF. Leaves 25-50 mm. long; berries black; plant 3-15 dm. high. W. C. E. 

V. membranaceum 
EE. Leaves entire or with a few irregular teeth; plants 10-40 dm. high. 

G. Leaves 6-17 mm. long; calyx 5-lobed; berry red. W. C. 

V. parvifolium (RED HUCKLEBERRY) 

GG. Leaves 2.5-7.5 cm. long; calyx lo-toothed or -lobed; berry blue or black. 

W. C. V. ovalifolium 

BB. Flowers in clusters of 2-4; corolla usually 4-lobed; calyx 4~s-parted ; leaves 

entire; twigs terete. 
H. Leaf veins prominent; leaves thick, obtuse or retuse. W. C. 

V. uliginosum (BOG BILBERRY) 

HH. Leaf veins obscure; leaves thinner, obtuse or acute. C. E. V. occidentals 
AA. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous; filaments hairy; anthers awnless. 
I. Plant erect; leaves acute, not revolute; berry black, not bitterish. W. 


n. Plant prostrate; leaves obtuse or emarginate, revolute; berry dark red, bitterish. 
C. V. vitis-idaea (ROCK CRANBERRY) 


Herbs. Leaves variously arranged. Flowers perfect, regular, 
variously arranged. Calyx 4-g-parted or -cleft. Corolla gamopet- 
alous or none (Glaux), various in form, segments as many as the 
calyx. Stamens as many as the corolla lobes and opposite them, on 
base of corolla tube. Ovary superior or inferior (Samolus), i-celled; 
placenta central; style I. Capsules mostly 2-6-valved. Seeds i 
to many. 


A. Leaves opposite or whorled along elongated stems. 
B. Leaves sessile; flowers white or red or yellow. 

C. Flowers yellow; stem erect, 3-6 dm. high; leaves 2.5-5 cm. long, lanceolate. 
C. E. (Probably in honor of a Mr. Naumburg.) 

Naumburgia thyrsiflorus (TUFTED MONEYWORT) 

CC. Flowers white or red; stem decumbent or diffuse, 1-3 dm. high; leaves 
0.6-2.5 cm. long, not lanceolate. 

D. Plants of salt marshes, perennial; stem terete, very little branched if at 
all; flowers white or pink; petals none. W. (Gk. glaukos = sea-green, 
hence glaucous; referring to the color of the plant.) 

Glaux maritima (BLACK SALTWORI) 

DD. Plants of cultivated ground, annual; stem 4-sided, much branched; flowers 
scarlet; petals present. W. (Gk. anagelao = to laugh; it was supposed 
to counteract melancholia.) Anagallis arvensis (POORMAN'S-WEATHER GLASS) 
BB. Leaves petiolate; flowers yellow. STEIRONEMA (p. 177) 

AA. Leaves either alternate or else in a basal or terminal tuft or whorl. 
E. Leaves in a basal rosette. 

F. Corolla rotate, 4-5-parted; stamens often united into a cone about the 
pistil. DODECATHEON (p. 177) 

FF. Corolla salverform or funnelform, 5-lobed; stamens not united. 
G. Corolla- tube equaling or exceeding the calyx; plant perennial. 
H. Capsule many-seeded; stamens exserted. E. (Diminutive of L. 
primus = first; because some blossom very early.) 

Primula cusickiana (PRIMROSE) 

HH. Capsule i-2-seeded; stamens included. DOUGLASIA (p. 176) 

GG. Corolla-tube shorter than calyx; plant annual. ANDROSACE (p. 177) 

EE. Leaves not all in a basal rosette, scattered along the stem or in a terminal 


I. Leaves or most of them 25 mm. or more long; flowers either not sessile or 
not solitary in the axils. 

J. Flowers few, terminal, not in racemes; stem simple; ovary superior; leaves 
tending to be in a terminal whorl; seeds few. TRIENTALIS (p. 177) 

JJ. Flowers many, in terminal panicled racemes; stem diffusely branched; 
ovary inferior; leaves all scattered along the stem; seeds many. E. 
(Said to be from Celtic san = a greeting, mos = a pig; it was considered a 
cure for pig diseases.) Samolus floribundus (BROOKWEED) 

n. Leaves 4-6 mm. long; flowers sessile, solitary in the axils. C. E. Dimin- 
utive of L. cento = a patch; probably referring to its manner of growth.) 

Centunculus minimus (CHAFFWEED) 


Depressed, tufted. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, persistent. Corolla 
tube somewhat inflated above, its throat somewhat contracted and 5-arched 
beneath the sinuses. (Honor of D. Douglas, a Scotch botanist and col- 
lector in our region.) 

A. Leaves canescent with forked hairs, 8-12 mm. long. C. E. D. dentata 

AA. Leaves glabrous or nearly so, 4-6 mm. long. W. C. D. laevigata 



Flowers white or pink. Calyx persistent, 5-lobed or -parted. Stamens 
included. (Gk. andros = a man, sakos = a buckler or shield ; probably 
referring to the form of the leaves.) 

A. Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, often toothed, 12-25 mm. long; calyx tube 
white to reddish; calyx segments subulate; capsule shorter than the calyx. E. 

A. septentrionalis 

AA. Leaves ovate, entire, 3-5 mm. long; calyx tube green; calyx segments triangular; 
capsule much longer than the calyx. W. E. A. filiformis 


Perennial; stems leafy. Flowers axillary. Corolla rotate, deeply 
5-parted ; sinuses rounded ; segments ovate, cuspidate-pointed, each rolled 
about its stamen. Stamens alternating with 5 sterile filaments. Capsule 
io-2o-seeded. (Gk. steiros = sterile, nema = a thread ; referring to 
abortive stamens.) 

A. Leaves ovate-lanceolate to oblong-ovate, minutely ciliate; corolla lobes nearly 
twice as long as the calyx. C. E. S. ciliatum 

AA. Leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, not ciliate; corolla lobes but little longer 
than the calyx. U. S. laevigatum 


Perennial, glabrous; stem 2.5-15 cm. high, from a tuber. Leaves simple, 
alternate but mostly clustered at the top. Flowers white or pink ; pedicels 
filiform. Corolla completely rotate; segments 5-7, almost separate. 
(L. trientalis = pertaining to a third ; because they are about ^ foot high.) 

A. Leaves crowded near the stem tip; woods plant; pedicels shorter than the leaves. 

W. C. E. T. latifolia 

AA. Leaves scattered along the stem; bog plant; pedicels longer than the leaves. 

W. C. E. T. arctica 


Perennial, low. Leaves entire to dentate. Flowers in an umbel on a 
naked scape. Calyx deeply 4~5-lobed; lobes reflexed in flower, erect in 
fruit. Corolla segments long, narrow, reflexed. Seeds many. (Gk. 
dodeka = 12, theos = god; the name of the Primrose, which the 12 superior 
gods were thought to protect.) 

A. Flower parts normally in 4*5. C. E. D. tetrandrum 

AA. Flower parts normally in s's. 
B. Herbage glabrous. 
C. Leaves entire. 

D. Filaments free or anthers sessile. 

E. Leaves broadly elliptic to obovate. W. D. latifolium (MOSQUITO-BILLS) 

EE. Leaves narrower. 
F. Leaves 2-5 cm. long; scape 0.7-1.5 dm. long. E. D. campestre 

F. & R. EL. FL. 12 


FF. Leaves 5-12 cm. long; scape 1-2 dm. long. C. E. D. conjugens 

FFF. Leaves 20-30 cm. long; scape 4-6 dm. long. E. D. dispar 

DD. Filaments united into a tube at least i as long as the anthers. 
G. Filaments black; capsule opening by a lid. C. D. alpinum 

GG. Filaments yellow; capsule opening by valves from the tip. 
H. Involucre bracts oblong to spatulate; anthers about equaling the stamen 
tube; capsule splitting into halves. E. D. salinum 

HH. Involucre bracts lanceolate; anthers at least twice as long as the stamen 
tube; capsule opening by 5 short teeth. W. E. D. pauciflorum 

CC. Leaves not entire. 

I. Leaves dentate, ovate; petals white, each with 2 purple spots at base; capsule 

opening by valves from the tip. C. E. D. dentatum 

n. Leaves crenate, longer for their width; petals purple throughout; capsule 

opening by a lid. W. C. E. D. Jeffrey! 

BB. Herbage puberulent or viscid-puberulent. 

J. Filaments yellow, united into a tube; capsule opening by valves from the tip. 

E. D. cusickii 

JJ. Filaments black, not united; capsule opening by a lid. E. D. viscidum 


Herbs, perennial. Leaves basal and tufted, i -veined, fleshy, 
linear, entire. Flowers perfect, regular, in heads. Calyx tubular 
or funnelform, 5-toothed; tube lo-ribbed. Petals 5, distinct or 
nearly so. Stamens 5, opposite the petals, hypogynous. Ovary 
superior, i-celled; styles 5, united at base. Fruit a utricle. Seed 
I. W. (Gk. statizo = to stop; thought to cure diarrhoea.) 

Statice armeria (THRIFT) 


Trees. Leaves opposite, odd-pinnate; leaflets 5-7, entire; stipules 
none. Flowers regular; dioecious, fascicled. Calyx small, 4-cleft. 
Corolla none. Stamens 2-4. Ovary superior, 2-celled. Fruit a 
samara, i -winged. W. C. E. (Gk. phraxis = a separation; be- 
cause the wood splits easily.) Fraxinus oregana (OREGON ASH) 


Herbs, bitter. Leaves opposite, or rarely whorled or alternate, 
entire or nearly so; stipules none. Flowers regular, perfect, vari- 
ously arranged. Calyx persistent 4~i2-toothed or -divided. 
Corolla gamopetalous; lobes as many as the sepals. Stamens as 
many as corolla lobes, alternate with them, on the tube or throat. 
Ovary superior, i-celled or partly 2-celled; style o-i; stigmas 
1-2. Seeds many. 


A. Flowers yellow, the parts in 4's. U. (Gk. mikros = small, kalos = beautiful; 
hence a small beauty.) Microcala quadrangularis 

AA. Flowers either not yellow or else the parts in s's. 
B. Corolla longer than rotate. 

C. Style filiform, deciduous; anthers twisted when old. CENTAURIUM (p. 179) 
CC. Style short and persistent or none; anthers not twisted when old. 

GENTIANA <j>. 179) 
BB. Corolla rotate. 

D. Style very short or none; flower parts in s's. E. (Honor of E. Swert, a 
Dutch bulb grower.) E. Swertia palustris (CHIKETTA) 

DD. Style slender, long; flower parts in 4's. FRASERA (p. 180) 


Low. Leaves entire, sessile. Flowers pink or white, in cymes or spikes. 
Calyx tubular ; segments 4-5, narrow, keeled. Corolla salverform. Stigma 
2-lobed. (L. centum = 100, aurum gold or gold pieces ; referring to 
the medicinal value.) 

A. Stem 2.5-5 cm. high; leaves 2-6 mm. long, lanceolate. W. C. minimum 

AA. Stem more than 5 cm. high; leaves more than 6 mm. long, not lanceolate. 
B. Basal leaves in a rosette. W. C. umbellatum (BITTER HERB) 

BB. Basal leaves not in a rosette. 

C. Corolla lobes obtuse or retuse; pedicels mostly shorter than the flowers. W. E. 

C. muhlenbergii 

CC. Corolla lobes obtuse or acute; pedicels much longer than the flowers. 
D. Corolla lobes obtuse; seed globose. C. E. C. exaltatum (TALL CENTAURY) 
DD. Corolla lobes acute ; seed oblong. E. C. nuttallii 


Erect. Leaves opposite or whorled, entire. Flowers variously colored. 
Calyx tubular, 4-7-cleft. Corolla various in form. Stigma cleft into 2 
lamellae. (Honor of King Gentius of Illyria, who is said to have discovered 
the medicinal value.) 

A. Corolla plicate in the sinuses, the folds more or less extended into thin teeth; 

B. Corolla yellow; perennial by offsets; anthers introrse. W. 

G. douglasiana (YELLOW GENTIAN) 

BB. Corolla white or blue; root perennial; anthers extrorse. 
C. Stem leaves 2-4 pairs; stems 2-10 cm. long. C. 

G. newberryi (DWARF GENTIAN) 

CC. Stem leaves 6 to many pairs; stems 15 cm. or more long. 
D. Upper leaves forming an involucre about the i-s-flowered cluster. 

E. Flower i. W. C. E. G. calycosa 
EE. Flowers 1-5. W. C. E. G. parryi 

DD. Upper leaves not forming an involucre. 

F. Corolla oblong-campanulate, its lobes narrowed at base, its appendages entire. 
G. Plant 3-6 dm. high; leaves lanceolate to linear, 3-veined; seed unappen- 

daged. U. G. menziesii 

GG. Plant 6-12 dm. high; leaves ovate to lanceolate, 3~7-veined; seed with 

acuminate appendage. W. G. septrum 


FF. Corolla funnelform, its lobes not narrowed at base, its appendages laciniate- 

toothed or -cleft. 

H. Stem 2-3 dm. high; leaves oblong to linear; bracts lanceolate to linear; 
calyx lobes linear to narrowly lanceolate; corolla 2-2.5 cm. long. E. 

G. af finis 

HH. Stem 3-6 dm. high; leaves ovate to oblong; bracts oblong to ovate; 
calyx lobes oblong to ovate-lanceolate; corolla 3-3.5 cm. long. E. 

G. oregana 

AA. Corolla without teeth or lobes or extended plaits in the sinuses; annual. 
I. Corolla 25-50 mm. long, its lobes often fimbriate or erose. 

J. Calyx lobes acutely keeled, 2 larger and narrower. E. G. serrata 

JJ. Calyx lobes not keeled, all about equal. C. G. simplex 

n. Corolla 5-7 mm. long, its lobes entire. 

K. Leaves 4-12 mm. long; calyx lobes ovate to oblong; corolla 5-8 mm. long. E. 

G. tenella 

KK. Leaves 12-50 mm. long; calyx lobes lanceolate to linear; corolla 10-17 mm. 
long. W. C. E. G. acuta 


Leaves opposite or whorled. Flowers many, clustered. Corolla 4-parted. 
Stamens on the very base of the corolla. Capsule ovate. (Honor of 
John Fraser, an American plant collector.) 

A. Leaves with firm white border. 

B. Whole plant puberulent; corolla lobes acuminate. E. F. albicualis 
BB. Whole plant glabrous; corolla lobes obtuse or acute. E. F. nitida 

AA. Leaves not bordered. 

C. Leaves in whorls of 2 or 3; corolla blue-purple; capsule flattened parallel to the 
partition; seed globose. E. F. fastigiata 

CC. Leaves in whorls of 4 or 6; corolla greenish; capsule flattened perpendicular to 
the partition; seed oblong. E. F. speciosa 


Herbs, perennial, aquatic or in marshes; rhizome creeping. 
Leaves basal or alternate, glabrous, crenate or j-foliolate. Flowers 
clustered, regular, perfect. Calyx deeply 5-parted, persistent. 
Corolla funnelform to rotate, 5-lobed or -cleft. Stamens 5, on the 
corolla, alternate with the corolla lobes. Ovary superior or half- 
superior, i-celled. Fruit a capsule, oval. Seeds few, flattish, 

A. Leaves simple; corolla lobes entire; style short or none. W. (Gk. nephros = 
the kidneys, phytton = a leaf, idios = peculiar; hence a peculiar kidney-shaped 
leaf.) Nephrophyllidium crista-galli (DEER CABBAGE) 

AA. Leaves 3-foliolate; corolla lobes fimbriate; style subulate. W. C. E. (.Gk. 
mene = a month, anthos = a flower.) Menyanthes trifoliata (BUCKBEAN) 



Herbs, perennial; juice milky. Leaves simple, entire, opposite; 
stipules none. Flowers perfect, regular, the parts in s's. Calyx 
persistent. Corolla gamopetalous, lobed. Stamens on the corolla, 
as many as its lobes, alternate with them. Carpels 2, distinct, 
superior, adherent to the calyx at base; ovules many. Fruit of 
2 follicles. Seed bearded. Only the following genus. 


Anthers united around the stigma. (Gk. apo = from, kyon = a dog ; 
some species are said to be poisonous to dogs.) 

A. Leaves oval to orbicular; corolla lobes spreading or recurved. 

B. Leaves glabrous. W. E. A. androsaemifolium (SPREADING DOGBANE) 
BB. Leaves puberulent. E. A. detonsum 

AA. Leaves oval to lanceolate; corolla lobes erect. 

C. Calyx and bracts ciliolate. E. A. ciliolatum 
CC. Calyx and bracts entire, not ciliolate. 

D. Cymes large, many-flowered. E. A. cannabinum (INDIAN HEMP) 

DD. Cymes small, few-flowered. E. A. suksdorfii 


Herbs, perennial; juice milky. Leaves opposite or whorled; 
stipules none. Flowers regular, perfect, in umbels. Calyx seg- 
ments 5. Corolla rotate to funnelform, 5-lobed or -cleft. Crown 
between stamens and corolla 5-lobed or -parted. Stamens 5, on 
corolla near base; filaments .monadelphous ; anthers united around 
the stigma. Carpels 2, superior, their ovaries and styles distinct, 
their stigmas united into a head. Fruit of 2-follicles. Seeds many, 
flattish, long-bearded. 

A. Leaves cordate-clasping at base; hoods of the crown between stamens and 
corolla without horns inside. U. (Gk. a = without, kerates = horns; they 
lack the stamen horns of Asclepias.) Acerates cordifolia (GREEN MILKWEED) 

AA. Leaves not clasping; hoods of the crown between stamens and corolla each 
with a horn inside. ASCLEPIAS (p. 181) 


Leaves entire. (The Greek name of the god of healing ; some of the 
plants are medicinal.) 

A. Leaves white-tomentose; stem 6-18 dm. high; leaves oval to oblong. E. 

A. speciosa (WOOLLY MILKWEED) 

AA. Leaves glabrous; either the stem only 1.5-3 dm. high or else the leaves linear to 


B. Leaves many, in whorls of 2-6, linear to lanceolate, 7.5-15 cm. long; corolla 
lobes 4 mm. long. W. E. A. mexicana (WHORLED MILKWEED) 

BB. Leaves 6-8, opposite, rounded-ovate, 2.5-5 cm. long; corolla lobes 10 mm. long. 
E. A. cryptoceras (DWARF MILKWEED) 


Herbs. Stems prostrate or twining. Leaves 'none or mere scales, 
alternate; stipules none. Flowers axillary, regular, the parts in 
4's or 5*s. Sepals persistent. Corolla limb entire or lobed. 
Stamens as many as the corolla segments and alternate with them. 
Ovary 2-6-celled; cells i-2-ovuled; styles i or 2 or 4. Fruit a 
capsule or sometimes fleshy. Seed large. 

A. Plants green, not parasitic; leaves ordinary, wide. CONVOLVULUS (p. 182) 
AA. Plants red or yellow, without green, parasitic; leaves mere scales. 

CUSCUTA (p. 182) 

Corolla campanulate to funnelform, somewhat 5 -lobed or -angled at 
margin. Stamens included. Capsule globose, 2-celled. Seeds usually 2. T 
(L. convolver e = to entwine ; they are twining plants.) 

A. Peduncles with 2 bracts just beneath the calyx and reaching or inclosing it; 

stigmas linear to ovate. 
B. Leaves somewhat cuneate at base; basal leaf-lobes small or none. W. 

C. calif ornicus 

BB. Leaves not at all cuneate at base. 

C. Leaves reniform, entire or with obscure angles, fleshy; stem trailing or creeping. 

W. C. soldanella (FLESHY BINDWEED) 

CC. Leaves not reniform, distinctly angled, not fleshy; stem mostly twining. 

D. Leaf lobes at base entire; peduncles often 2-flowered. W. C. occidentalis 

DD. Leaf lobes at base from entire to 2-3-lobed; peduncles all i-flowered. E. 


AA. Peduncles without bracts near the calyx, but often with them farther down; 
stigmas filiform. W. E. C. arvensis (FIELD BINDWEED) 


Flowers small, whitish, in cymose clusters. Calyx 4~5-parted or -cleft. 
Stamens in throat of corolla. Ovary globose, 2-celled. Seeds 1-4. (The 
Latin name.) Those growing on crop plants are bad weeds. 

A. Corolla scales fringed; stigmas capitate. 
B. Capsule pointed. 

C. Flowers with pedicels; dry corolla enveloping the capsule; in fields and waste 
places. E. C. indecora (PRETTY DODDER) 

CC. Flowers subsessile; dry corolla not enveloping the capsule; in salt marshes 
along the coast. W. C. squamigera (SALT-MARSH DODDER) 

BB. Capsule globose. 

D. Flowers sessile; style shorter than ovary. E. C. arvensis (FIELD DODDER) 
DD. Flowers with pedicels; style as long or longer than the ovary. 


E. Stems coarse; calyx-lobes obtuse; corolla lobes obtuse or rounded. E. 

C. cephalanthi (SAGE DODDER) 
EE. Stems fine; calyx lobes acute; corolla lobes lanceolate-subulate. C. E. 

C. calif ornica 

AA. Corolla scales crenulate; stigmas filiform. 
F. Calyx lobes not keeled; corolla lobes triangular, acute. W. 

C. epithymum (ALFALFA DODDER) 
FF. Calyx lobes keeled; corolla lobes ovate, obtuse. E. C. planiflora 


Herbs or shrubs. Stipules none. Flowers perfect, regular; 
calyx 5-lobed to -parted, persistent. Corolla 5-lobed. Stamens 5, 
distinct, in the corolla tube, alternate with the corolla lobes. 
Ovary superior; style I, j-lobed or -cleft. Fruit a capsule, j-celled, 
loculicidal. Seeds small. Several genera are too difficult for 
beginners. (F. & R. pp. 311-316.) 

A. Calyx distended and at length burst by the capsule; leaves opposite or alter- 

B. Leaves opposite, entire; plant perennial; corolla salverform. PHLOX (p. 183) 
BB. Not as above in all of the first 3 points; corolla often not salverform. 

GILIA (p. 183) 
AA. Calyx not distended nor burst by the capsule; leaves alternate. 

C. Calyx teeth spine-tipped; leaves compound; stamens inserted at unequal 
heights in the corolla-tube. NAVARRETIA (p. 183) 

CC. Calyx teeth herbaceous, not spine-tipped. 

D. Leaves compound, pinnate; leaflets entire (except P. confertum)', stamens 
inserted equally high in the corolla tube; corolla rotate to funnelform. 

POLEMONIUM (p. 184) 

DD. Leaves simple, entire or pinnately or palmately dissected; stamens in- 
serted at unequal heights in the corolla tube; corolla salverform to funnelform. 

COLLOMIA (p. 184) 

Herbs. Leaves opposite or some of the upper ones alternate. Flowers 
large. Calyx 5-ribbed. (Gk. phlox = flame ; the name of some flame- 
colored flower.) 


Herbs or shrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate. Corolla funnelform or 
tubular or campanulate or salverform. (Honor of F. Gil, a Spanish 


Herbs, annual, low. Flowers small, in headlike clusters ; clusters leafy- 
bracted. Calyx tube with five prominent great angles or veins, scarious 
between the angles ; lobes unequal. Corolla tubular-f unnelform to salver- 
form. (Honor of Navarrete, a Spanish physician.) 


A. Leaves i-pinnatifid or -incised, or many leaves entire. 

B. Stem not viscid, slender, 2.5-15 cm. high; leaves all slender and filiform except 
the bracts of the head. E. N. divaricata 

BB. Stem very viscid, stout, rigid, 15-18 cm. high; leaves of the stem mostly la- 
ciniate-pinnatifid. U. N. atractyloides 

AA. Some of the leaves and bracts more than i-pinnatifid or -incised. 

C. Plant with skunklike odor, glandular-viscid. W. N. squarrosa (SKUNKWEED) 
CC. Plant without skunklike odor, not glandular, not viscid (except N. breweri). 

D. Corolla yellow; plant somewhat glandular-viscid. U. E. N. breweri 

DD. Corolla white or blue; plant not glandular- viscid. 

E. Corolla pale blue; leaf -divisions all spinose. U. N. stricta 

EE. Corolla white. 

F. Stem glabrous or glabrate except at the very top; ovules 1-3 in each cell. 
G. Plant 2.5-7.5 cm. high; bracts of the head with spinose lobes. C. 

N. minima 

GG. Plant 10-25 cm. high; bracts of the head with barely sharp-pointed lobes. 
U. N. leucocephala 

FF. Stem puberulent or pubescent. 

H. Ovules 3-4 in each cell; stem pubescent; calyx tube and base of bracts very 

hairy. E. N. intertexta 

HH. Ovule i in each cell; stem puberulent; calyx tube and bracts sparsely 

hairy. E. N. klickitatensis 


Herbs. Flowers white or yellow or purple. Calyx obpyramidal, scarious 
in the sinuses ; lobes erect, entire. (Gk. kolla = glue ; referring to the 
glutinous seeds when wet.) 

A. Leaves or at least the lower ones more or less dissected. 
B. Calyx lobes triangular- to ovate-lanceolate. 

C. Leaves pinnately veined; annual. W. C. C. heterophylla 
CC. Leaves palmately veined; perennial. C. C. debilis 

BB. Calyx lobes subulate; perennial. 

D. Stems loosely branching, often more than one from the same root; inflorescence 
loose. U. C. glutinosa 

DD. Stems usually simple but mostly several from the same root; inflorescence 

dense, headlike. C. C. mazama 
AA. Leaves entire or at most merely serrate. 

E. Flowers solitary in the axils. E. C. tenella 
EE. Flowers in clusters. 
F. Corolla pink, i cm. long. 

G. Calyx lobes aristate; flowers few in a cluster. C. E. C. arlstella 

GG. Calyx lobes acute; flowers many in a cluster. E. C. linearis 

FF. Corolla salmon-colored, 2-3 cm. long. W. C. E. C. grandiflora 


Herbs. Flowers clustered. Calyx not angled, not ribbed, campanulate 
or narrower, cleft to the middle; lobes equal, erect to spreading. Corolla 
regular. (Gk. polemos = war ; it is said that two kings fought over the 
honor of the discovery of the medicinal uses.) 

A. Corolla yellow, 16-20 mm. long, its lobes 3-4 times as long as its tube; plant 1.5- 
4.5 dm. high. C. P. luteum 


AA. Corolla white or cream-colored or blue or salmon-colored, various in length and 

in lobing. 
B. Leaflets 2-3-divided and thus appearing in fascicles or whorls, 2-6 mm. long. 

C. E. P- confertum 
BB. Leaflets entire, not as if fascicled, usually longer. 

C. Leaflets 2-12 mm. long; stem 5-30 cm. high. 

D. Corolla white, nearly rotate; our only annual species. E. P. micranthum 
DD. Corolla blue, campanulate; perennial. 

E. Flower violet with a yellow eye. C. E. P. elegans 

EE. Flower pale blue or purplish or white, without eye. 

F. Plants densely caespitose, 5-10 cm. high; leaflets 30-40 C. P. viscosum 
FF. Plants loosely caespitose, 15-30 cm. high; leaflets 9-21. W. C. E. 

P. humile 

CC. Leaflets 12-35 mm. or more long; stems often over 30 cm. high. 
G. Corolla salmon- or flesh-colored, 25-37 cm. wide. U. P. carneum 

GG. Corolla white or cream-colored or blue, less than 25 cm. wide. 
H. Stems 6-9 dm. high; seeds 6-13 in each cell. 

I. Leaflets oblong-ovate. C. E. P. occidentale 

n. Leaflets linear. E. P. pectinatum 

HH. Stems 1.5-5 dm. high; seeds 3-4 in each cell. W. P. amoenum 


Herbs or rarely shrubs, stipules none. Flowers various, mostly 
in scorpoid bractless clusters. Sepals 5, distinct or nearly so. 
Corolla regular, 5-lobed, rotate to salverform. Stamens 5, alter- 
nate with the corolla lobes, on base of corolla. Ovary superior; 
styles i~2. Fruit a capsule, i-2-celled, 2-4-valved. Seeds 2 to 

A. Herbs, not evergreen; leaves without balsamic resin. 

B. Stems elongated, leafy; flowers either not solitary or else not on basal peduncles. 
C. Flowers grouped in bractless inflorescences; stems and leaves often unlike 
those in CC. 

D. Style 2-lobed or -cleft at apex; leaves rarely reniform; stems leafy. 
E. Corolla convolute in the bud; placentae wide. 

F. Annual; stamens included; ovules 4-20. NEMOPHILA (p. 186) 
FF. Perennial; stamens exserted; ovules 4. HYDROPHYLLUM (p. 187) 

EE. Corolla imbricate in the bud; placentae narrow. 

G. Corolla deciduous, rarely yellowish and then the stamens exserted; sta- 
mens unequally inserted in the corolla. PHACELIA (p. 186) 

GG. Corolla persistent, yellow or yellowish; stamens included, equally in- 
serted at the very base of the corolla. EMMENANTHE (p. 186) 
DD. Style and even the stigma entire; leaves round-reniform, 25 mm. or less 
wide; stems almost leafless. W. C. (Honor of M. Romanzoff, a Russian 
nobleman who sent Kotzebue to Alaska.) Romanzoffia sitchensis 
CC. Flowers solitary in the leaf-axils; stems 5-10 cm. long, dichotomously 
branched; leaves entire, linear-spatulate, 1-3 cm. long. 

H. Styles 2, distinct to the ovary. E. (Gk. nama = a stream; probably 
referring to the habitat.) Nama demissum 


HH. Style i, 2 -cleft at the apex. CONANTHUS (p. 187) 

BB. Acaulescent; leaves all basal; flowers solitary on basal peduncles. 

CAPNOREA (p. 187) 

AA. Shrubs, evergreen, glabrous, 9-15 dm. high; leaves glutinous with a balsamic 
resin, lanceolate, entire or serrate, 7.5-15 cm. long. E. (Gk. erion = wool, 
diktyon a net; from the hairy and reticulate- veiny under side of the leaves.) 

Eriodictyon glutinosum (YERBA SANTA) 


Low, annual. Leaves alternate. Flowers in simple or circinate racemes. 
Corolla campanulate. Capsule ovoid or oblong, flattish, incompletely 
2-celled. Seeds 2 to many. (Gk. emmenos = a month, anthos = a flower ; 
said to be because the corolla is persistent.) 

A. Leaves entire or nearly so; corolla nearly white, without appendages inside. E. 

E. pusilla 
AA. Leaves deeply lobed or pinnatifid; corolla bright yellow, with 10 appendages 


B. Style much longer than the ovary; ovules about n; seeds 8-10; calyx lobes 

linear. E. E. lutea 

BB. Style hardly longer than the ovary; ovules 20-40; seeds 15-20; calyx lobes 

linear-spatulate. E. E. parviflora 


Leaves alternate. Flowers in somewhat scorpoid clusters, blue or purple 
or white or yellowish. Corolla tube rotate to tubular. Placentae 2, 
parietal; style 2-cleft or -parted. Capsule i -celled or nearly 2-celled. 
Seeds 2 to many. (Gk. fakelos = a fascicle ; referring to the flower 
bunches.) Species too difficult for beginners. (F. & R. pp. 317-319.) 


Leaves opposite or alternate. Calyx with appendage in each sinus, en- 
larged in fruit. Corolla rotate to tubular. (Gk. nemos = a grove, 
phileo = I love ; from the shady habitat.) 

A. Corolla rotate, white or light blue, speckled with dark blue; leaves opposite. W. 

N. menziesii 
AA. Corolla campanulate to tubular, white or bluish, not speckled; leaves opposite 

or alternate. 

B. Leaves mostly opposite; corolla equaling the calyx, white or bluish. 
C. Corolla bluish, twice as long as the calyx; calyx lobes subulate. W. C. 

N. sepulta 
CC. Corolla white, less than twice as long as the calyx; calyx lobes lanceolate or 


D. Leaves oblong; seeds mostly 6-8. E. N. pedunculata 

DD. Leaves ovate; seeds mostly 4. W. C. E. N. parviflora 

BB. Leaves mostly alternate; corolla shorter than calyx, white. E. N. breviflora 



Leaves alternate, petioled, pinnately lobed or divided. Flowers on long 
naked peduncles, in terminal scorpoid clusters. Calyx without appendages 
at the sinuses. Corolla campanulate, with appendages inside. Filaments 
bearded at the middle. Seeds 1-4. (Gk. hydro = water, phyllon = a 
leaf ; it was supposed that each leaf had a water cavity.) 

A. Flowers in a dense head; peduncle shorter than the petiole; leaf lobes obtuse. 

E. H. capitatum 

AA. Flowers in a loose head or a cyme; peduncle longer than the petiole. 

B. Basal leaves 3~5-parted; calyx lobes glabrous on the back, ciliate with stiff 

hairs; leaf-lobes mostly acute. W. H. tenuipes 

BB. Basal leaves 5-is-parted; calyx lobes pubescent on the back, ciliate with long 

soft hairs. 

C. Leaf lobes obtuse. U. C. H. occidentals 

CC. Leaf lobes acute. 

D. Plant 4-6 cm. high. C. E. H. albifrons 

DD. Plant 20-40 cm. high. E. H. fendleri 


Leaves entire, spatulate or oblong. Calyx 5-y-parted. Corolla cam- 
panulate to saucer-shaped. Style 2-cleft. Capsule loculicidal. Seeds 
15-20, large. (Gk. kapnos = smoke; apparently from the smoke-colored 

A. Corolla saucer-shaped. 
B. Leaves pubescent beneath. 

C. Pubescence appressed. E. C. villosula 
CC. Pubescence not appressed. E. C. hirtella 

BB. Leaves glabrous except on the margin. 

D. Calyx lobes very unequal. E. C. fulcrata 
DD. Calj'x lobes almost equal. E. C. pumila 

AA. Corolla campanulate. E. C. nana 


Annual. Leaves alternate. Calyx sinuses without appendages. Corolla 
tubular-funnelform, without appendages inside. Stamens included. Seeds 
10-20. (Gk. konos = a cone, anthos = a flower ; probably referring to 
the form of the corolla.) 

A. Corolla 5 mm. or less long. E. C. parviflora 

AA. Corolla 6 mm. or more long. E. C. aretioides 


Herbs, annual or perennial. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite 
or whorled, mostly entire, hairy; stipules none. Flowers perfect, 
mostly blue, mostly in i-sided scorpoid spikes or racemes or cymes. 


Corolla sympetalous, 5-lobed. Stamens as many as the corolla 
lobes and alternate with them, on the corolla. Ovary superior, 
usually of 2 or 4 somewhat globose lobes with a common style from be- 
tween them; ovules 4 ; style entire to 2-parted. Fruit of two 2-seeded 
carpels or of four i-seeded nutlets. Difficult family; keys largely 
based upon mature fruit. Keys to species mostly omitted. (F. & R. 
pp. 321-330.) 
A. Ovary undivided, sometimes 2-4-grooved; style at tip of ovary. 

B. Plant hairy, prostrate, annual; leaves ovate to rounded, 4-8 mm. long; style 
2-cleft or -parted. E. (Honor of C. Golden, a colonial Lieutenant- Governor 
of N. Y.) Coldenia nuttallii 

BB. Plant glabrous, spreading, perennial; leaves obovate to linear, 25-50 mm. 

long; style entire or none. E. (Gk. helos the sun, trope = a turn; refers to 

flowering at the summer solstice.) Heliotropium curassavicum (HELIOTROPE) 

AA. Ovary 4-cleft or -divided; style arising from between the parts of the ovary. 

C. Prickles of the nutlets barbed. 

D. Nutlets spreading, prickly all over; flowers blue. CYNOGLOSSUM (p. 189) 

DD. Nutlets erect, prickly on the margin and sometimes on the back; flowers 

variously colored. (Diminutive of L. lappa = a burr; referring to the fruit.) 

Lappula (STICKSEED) 

CC. Prickles of the nutlets hooked; flowers white. (Gk. pekteo = comblike, 
karyon = a nut; from the comblike margin of the nutlets of some species.) 

CCC. Prickles of the nutlets neither barbed nor hooked, or none at all. 

E. Nutlets attached laterally to a pyramid-like projection of the receptacle. 
F. Calyx with 5 wide flat lobes and 5 smaller ones alternating with them; 
corolla blue. E. (L. asper = rough; referring to the leaves.) 

Asperugo procumbens (MADWORT) 

FF. Calyx simply s-lobed, without the 5 smaller alternating ones. 
G. Lower leaves opposite. (Gk. alias = another, karyon = a nut; that 
is, another kind of nutlet.) Allocarya 

GG. Leaves all alternate. 
H. Flowers yellow. 

I. Annual; scar of nutlets ovate or oblong; throat of corolla naked or 

merely with hairy tufts within. AMSINCKIA (p. 190) 

n. Biennial or perennial; scar of nutlets very slender; throat of the 

corolla with prominent folds within. OREOCARYA (p. 100) 

HH. Flowers white. 

J. Stems repeatedly dichotomously branched; annual. 
K. Sepals distinct to the base; ventral groove of the nutlets not forked 
at base; most of the leaves in a basal tuft. E. (Gk. eremos = solitary, 
karyon = a nut. Application not clear.) Eremocarya micrantha 

KK. Sepals distinct to the middle; ventral groove of the nutlets forked 
at base; leaves scattered, not mostly basal. E. (Gk. piptein = to 
fall; + calyx; the upper part of the calyx is deciduous.) 

Piptocalyx circumscissus 
JJ. Stems not dichotomously branched; annual or perennial. 


L. Annual; pedicels persistent; leaves mostly in a basal tuft; nutlets 
keeled on both sides. PLAGIOBOTHRYS (p. 189) 

LL. Biennial or perennial; pedicels persistent; leaves scattered along 
the stem; nutlets not keeled. OREOCARYA (p. 100) 

LLL. Annual; pedicels deciduous (except in C. pterocarya) ; leaves scat- 
tered along the stem; nutlets not keeled (except some in C. pterocarya) . 
(Gk. kryptos = hidden, anthos = a flower; because the corolla is some- 
times very small.) Cryptanthe (NiE VITAS) 
HHH. Flowers blue or purple or pink. 

M. Nutlets erect; corolla tubular-funnelform; plant not conspicuously 

white-hairy nor silvery-hairy. MERTENSIA (p. 191) 

MM. Nutlets ascending to horizontal; corolla rotate or salverform; 

plant conspicuously silvery- or white-hairy. ERITRICHIUM (p. 189) 

EE. Nutlets attached by the very base. 

N. Raceme bractless; roots slender; flowers white or blue; corolla lobes 

convolute in the bud. MYOSOTIS (p. 190) 

NN. Raceme bracted; roots thick; flowers white or yellow; corolla lobes 

imbricate in the bud. LITHOSPERMUM (p. 191) 


Coarse, hairy, perennial. Flowers in panicled racemes. Corolla with 
conspicuous arching crests at the throat. Stamens included. Style in- 
cluded. (Gk. kyon = a dog, glossa = the tongue ; from a resemblance in 
the leaf.) 

A. Lower leaves ovate to subcordate; upper leaves wing-petioled; calyx segments 

ovate; corolla tube hardly exceeding its lobes. W. C. C. grande 

AA. Lower leaves spatulate; upper leaves sessile or partly clasping; calyx segments 

lanceolate; corolla tube 2-3 times as long as its lobes. U. C. C. occidentale 


Leaves 2 cm. or less long. Flowers blue. Appendages almost closing 
the corolla-throat. Stamens included. Border of nutlets acute. (Gk. 
erion = wool; thrix = hair; referring to the hairy herbage.) 

A. Basal leaves linear-spatulate; corolla 8-10 mm. wide; nutlets wingless, the sharp 
edge entire; plant with short silky hairs. C. E. howardi 

AA. Basal leaves lanceolate to ovate; corolla 4-6 mm. wide; nutlets winged, the 
wing toothed or lobed; plant with long shaggy hairs. C. E. E. argenteum 


Flowers in circinate racemes. Corolla-throat conspicuously appendaged. 
Nutlets 3-angled, incurved. (Gk. plagios = oblique, bothros = a trench ; 
probably referring to the scar on the nutlet.) 

A. Plant pubescent to tomentose, not hispid. 
B. Stem simple up to the racemes. 
C. Basal leaves oblanceolate; calyx cleft almost to base. U. P. campestre 


CC. Basal leaves linear to spatulate; calyx cleft to the middle or very little below 
it. U. P. shastensis 

BB. Stem branching from the base. 

D. Calyx cleft to below the middle, persistent; nutlets somewhat cross-shaped. 

W. E. P. tenellus 

DD. Calyx cleft only to the middle, soon deciduous by separating near its base; 

nutlets ovate. 

E. Plant 1-2.5 cm. high, white-hairy; nutlets 3 mm. long. W. C. P. canescens 
EE. Plant 2.5-5 cm. high, hairy but not white-hairy; nutlets 2 mm. long. W. C. 

P. nothofulvus 
AA. Plant hispid. 

F. Nutlets with transverse wrinkles; branches hispid but stem not so. (See D.) 
FF. Nutlets without transverse wrinkles; branches and stem both hispid. E. 

P. hispidus 


Flowers white or yellow, in headlike or panicled racemes. Corolla with 
10 scales or glands at base within ; throat with prominent folds within. 
(Gk. oros = a mountain, karyon = a nut ; probably referring to the habitat.) 

A. Corolla tube exceeding the calyx. E. O. leucophaea 

AA. Corolla tube not exceeding the calyx. 
B. Plant thinly stiff-hairy; inflorescence not tawny-hairy; leaves obtuse. E. 

O. sericea 

BB. Plant densely stiff-hairy; inflorescence not tawny-hairy. 

C. Leaves obtuse; inflorescence very dense. E. O. celosioides 

CC. Leaves acute, inflorescence not very dense. E. O. spiculifera 


Coarse, hispid. Leaves oblong to linear. Flowers in racemes or spikes. 
Calyx persistent. Corolla salverform to funnelform; throat naked or with 
minute hairy tufts opposite the lobes. Nutlets 3-angled. (Honor of 
W. Amsinck, a German, who materially aided the Hamburg Botanical 

A. Nutlets roughened with short hard points, convex or keeled on the back. 
B. Calyx lobes linear; plant erect. W. E. A. Intermedia 

BB. Calyx lobes lanceolate or ovate; plant spreading. W. E. A. lycopsoides 

AA. Nutlets not roughened with points, the projections rounded and smooth, nearly 
flat on the back, not keeled. E. . A. tessellata 


Flowers in racemes or spikes. Corolla salverform to rotate; throat with 
small blunt crests at the base of the lobes. Stamens included. Nutlets 
smooth ; scar minute. (Gk. myos = of a mouse, otos = of an ear ; hence 
mouse-ear like, referring to the short soft leaves.) 

A. Corolla blue; calyx open in fruit; calyx hairs appressed, none of them hooked nor 

B. Calyx lobes much shorter than the calyx tube. W. 

M. scorpioides (GARDEN FORGET-ME-NOT) 

BB. Calyx lobes as long as calyx tube. W. E. M. laxa (BLUE FORGET-ME-NOT) 

AA. Corolla white; calyx closing on fruit; calyx hairs spreading, some of them minutely 

hooked or gland-tipped. W. E. M. macrosperma (WHITE FORGET-ME-NOT) 



Perennial. Flowers rather large, in panicles or cymes or racemes. Calyx 
lobes linear to triangular, not much enlarged in fruit. Stamens included. 
Ovary 4-divided. Nutlets wrinkled when mature. (Honor of F. K. Mer- 
tens, a German botanist.) 

A. Plants of the seashore; nutlets fleshy, smooth and shining. W. 
AA. Plants not of the seashore ; nutlets dry, wrinkled when mature. 

M. maritima (SEA LUNGWORT) 
B. Plants 5-10 dm. high; leaves thin, wide. 
C. Leaves soft-hairy beneath, upper surface various; calyx glabrous or hairy on the 


D. Upper leaf surface stiff-hairy. 

E. Calyx lobes canescent. E. M. membranacea 

EE. Calyx lobes not canescent. 

F. Calyx lobes pubescent on the back. W. M. platyphylla 

FF. Calyx lobes glabrous on the back. E. M. paniculata (TALL LUNGWORT) 
DD. Upper leaf surface smooth or merely papillose. 

G. Calyx lobes pubescent on the back. C. E. M. subcordata 

GG. Calyx lobes glabrous on the back. W. E. M. leptophylla 

CC. Leaves glabrous on both sides or merely papillose above; calyx glabrous on 

the back. 
H. Calyx lobes either short and obtuse or triangular and acute, not longer than 

the fruit. 

I. Leaves acute, mostly sessile; calyx lobes obtuse. C. M. ambigua 

n. Leaves acuminate, short-petioled; calyx lobes acute. E. M. brachycalyx 
HH. Calyx lobes elongate, acute, much longer than the fruit. 
J. Leaves many, pallid, ovate, acuminate. W. C. E. M. laevigata 

JJ. Leaves few, green, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acutish. E. M. infirma 

BB. Plants 1.5-4 dm. high; leaves narrow, thickish. 
K. Basal leaves numerous, their dry bases remaining on the crown of the root; 

root vertical, not tuberous. 
L. Leaves pubescent on both sides. 

M. Plant 1-1.5 dm. high. E. M. pubescens 

MM. Plant 3-4.5 dm. high. E. M. cuslckii 

LL. Leaves glabrous on both sides or merely with some short stiff hairs above. E. 

M. nutans 

KK. Basal leaves none; root not a taproot, tuberous or fasciculate-tuberous. 
N. Leaves glabrous or merely papillose above. E. M. pulchella 

NN. Leaves stiff-hairy above. 

O. Corolla tube 1-2 times as long as its limb. E. M. horneri 

OO. Corolla tube 3-4 times as long as its limb. E. M. oblongifolia 


Perennial. Leaves sessile. Corolla salverform or funnelform; throat 
pubescent or crested. (Gk. lithos = a stone, sperma = a seed.) 

A. Sepals 8-16 mm. long; corolla about 20-25 mm. long, bright yellow, lobes much 
shorter than the throat. U. L. californicum 

AA. Sepals 6-8 mm. long; corolla 12-16 mm. long, dull greenish-yellow, lobes about 
equaling the throat. W. E L. ruderale (WOOLLY GROMWELL) 



Perennial herbs. Leaves opposite. Flowers perfect, in terminal 
or axillary spikes. Corolla sympetalous, regular or 2-lipped. 
Stamens didynamous unless only 2, on the corolla, alternate with the 
corolla lobes. Ovary superior, 2-4-celled ; carpels 2; ovules 4; style I, 
terminal; stigmas 1-2. Fruit dry, separating into 4 nutlets Only 
the following genus. 


Stems 4-angled. Leaves pinnately veined. Flowers bracted, blue or 
purple or pink. (Said to be from Celtic farfaen = to remove stone. Ap- 
plication not clear.) 

A. Bracts shorter than the calyx. 

B. Corolla 8-10 mm. long; plant erect. E. V. stricta (HOARY VERVAIN) 

BB. Corolla about 4 mm. long. 

C. Plant erect. E. V. hastata (BLUE VERVAIN) 

CC. Plant spreading or ascending. U. V. prostrata 

AA. Bracts longer than the calyx; plant prostrate or decumbent. E. V. bracteosa 


Herbs or shrubs, erect to vinelike, stems mostly 4-angled. Leaves 
simple, opposite, mostly punctate; stipules none. Flowers mostly 
irregular, perfect, variously clustered but mostly in axillary whorls. 
Calyx persistent, regular to 2-lipped, 4~5-lobed, mostly veined. 
Corolla limb 4~5-lobed, mostly 2-lipped; upper lip entire to 2-lobed ; 
lower lip usually 3-lobed. Stamens on the corolla tube, alternate 
with the petal lobes, usually 4 ; 2 usually shorter or antherless or 
rudimentary or wanting. Ovary 4-lobed or -parted, superior; ovules 
4-, style i, 2-lobed. Fruit of 4 nutlets. 

A. Herbs. 

B. Plants erect or merely spreading, not vinelike. 
C. Corolla distinctly irregular, distinctly 2-lipped in most. 
D. Stem villous or densely tomentose. 

E. Leaves acute; flowers in terminal spikes on stem and branches; stamens 
projecting beyond the corolla tube. 

F. Leaves mostly rounded at base; calyx 10- veined; corolla not dark-dotted; 
ovary 4-lobed. E. (Honor of Teucer, a King of Troy who first used it 
medicinally.) Teucrium occidentale (GERMANDER) 

FF. Leaves mostly cordate at base; calyx is-veined; corolla dark-dotted; 
ovary 4-parted. W. E. (Said to be from Nepete, a town in Tuscany, 
Italy.) Nepeta cataria (CATNIP) 


EE. Leaves obtuse; flowers in dense axillary clusters; calyx s-io-veined; 
corolla not dotted; stamens included in the corolla tube. W. E. Me- 
dicinal plant. (Hebrew morrob = a bitter juice.) 

Marrubium vulgare (HOREHOUND) 

DD. Stem not villous nor tomentose, though often hairy. 
G. Calyx with a crest or protuberance on one side. SCUTELLARIA (p. 194) 
GG. Calyx without crest or protuberance. 
H. Calyx is-veined. 

I. Leaves not entire; leaf blades widest at or below their middle. 
J. Plants not aromatic; flowers in elongated spikelike clusters; all 4 

stamens with anthers. 

K. Perennial; leaves triangular-ovate; inflorescence bracts not pecti- 
nate; lower lip of corolla with middle lobe crenulate. 

AGASTACHE (p. 194) 

KK. Annual or biennial; leaves lanceolate; inflorescence bracts pecti- 
nate; lower lip of corolla with middle lobe not crenulate. C. E. (Gk. 
drakon = a dragon, kephale = a head; referring to the form of the 
flower in some species.) Dracocephalum parviflorum (DRAGONHEAD) 

JJ. Plants aromatic ; flowers in flattened or round headlike clusters ; 
2 stamens with anthers, 2 others from antherless to totally absent. 

MONARDA (p. 195) 

H. Leaves entire, oblanceolate to obovate. U. (Gk. pogon = a beard, 
gyne = the pistil; referring to the bearded style.) Pogogyne douglasii 

HH. Calyx 5~i3-veined. 
L. Leaves not cleft. 
M. Flowers in terminal headlike or dense spikelike clusters; calyx 10-13- 


N. Heads elongated, spikelike. W. C. E. (German braune = quinsy, 

for which this was thought a remedy.) Prunella vulgaris (HEAL-ALL) 

NN. Heads flat. MADRONELLA (p. 195) 

MM. Flowers in loose interrupted terminal spikelike clusters; calyx 

5- 10- veined. 

O. Leaf teeth sharp- pointed, not rounded; leaves narrowed at base. 

W. C. E. (Gk. physa = a bladder, siege = a covering; referring to 

inflated fruiting calyx.) Physostegia parviflora (FALSE DRAGONHEAD) 

OO. Leaf teeth somewhat rounded at tip; leaves rounded to cordate 

at base. STACHYS (p. 195) 

MMM. Flowers in whorls in the axils of ordinary stem leaves; calyx about 

5- or i3-veined. 

P. Annual or biennial; upper leaves sessile; flowers purple or red; calyx 

about s-veined. E. (Gk. laimos = the throat; because the corolla 

is widely gaping.) Lamium amplexicaule (HENBIT) 

PP. Perennial; upper leaves petioled; flowers white or yellow; calyx 

about i3-veined. E. (Greek name of the honeybee; the flowers are 

very sweet.) Melissa offic mails GARDEN (BALM) 

LL. Leaves 3-cleft or some S-cleft; flowers in the axils of ordinary leaves. 

W. (Gk. leon = a lion;, oura = a tail; suggested by the inflorescence.) 

Leonurus cardiaca (MOTHERWORT) 
CC. Corolla regular or nearly so. 

F. & R. EL. FL. 13 


Q. Annual; leaves entire or merely slightly wavy; ovary deeply 4-lobed. 


QQ. Perennial; leaves toothed; ovary 4-parted. 
R. Plants without mint odor; 2 stamens with anthers and 2 antherless. 

LYCOPUS (p. 196) 

RR. Plants with mint odor ; all 4 stamens with anthers. MENTHA (p. 196) 
BB. Plants prostrate, vinelike. 

S. Plant with disagreeable odor; petioles 25 mm. or more long; leaves dark 

green; flowers in small clusters in the leaf axils. W. (Greek name for some 

plant of this family.) Glecoma hederacea (GROUND IVY) 

SS. Plant with mint odor; petioles 4-6 mm. long; leaves red-green; flowers 

solitary in the leaf axils. W. E. (Gk. mikros = small, meros = a division; 

referring to the slightly 2-lipped perianth.) Micromeria douglasii (TEA VINE) 

AA. Shrubs aromatic; leaves entire, spatulate to obovate. E. (Possibly French 

ramon = a broom of twigs; it is a low, much-branched shrub.) Ramona incana 


Flowers blue, in axillary panicles or cymes. Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla 
tube narrow ; lobes somewhat similar, oblong. Stamens 4. (Gk. trichos = 
hair, stemon = a stamen ; the stamens are long and hairlike.) 
A. Calyx lobes lanceolate, acuminate; corolla tube not exceeding the calyx. W. E. 

T. oblongum 

AA. Calyx-lobes ovate-triangular, acute; corolla tube exceeding the calyx. 
B. Leaves acuminate, obscurely veined; corolla 6-8 mm. long. U. T. laxum 

BB. Leaves acute, strongly veined; corolla about 12 mm. long. W. 

T. lanceolatum (VINEGAR WEED) 


Bitter. Flowers blue or violet or whitish, in spikelike racemes, or 1-3 
in each leaf axil. Calyx 2-lipped; lips entire, lower persistent. Corolla 
much exserted, glabrous inside. Stamens 4, all with anthers. (L. scutella 
= a dish ; referring to the appendages of the calyx in fruit.) 
A. Leaves or at least the lower ones somewhat serrate or dentate. 
B. Leaf blades widest below their middle. 

C. Flowers in axillary and sometimes also terminal racemes; corolla 6-10 mm. long. 
W. E. S. lateriflora (MAD-DOG SKULLCAP) 

CC. Flowers solitary in the leaf axils; corolla 14-30 mm. long. 
D. Leaves obtuse, 6-12 mm. long. U. S. tuberosa 

DD. Leaves acute, 10-37 mm. long. E. S. galericulata (MARSH SKULLCAP) 

BB. Leaf blades widest above middle; flowers solitary in leaf axils. E. S. nana 

AA. Leaves entire. 
E. Stem leaves obtuse at both ends; corolla 14-20 mm. long. W. E. 

S. antirrhinoldes 
EE. Stem leaves acute at base; corolla 16-25 mm. long. U. E. S. angustifolia 


Erect, tall. Leaves serrate, petioled. Flowers yellowish or purplish or 
blue, in whorled clusters in spikes; spikes bracted, terminal. Calyx 


slightly 2-lipped, 5-toothed. Upper lip of corolla 2-lobed ; lower lip 3-lobed. 
Stamens 4, lower pair shorter ; anthers 4. (Gk. agan = much, stachys = a 
head of wheat ; referring to the many spikes.) 

A. Leaves canescent and white beneath, glabrous and green above; spikes 25 mm. or 
less thick. E. A. urticifolia 

AA. Leaves glabrous and green on both sides; spikes 25 mm. or more thick. E. 

A. occideutalis 


Flowers purple, whorled in spikes. Calyx 5-toothed. Upper lip of 
corolla entire or emarginate ; lower lip 3-clef t, middle lobe wider and some- 
times 2-lobed. Stamens 4, lower 2 longer. (Gk. stachys = a spike or 
head of wheat ; referring to the inflorescence.) 

A. Corolla tube less than ij times as long as the calyx. 

B. Plant soft hairy; corolla white or cream-colored with some purple on the lower 
lip. W. E. S. pycnantha 

BB. Plant rather stiff-hairy; corolla light red to purple, often spotted. 
C. Upper leaves sessile, lower short-petioled; leaves acute or acuminate. W. E. 

S. palustris (wo UNO WORT) 

CC. Upper leaves short-petioled, lower long-petioled; leaves obtuse or acute. 
W. E. S. bullata 

AA. Corolla tube twice as long as the calyx. 
D. Leaves tomentose beneath, thick; corolla about 20 mm. long. W. C. 

S. chamissonis 

DD. Leaves not tomentose beneath, thin. 

E. Corolla about 20 mm. long; calyx glabrous or sparingly stiff-hairy. W. C. E. 

S. ciliata 
EE. Corolla about 12 mm. long; calyx soft-hairy. W. S. pubens 


Flowers variously colored. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla glabrous inside; 
upper lip emarginate or entire ; lower lip 3-lobed, middle lobe larger. Anther- 
bearing stamens 2, usually exserted; antherless stamens or their rudiments 
2 or none. (Honor of N. Monardes, a Spanish botanist.) 

A. Leaves oblong to ovate; stamens longer than the upper lip of the corolla; corolla 
not spotted, its upper lip straight; heads solitary, terminal. E. M. mollis 

AA. Leaves lanceolate or narrower; stamens shorter than the upper lip of the corolla; 
corolla purple-spotted, its upper lip curved; heads many, terminal and axillary. W. 

M. punctata (HORSE MINT) 


Leaves mostly entire. Flowers purple or red or white, bracted. Calyx 
5-toothed. Corolla tube as long as the calyx; throat glabrous inside; 
upper lip 2-cleft; lower lip 3-cleft, the lobes nearly equal. Stamens 4, 
equal, or the lower 2 longer, exserted. (An anagram of Monardella, the 
diminutive of Monarda.) 

A. Leaves white-tomentose or tomentulose beneath. 
B. Leaves paler beneath than above, veins not prominent. C. E. M. discolor 


BB. Leaves not paler beneath, veins prominent. E. M. nervosa 

AA. Leaves not so beneath. 

C. Plant somewhat canescent. U. M. villosa 

CC. Plant glabrous or puberulent except the inflorescence. 

D. Leaves not as long as the stem internodes. U. E. M. reflexa 

DD. Leaves mostly longer than the stem internodes. 

E. Plant very smooth and shining except the inflorescence; leaves obtuse. E. 

M. purpurea 
EE. Plant somewhat ashy-gray with scurfy puberulence; leaves acute. E. 

M. odoratissima 


Flowers small, white or purple, bracted, whorled in dense axillary clusters. 
Calyx 4~5-toothed. Corolla equaling or exceeding the calyx; limb either 
nearly equally 4-cleft or else one of the lobes wider and emarginate. (Gk. 
lykos = a wolf, pous = a foot ; from a fancied resemblance in the leaves.) 

A. All of the leaves or all but the upper ones irregularly incised or laciniate-pinnatifid. 
W. E. L. americanus 

AA. Leaves merely serrate. 

B. Calyx teeth lanceolate or deltoid, obtuse or barely acutish, shorter than the 

mature nutlets. W. C. E. L. uniflorus (BUGLEWEED) 

BB. ' Calyx teeth narrow, very acute, longer than the mature nutlets. 

C. Leaves short-petioled; bracts about half the length of the calyx; corolla almost 

twice as long as the calyx. W. L. rubellus 

CC. Leaves sessile or very short-petioled; bracts almost as long as the calyx; 

corolla very little longer than the calyx. E. L. lucidus 


Erect or diffuse. Flowers purple or pink or white ; whorls axillary or in 
terminal spikes. Calyx lo-veined, 5-toothed. Corolla tube shorter than 
the calyx; limb 4-cleft, slightly irregular; upper lobe usually wider, entire 
or emarginate. Stamens 4, equal. (Minthe was a nymph whom the 
Greeks believed was changed into a Mint.) 

A. Stems finely retrorse-pubescent at least on the angles; flowers in the axils of ordi- 
nary leaves. W. C. E. M. canadensis (FIELD MINT) 
AA. Stems glabrous or nearly so, hairs when present not retrorse; most of the flowers 

in the axils of bracts. 

B. Leaves sessile or nearly so; flowers sessile. W. E. M. spicata (SPEARMINT) 

BB. Leaves petioled; flowers pedicelled. 

C. Calyx teeth hairy; leaves ovate-oblong to lance-oblong, acute; garden escape. 
W. M. piperita (PEPPERMINT) 

CC. Calyx teeth glabrous; leaves ovate, obtuse or the upper acute. W. E. 

M. citrata (BERGAMOT MINT) 


Herbs or shrubs, sometimes vines. Leaves alternate, pinnately 
veined; stipules none. Flowers perfect, regular. Calyx mostly 
5-toothed or -lobed. Corolla rotate to tubular, mostly 5-lobed. 


Stamens as many as corolla lobes, alternate with them, on the 
corolla tube, all equal in length and perfect. Ovary terete, superior, 
2-8-celled; style i. Fruit a berry or a capsule. Seeds many. 

A. Corolla rotate or campanulate; fruit a berry. 
B. Leaves pinnate, leaflets 5 or more. 

C. Flowers yellow; fruit yellow or red. W. E. Cultivated. (Gk. lykos = 
a wolf, persikos = the peach.) Lycopersicum esculentum (TOMATO) 

CC. Flowers white to blue; fruit green. SOLANUM (p. 197) 

BB. Leaves entire to 3-foliolate. 

D. Flowers solitary in the leaf -axils; calyx in fruit enlarged, bladdery ; corolla 
campanulate; anthers distinct. PHYSALIS (p. 197) 

DD. Flowers in clusters; calyx in fruit not conspicuously enlarged, not bladdery ; 
corolla rotate; anthers closely fitted together into a cone. 

SOLANUM (p. 197) 

AA. Corolla tubular or salverform or funnelform; fruit a capsule. 
E. Leaves dentate; flowers solitary in the forks of the stems; capsule prickly. 

DATURA (p. 198) 
EE. Leaves entire; flowers in clusters; capsule not prickly. NICOTIANA (p. 198) 


Herbs. Leaves entire or sinuately toothed. Calyx campanulate, 
5-io-angled or -ribbed, wholly inclosing the fruit. Corolla whitish or 
yellowish, with dark center, plicate. Stamens near base of corolla. Seeds 
kidney-shaped. (Gk. physalis = a bladder, from the inflated calyx.) 

A. Annual; leaves ovate to cordate, or rarely some lanceolate, some of them always 

somewhat sinuate-toothed. 

B. Plant glabrous or merely puberulent; calyx in fruit obscurely s-io-angled. E. 

P. ixocarpa (TOMATILLO) 

BB. Plant pubescent; calyx in fruit sharply 5-angled. E. P. pubescens 

AA. Perennial; leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, entire or sinuate but not sinuate- 
toothed. E. P. lanceolata 


Herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, entire to pinnate. Corolla limb 
plicate. Stamens on throat of corolla. (Said to be from L. solamen = 
quieting; the Bittersweet is mildly narcotic.) 

A. Plant not prickly; corolla 8-20 mm. wide; calyx in fruit not spiny, not nearly 

covering the berry. 

B. Climbing; perennial. W. E. Medicinal. S. dulcamara (BITTERSWEET) 

BB. Not climbing nor twining. 

C. Leaves pinnate; tubers present. W. E. Cultivated for the tubers. W. E. 

S. tuberosum (POTATO) 

CC. Leaves entire to 3-foliolate; tubers none. 
D. Annual; hairs simple; corolla 8-10 mm. wide; leaves not all entire, often 

rounded or cordate at base; berry green or black or yellow. 
E. Leaves oblong, pinnately 7~9-lobed; berries green. E. Poisonous. 

S. triflorum (WILD TOMATO) 


EE. Leaves ovate, merely wavy-toothed; berries black or yellow. W. C. E. 
The berry of the wild plants is poisonous. The Wonderberry is an edible culti- 
vated form. S. nigrum (COMMON NIGHTSHADE) 
DD. Perennial; hairs stellate; corolla 16-20 mm. wide; leaves all entire, acute 
or narrowed at base; berry purple. U. S. umbelliferum 
AA. Plant prickly; corolla 25-50 mm. wide; calyx in fruit spiny. 
P. Corolla white or light blue; fruit only partly covered by the calyx. 
G. Fruit less than i cm. long, almost covered by calyx. W. S. sisymbrifolium 
GG. Fruit 2 dm. or less long, very much exceeding the calyx. E. Cultivated 
for its edible fruit. S. melongena (EGG PLANT) 
FF. Corolla yellow; fruit quite covered by the calyx. E. A bad weed in culti- 
vated fields. S. rostratum (BUFFALO BUR) 


Herbs, annual, erect. Flowers large, white or purple or violet. Calyx 
tubular or prismatic, circumscissile near the persistent base. Corolla 
plicate ; lobes acuminate. Ovary 2-4-celled. Capsule globose or ovoid. 
(From Dhatura, the Hindoo name.) Medicinal. Poisonous. 

A. Stem green; corolla white; lower prickles of the fruit shorter than the others. E. 

D. stramonium (STRAMONIUM) 

AA. Stem purple; corolla purple or violet; prickles of the fruit all of the same length. 


Herbs. Leaves large. Flowers white or green or purple, in terminal 
racemes or panicles. Calyx 5-8-cleft. Corolla plicate, limb 5-8-lobed. 
Ovary 2-8-celled. Seeds very small. (Honor of J. Nicot, a French Am- 
bassador, who early sent tobacco seed to Italy.) 

A. Leaves all with slender petioles; corolla limb 8-12 mm. wide; calyx teeth much 

shorter than its tube. E. N. attenuata 

AA. Leaves of some of the upper ones sessile; corolla limb 20-40 mm. wide; calyx 

teeth about equaling its tube. 

B. Leaves 2-6 dm. long. W. Cultivated for its leaf. N. tabacum (TOBACCO) 
BB. Leaves shorter. 

C. Corolla 25-50 mm. long; capsule 2-celled. U. N. bigelovii 

CC. Corolla 20-25 mm. long; capsule 3-8-celled. U. E. N. quadrivalvis 


Herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate or opposite or whorled; 
stipules none. Flowers perfect, mostly irregular. Calyx persis- 
tent, i-5-toothed to -divided, sometimes split. Corolla sympetalous, 
rarely none in Synthyris; limb 2-lipped or nearly regular, variously 
colored. Anther-bearing stamens 2-5, 2 often shorter, on the co- 
rolla, alternate with the corolla lobes; antherless stamens often 
present. Pistil /, entire or 2-lobed; ovary superior, i-2-celled; 
placenta central; style i. Fruit a capsule. Seeds few or many. 


A. Herbs. 
B. Leaves alternate. 

C. Vines; leaves ren if orm -orbicular, palmately veined, coarsely dentate or lobed. 
W. Planted along walls. (Gk. kymbalon = a cymbal; referring to the leaf 
form.) Cymbalaria cymbalaria (KENILWORTH IVY) 

CC. Leaves not as above in all points. 

D. Mud plants, creeping or floating; leaves glabrous, nearly all basal, entire, 
linear to oblong. W. E. (L. limus = mud, sella = a seat; because it is 
a stemless mud plant.) Limosella aquatica (MUD WORT) 

DD. Not as above in all points. 
E. Corolla spurred or saccate at base on the lower side. 

F. Leaves sessile; corolla spurred at base. LINARIA (p. 201) 
FF. Leaves short-petioled; corolla merely saccate at base. 


EE. Corolla neither spurred nor saccate at base on the lower side, but some- 
times saccate at base on the upper side. 

G. Calyx s-toothed or -lobed. 

H. Corolla rotate; anther-bearing stamens 5. VERBASCUM (p. 201) 

HH. Corolla tubular; anther-bearing stamens 4, rarely 5 in Pentstemon. 

I. Leaves entire to dentate; corolla not produced into a long projection. 
J. Leaf blade 0.6-10 cm. long; 5th stamen represented by a filament on 

the corolla. PENTSTEMON (p. 202) 

JJ. Leaf blade 8-25 cm. long; 5th stamen not represented at all. W. 

Medicinal plant. (L. digitalis = belonging to the finger; the corolla 

suggests a glove finger.) Digitalis purpurea (FOXGLOVE)- 

II. Leaves either pinnately -lobed or -parted, or else corolla produced into a 
long and elephant-trunk-like projection. PEDICULARIS (p. 208) 

GG. Calyx i-4-toothed or -lobed. 

K. Corolla nearly regular, rotate or short-campanulate, never yellow. 
L. Leaves chiefly scattered along the stem, at least the lower opposite, 
entire to toothed; spikes or racemes terminal or axillary; annual or peren- 
nial. VERONICA (p. 204) 
LL. Leaves chiefly basal, all alternate, toothed to divided; spikes or racemes 
terminal; perennial. SYNTHYRIS (p. 205) 
KK. Corolla distinctly 2-lipped, tubular, often yellow. 
M. Leaves entire to pinnately or palmately parted into 3-11 long lobes, 
sometimes the lobes again lobed; upper lip of corolla not elephant-trunk- 

N. Capsule few-seeded; calyx cleft down i side and apparently of 2 
sepals; lips of the corolla nearly equal. ADENOSTEGIA (p. 208) 

NN. Capsule many-seeded; calyx cleft down i or 2 or 4 sides and appar- 
ently of 4 sepals or rarely of 2 sepals. 
O. Lips of the corolla nearly equal in length; calyx 2- or 4-toothed. 

OO. Lips of the corolla unequal in length; calyx 4-toothed. 

CASTILLEJA (p. 205) 

MM. Leaves either serrate and the upper lip of the corolla prolonged into 
an elephant-trunk-like projection, or else leaves pinnately more than 
iS-lobed or -parted into rather short wide lobes. PEDICULARIS (p. 208) 


BB. Leaves opposite or whorled. 
P. Calyx s-toothed or -lobed. 

Q. Corolla gibbous or spurred at base on lower side; seeds many. (See E.) 
QQ. Corolla gibbous at base on upper side; seeds few. 

R. Corolla deeply 2-lipped, 6-16 mm. long, blue or pink or variegated; leaves 

entire to lobed. COLLINSIA (p. 202) 

RR. Corolla obscurely 2-lipped, 2-10 mm. long, blue or white; leaves lobed 

to 3-5-divided. TONELLA (p. 202) 

QQQ. Corolla neither gibbous nor spurred at base on any side; seeds 


S. Leaves nearly all basal, entire, linear; stem leaves only 2-4. E. (Gk. 
chion = snow, phileo = I love; from its habitat.) Chionophila tweedyi 

SS. Not as above in all points. 
T. Calyx deeply cleft at the front or the rear or both. 


TT. Calyx about equally notched into 5 teeth or lobes. 
U. Flowers solitary in the leaf axils, either with 4 anther-bearing stamens 
and no rudiment of a 5th stamen, or else with 2 anther-bearing stamens and 
2 rudimentary ones. 

V. Calyx 5-angled to terete, clefts between its teeth not reaching the 
middle; anther-bearing stamens 4, antherless stamens o; leaves often 
several-veined from the base. MIMULUS (p. 203) 

W. Calyx terete, clefts between its teeth extending to the middle or be- 
yond; anther-bearing stamens 2; antherless stamens 2. 
W. Leaves pinnately veined, 2.5-5 cm. long; corolla white or yellow, 
812 mm. long; antherless stamens not forked. GRATIOLA (p. 204) 
WW. Leaves several-veined from the base, 1.2-2.5 cm. long; corolla red 
or purple, about 6 mm. long; antherless stamens forked. W. C. E. 
(Gk. ilys = mud, anthos = a flower; from the habitat.) 

Ilysanthes dubia (FALSE PIMPERNEL) 
UU. Flowers in terminal or axillary clusters, with 4 anther-bearing stamens 

and the rudiments of a sth stamen. 

X. Corolla greenish- or purplish-brown, 8-10 mm. long; 5th stamen rep- 
resented by a scale on the corolla; herbs. W. C. E. (So named be- 
cause reputed a cure for scrofula.) Scrophularia californica (FIGWORT) 
XX. Corolla often some other color, usually longer; 5th stamen a tongue- 
like filament on the corolla. 

Y. Corolla never white nor yellow; antherless stamen shorter than the 
others; seed winged. W. C. E. (Gk. chelone = a turtle; the corolla 
has the shape of a turtle head.) Chelone nemorosa (TURTLEHEAD) 

YY. Corolla sometimes white or yellow; antherless stamen about equal- 
ing the others; seed wingless. PENTSTEMON (p. 202) 
PP. Calyx i-4-toothed or -lobed. 

Z. Corolla regular or nearly so, rotate to salverform, never yellow; stamens 2. 

VERONICA (p. 204) 

ZZ. Corolla plainly 2-lipped, tubular, often yellow; stamens 4. 
a. Leaves entire or with a few bristle-pointed teeth at base; corolla 8-12 mm. 
long; seeds 2-4. E. (Gk. melas = black, pyros = wheat; referring to 
the seed of some species.) Melampyrum lineare (COWWHEAT) 


aa. Leaves not entire, serrate or crenately dentate to pinnately divided; 

corolla 12-40 mm. long; seeds several or many. 

b. Stem without black lines near the top; leaves pinnately veined, either 
some of them pinnately lobed or else the upper lip of the corolla long and 
elephant-trunk-like; corolla white or red or purple or yellow. 


bb. Stem with fine black lines near the top; leaves merely crenate-dentate; 

upper lip of the corolla not elephant-trunk-like; corolla yellow. W. C. E. 

(Gk. rhin = a snout, anthos = a flower; referring to the compressed corolla 

wings.) Rhinanthus crusgalli (YELLOW RATTLE) 

AA. Shrubs. 

c. Plant with young parts glutinous, 6-18 dm. high; leaves 2.5-10 cm. long, 
pubescent beneath with branched hairs. U. (Gk. dis = 2, plakos = a pla- 
centa; the splitting of the capsule shows 2 conspicuous placentae.) 

Diplacus glutinosus 

cc. Plant not glutinous, 1-6 dm. high; leaves 0.6-5 cm. long, not pubescent be- 
neath with branched hairs. PENTSTEMON (p. 202) 


Flowers rather large. Stamens unequal. Seeds rugose, not winged. 
(L. barbascum = bearded ; on account of its hairiness.) 

A. Plant densely woolly; stem leaves strongly decurrent; flowers in a dense terminal 
spike; filaments of 3 upper stamens hairy, those of 2 lower ones glabrous. W. E. 
Medicinal plant. V. thapsus (COMMON MULLEIN) 

AA. Plant nearly glabrous; leaves not decurrent; flowers in a loose terminal raceme; 
filaments of all 5 stamens hairy. E. V. blattaria (MOTH MULLEIN) 


Leaves alternate or opposite or whorled, linear or linear-oblong. Flowers 
in racemes or spikes, yellow or blue. Upper lip of corolla 2-lobed; lower 
3-lobed. Fifth stamen represented by a gland on the inside of the corolla. 
(L. linum = flax, which some species resemble.) 

A. Perennial, pale green; flower yellow, 25-32 mm. long; seed winged. W. E. 

L. vulgaris (BUTTER AND EGGS) 

AA. Annual or biennial, green, not pale; flower blue, 6-8 mm. long; seed wingless. 
W. E. L. canadensis 


Leaves alternate or opposite. Upper lip of corolla 2-lobed ; lower 3-lobed ; 
throat nearly closed. Stamens 4, 2 shorter, the 5th represented by a 
gland inside the corolla tube. Seed oblong, not winged. Cultivated or 
escaped or accidentally introduced. (Gk. anti = like, rhin = a snout ; re- 
ferring to the form of the corolla.) 

A. Annual; corolla 6-16 mm. long. 

B. Calyx segments 10-14 mm. long, linear; corolla purple, 10-15 mm. long. W. 

A. orontium 

BB. Calyx segments 2-4 mm. long, subulate; corolla dull purple, 8-16 mm. long. 
U. C. A. leptopetalum 


J. Calyx segments 4-8 mm. long, oblong; corolla dull white, 6-8 mm. long. E. 

A. kingii 
AA. Perennial; corolla 20-30 mm. long; escaped from gardens. W. 



Herbs, low. Leaves opposite or whorled. Calyx 5-cleft. Upper lip of 
corolla 2-clef t ; lower larger, 3-lobed, its middle lobe a keel-like sac inclosing 
the stamens and style. Fifth stamen a gland. (Honor of Z. Collins, an 
American botanist.) 

A. Inflorescence glandular. 

B. Plant 5-10 cm. high; lower leaves orbicular to oblong; pedicels bent back in 
fruit; flowers many; calyx lobes broadly subulate, acute; seed oblong, nearly 
terete, not winged. U. C. C. torreyi 

BB. Plant 15-45 cm. high; lower leaves spatulate; pedicels erect in fruit; flowers 
1-6 in a whorl; calyx lobes lanceolate to triangular, somewhat obtuse; seed saucer- 
shaped, winged. C. E. C. rattan! 
AA. Inflorescence not glandular. 

C. Calyx lobes 2 or more times as long as the calyx tube; pedicels erect in fruit. 

D. Scurfy puberulent; flowers in dense whorls in upper axils. W. C. multiflora 
DD. Glabrous throughout; flowers usually solitary in the upper axils. W. C. 

C. sparsiflora 
CC. Calyx lobes scarcely longer than the calyx tube. 

E. Leaves all linear, all entire, or a few of the lower obscurely dentate; pedicels 
erect in fruit. U. C. linearis 

EE. Leaves not all linear, at least the lower wider, nearly always at least the lower 

ones distinctly toothed or notched. 

F. Corolla 8-18 mm. long, its tube shorter than the limb. 

G. Corolla 8-10 mm. long; pedicels erect in fruit. W. C. C. pusilla 

GG. Corolla 12-18 mm; pedicels bent back in fruit. W. C. C. grandiflora 

FF. Corolla 5-7 mm. long, its tube longer than the limb; pedicels bent back in 

fruit. W. C. E C. parviflora 


Herbs, annual, small. Leaves opposite. Flowers small, in axillary 
whorls. Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla slightly gibbous at base, 5-lobed. Sta- 
mens 4, the 5th a rudiment. Capsule subglobose, septicidal. Seeds 2-4. 
(Meaning not determined.) 

A. Stem weak and filiform; corolla 2-3 mm. wide; ovules and seeds i in each cell. 
C. E. T. collinsioides 

AA. Stem stout; corolla 6-10 mm. wide; ovules and seeds 3-4 in each cell. E. 

T. floribunda 


Perennial. Leaves opposite, sometimes partly alternate or whorled. 
Calyx 5-lobed. Limb of corolla 2-lipped; upper lip 2-lobed; lower 3-lobed. 
Stamens 4, included, 2 shorter ; 5th stamen a mere filament. (Gk. pente = 
5, stemon = a stamen; because the 5th stamen is conspicuous, although 
antherless.) Large and difficult genus. (F. & R. pp. 346-349.) 



Flowers either solitary in the leaf axils or in terminal racemes. Calyx 
tubular, persistent, upper tooth usually largest. Corolla irregular to nearly 
regular ; tube cylindric ; limb 2-lipped ; upper lip 2-lobed ; lower 3-lobed. 
Stamens 4, 2 shorter. Stigma 2-lobed. Capsule obtuse, not exceeding the 
calyx. (Gk. mimo = an ape ; from the grinning corolla.) 

A. Flowers yellow. 

B. Leaves with 3 or more veins from the base. 
C. Stems leafy, not scapose, rarely only i -flowered. 
D. Corolla 25-50 mm. long; calyx shorter than the corolla, its lobes equal or 


E. Plant not viscid-hairy. 

F. Plants 15-60 cm. high, without rhizomes; stems more than i -flowered. 
G. Leaves oblong to orbicular; plant glabrous throughout or pubescent to 
puberulent in the inflorescence; capsule oblong; seeds oblong. W. C. E. 

M. langsdorfii 

GG. Leaves oblong-lanceolate; plant glabrous throughout; capsule obovate; 
seed obovate. W. M. scouleri 

FF. Plants 2-4 cm. high, with rhizomes; stems mostly i-flowered. C. 

M. alpinus 
EE. Plant viscid-hairy, 10-20 cm. high, with rhizomes. W. E. 

M. implexus 

DD. Corolla 8-16 mm. long; calyx shorter than the corolla, its lobes unequal. 
H. Stems stout, 4-angled, branching from the base. W. C. E. M. nasutus 

HH. Stems slender, terete, mostly simple. E. M. microphyllus 

DDD. Corolla 4-6 mm. long; calyx longer than the corolla, its lobes nearly equal. 
E. M. breviflorus 

CC. Stem leafless, scapose, i-flowered. C. E. ' M. primuloides 

BB. Leaves with only i vein from the base. 

I. Calyx 5-angled, s-toothed. 
J. Corolla 20-25 mm. long. 

K. Plant not viscid; hairy lines inside the corolla extending to its base; seed 
ovate. W. M. dentatus 

KK. Plant viscid; hairy lines inside the corolla not extending to its base; seed 
spherical. W. C. E. M. moschatus (MUSK FLOWER) 

JJ. Corolla 4-20 mm. long. 
L. Plant villous with spreading white hairs, prostrate or spreading. E. 

M. floribundus 

LL. Plants glabrous or puberulent, not villous, erect (except M. alsinoides). 
M. Calyx teeth distinctly unequal, 2 larger; lower lip of corolla with bright 
crimson spot in center. W. C. E. M. alsinoides 

MM. Calyx teeth equal or very nearly so; corolla without crimson spot. 
N. Leaves with wide petioles; corolla 10-20 mm. long. 

O. Calyx cylindric in fruit; capsule oblanceolate. E. M. peduncularis 

OO. Calyx distended in fruit; capsule oblong. E. M. pulsiferea 

NN. Leaves sessile but narrowed at base; corolla 6-8 mm. long. C. E. 

M. rubellus 

II. Calyx not angled, s-cleft; corolla 6-8 mm. long, under lip usually with a pair of 
brown spots. E. M. pilosus 

AA. Flowers pink or red or purple. 
P. Corolla 5-10 mm. long; stigma 2-lipped. 


Q. Plant not viscid or merely viscid-puberulent; corolla 6-8 mm. long; some of 
the leaves wider than linear. C. E. M. rubellus 

QQ. Plant viscid-pubescent with spreading hairs; corolla 8-10 mm. long; leaves 
linear. C. E. M. brewer! 

PP. Corolla 14-20 mm. long; stigma funnelform. 
R. Leaves elliptic or merely the upper ones ovate, acute. 

S. Calyx teeth subulate, about $ as long as the calyx tube. E. M. bigelovii 

SS. Calyx teeth triangular, acute, }-j as long as the calyx tube. E. M. nanus 
RR. Leaves ovate, acuminate; calyx teeth triangular-subulate. E. M. cusickil 
PPP. Corolla 22-50 mm. long; stigma either 2-lipped or funnelform. 
T. Perennial; calyx 16-30 mm. long; style glabrous. 

U. Upper leaves often connate; calyx 25-30 mm. long; corolla scarlet and yellow; 

stamens exserted. W. E. M. cardinalis 

Uu. Leaves not connate; calyx 16-20 mm. long; corolla rose-red and purplish; 

stamens included. C. E. M. lewisii 

TT. Annual; calyx 10-12 mm. long; style pubescent above; upper leaves often 

connate. U. E. M. subuniflorus 


Annual. Leaves entire or dentate. Flowers solitary in the leaf axils. 
Corolla 2-lipped ; upper lip entire to a-cleft ; lower 3-lobed. (L. gratia = a 
favor, from supposed medicinal value.) 

A. Peduncles 2-bracted under the calyx; sepals shorter than the corolla; capsule 
about equaling the calyx. W. C. E. G. virginiana 

AA. Peduncles bractless; sepals equaling the corolla; capsule much shorter than the 
calyx. W. C. G. ebracteata 


Flowers white- or pink or blue. Corolla rotate ; limb 4~5-lobed. Sta- 
mens 2. Ovary 2-celled. Capsules somewhat flat, loculicidal. (Said to 
be in honor of St. Veronica.) 

A. Flowers in the axillary racemes; bracts of the racemes small, not leaflike; per- 

B. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate; capsule distinctly flat; seeds several. W. C. E. 

V. scutellata (MARSH SPEEDWELL) 
BB. Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate; capsule turgid, orbicular or nearly so; 

seeds many. 

C. Stem leaves short-petioled, serrate. W. C. E. V. americana (BROOKLIME) 

CC. Stem leaves sessile or somewhat clasping, serrate or entire. E. 

V. anagallis-aquatica (WATER SPEEDWELL) 
AA. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves which are either foliage leaves 

or leaflike bracts. 
D. Perennial; most of the leaves opposite; inflorescence leaves much reduced, the 

upper bractlike. 
E. Lower leaves petioled, upper sessile; capsule wider than long. 

F. Rachis and pedicels puberulent but not glandular-hairy; corolla whitish or 
pale blue. W. E. V. serpyllifolia (THYME-LEAVED SPEEDWELL) 

FF. Rachis and pedicels glandular-hairy; corolla dark blue. W. C. E. 

V. humifusa 
EE. All the leaves sessile; capsule longer than wide. 

G. Leaves longer than the internodes; corolla 6-10 mm. wide. 


H. Stem glabrous; sepals lanceolate; corolla blue to violet. W. C. E. 

V. cusickii 

HH. Stem pubescent above, glabrous below; sepals oblong to ovate; corolla 
white with purplish throat. C. V. allenii 

GG. Leaves shorter than the internodes; corolla 5-6 mm. wide. (See B.) 
DD. Annual; most of the leaves alternate; inflorescence leaves normal or merely 


I. Flowers in the axils of reduced leaves; pedicels short; seed flat. 
J. Plant glabrous or merely glandular-puberulent; lowest leaves oval-oblong, 
toothed; petals white. W. E. V. peregrina (NECK WEED) 

JJ. Plant pubescent; lowest leaves ovate, crenate; petals blue. W. C. E. 

V. arvensis (WALL SPEEDWELL) 

n. Flowers in the axils of ordinary leaves; pedicels long; seed cup-shaped; petals 
blue; plant pubescent. E. V. tournefortii 


Stem simple. Flowers white or pink or blue or purple. Calyx 4-parted. 
Corolla 4-cleft, rarely none. Stamens 2, rarely 4. (Gk. syn = together, 
thyris = a little door; referring to the closed valves of the pod.) 

A. Leaves reniform-orbicular; flowers in racemes. 
B. Petals entire. 

C. Scape naked except for the floral bracts, usually shorter than the leaves; calyx 

lobes ovate. W. C. S. rotundifolia 

CC. Scape with some scattered and alternate or opposite leaves, exceeding the 

leaves; calyx lobes lanceolate. E. S. reniformis 

BB. Petals laciniately incised. W. S. schizantha 

AA. Leaves not reniform-orbicular; flowers in spikes. 

D. Leaves crenulate; corolla none. E. S. rubra 

DD. Leaves pinnatifid; corolla whitish, nearly twice as long as the calyx. W. E. 

S. pinna t if ida 


Parasitic on the roots of other plants. Leaves entire to pinnatifid. 
Flowers in spikes; spikes terminal, leafy-bracted ; bracts often brightly 
colored. Calyx tubular, laterally flattened, the 2 lobes 2-toothed. Corolla 
very irregular; tube not exceeding the calyx; limb 2 -lipped; upper lip 
long, laterally flattened, entire; lower lip short, 3-toothed. Stamens 4, 
2 shorter ; anther sacs unequal, the outer attached by its middle, the inner 
hanging by its end. Capsule ovoid or oblong. Seeds reticulate. (Honor 
of D. Castillejo, a Spanish botanist.) 

A. Upper bracts of the inflorescence red or purple. 
B. Bracts of the inflorescence entire. 
C. Plant villous-pubescent throughout. 

D. Annual; bracts linear; corolla 12-20 mm. long. E. C. exilis 

DD. Perennial; bracts oblong to broadly cuneate; corolla 25-30 mm. long. E. 

C. elmeri 

CC. Plant glabrous except the inflorescence; bracts scarlet. W. C. E. C. miniata 
BB. Bracts of the inflorescence somewhat lobed or dissected. 

Calyx more deeply cleft in front than behind; leaves often all entire. 


F. Calyx 16-20 mm. long; plant 2-3 dm. high, pubescent to base; corolla 2.5-3 
cm. long. E. C. elmeri 

FF. Calyx 20-30 mm. long; plant 5-10 dm. high, glabrous below; corolla 4-5 
cm. long. E. C. linearifolia 

EE. Calyx more deeply cleft behind than in front. E. C. covilleana 

EEE. Calyx cleft to about the same depth behind as in front. 

G. Corolla tube about 3 times as long as its upper lip. E. C. rubida 
GG. Corolla tube 1-2 times as long as its upper lip. 

H. Stems glabrous below; bracts crimson or white. W. C. E. C. oreopola 

HH. Stems not glabrous below; bracts scarlet. 

I. Plants ashy-pubescent. E. C. pruinosa 

n. Plant not ashy-pubescent. 

J. Plant densely glandular; leaves lanceolate to obovate. E. C. applegatei 
JJ. Plant net glandular or only sparingly so. 
K. Leaves all entire. 

L. Stems 3-4 dm. high; leaves oblong-linear, 5-10 cm. E. C. pinetorum 
LL. Stem 2-3 dm. high; leaves lanceolate. 

M. Leaves 2-4 cm. long; bracts entire or merely few-toothed near the 
apex. C. C. crispula 

MM. Leaves 5-15 cm. long; bracts cleft into linear lobes. (See NN.) 
KK. Leaves or some of them deeply lobed. 

N. Middle lobe of bracts wide and rounded; halves of the calyx each with 
2 very shallow lobes or merely emarginate or entire. E. C. camporum 

NN. All segments of the bracts linear; halves of the calyx each with 2 lan- 
ceolate or ovate-lanceolate lobes. W. C. E. C. angustifolia 
GGG. Corolla tube much shorter than its upper lip. 
O. Stem 1-2 dm. high, from stout caudices; bracts with linear lobes. C. 

C. rupicola 

OO. Stem 3-6 dm. high, from slender rhizomes; bracts with short lobes. C. 

C. suksdorfil 

AA. Upper bracts of the inflorescence green or white or yellowish. 
P. Bracts of the inflorescence lobed or cleft. 
Q. Calyx 10-20 mm. long. 

R. Plant ashy-pubescent or -puberulent; corolla 10-20 mm. long. 
S. Inflorescence more or less pilose. E. C. fasciculata 

SS. Inflorescence not pilose. 

T. Upper leaves lobed; inflorescence not glandular; upper lip of the corolla 
twice as long as the lower. E. C. pallescens 

TT. All the leaves often entire; inflorescence somewhat glandular; upper lip 
of the corolla 4 times as long as the lower. E. C. rustica 

RR. Plant glabrous or pubescent or pilose, but not ashy. 
U. Calyx 2-cleft, the lobes 2-toothed or -cleft. 
V. Upper lip of the corolla more than twice as long as its tube. 
W. Pubescence soft, pilose. W. C. laevisecta 

WW. Pubescence harsh, stiff. E. C. lutescens 

W. Upper lip of the corolla less than twice as long as its tube. (Sec KK.) 
UU. Calyx cleft into 4 almost equal lobes; corolla 12-15 mm. long. E. 

C. longispica 

QQ. Calyx 25-40 mm. long. 
X. Upper lip of the corolla nearly as long as the corolla tube; corolla 25-50 mm. 

long. (See KK.) 

XX. Upper lip of the corolla about J as long as the corolla tube; corolla about 

25 mm. long. E. C. pilifera 

PP. Bracts of the inflorescence all entire. E. C. cusickii 



Flowers solitary in the axils, or in a terminal bracted spike; lower lip 
of the corolla 3-lobed, i~3-saccate. Stamens 4, 2 shorter ; anther cells 
unlike, the outer attached by its middle, the inner hanging by its end. Cap- 
sule oblong. (Gk. orthos = erect, karpos = a fruit.) 

A. Leaves entire or merely 3-lobed or -segmented. 

B. Corolla white; lower lip purple-spotted, with 3 conspicuous teeth or lobes; 
leaves 5-8 cm. long. W. O. attenuatus 

BB. Corolla yellow or rose or purple; lower lip entire or with 3 very short teeth. 
C. Corolla white or yellow; leaves 2.5-5 cm. long. 

D. Plant pubescent or hirsute; stem usually simple ; corolla pubescent outside. 
E. Calyx teeth acute; corolla yellow, its lower lip about as long as the upper. 
E. O. luteus 

EE. Calyx teeth subulate; corolla white or cream-colored, its lower lip much 
longer than the upper. E. O. hispidus 

DD. Plant merely puberulent; stem usually with spreading branches above; 
corolla glabrous. E. O. tolmiei 

CC. Corolla purple or rose-colored. 

F. Bracts of the inflorescence not colored, all 3-cleft. W. C. E. O. bracteosus 

FF. Bracts of the inflorescence red or purple, entire or with 2 smaller lateral lobes. 

G. Leaves 5-8 cm. long, entire or 3-segmented; bracts purple, ciliate at base; calyx 

8-12 mm. long; corolla 25 mm. long; capsule ovate. U. O. cuspidatus 

GG. Leaves 2.5-5 cm. long, all entire; bracts dull-red, glabrous; calyx 4 mm. 

long; corolla 8-16 mm. long; capsule obovoid. W. C. O. imbricatus 

AA. Leaves or some of them more than 3-lobed or -segmented. 

H. Corolla 4-6 mm. long, purplish. W. O. pusillus (RED ANT-WEED) 

HH. Corolla 10-16 mm. long. 

I. Corolla purplish; bracts very different from the leaves. 
J. Tip of upper lip of corolla hooked, puberulent; bracts obtuse. E. 

O. tenuifolius 

JJ. Tip of upper lip of corolla straight, not hooked, glandular-pubescent; bracts 
acute. E. O. barbatus 

n. Corolla white or yellowish; bracts not markedly different from the leaves. 
K. Perennial; lower lip of corolla i-saccate; bracts somewhat whitish or yellow- 
ish at the tip. C. O. pilosus 
KK. Annual; lower lip of corolla 3-saccate; bracts not different in color from the 
leaves. E. O. lacerus 
HHH. Corolla 20-28 mm. long. 

L. Bracts with white or yellow or crimson or purple tips. 

M. Bracts white or yellow at least at tips; corolla dull-white or purplish tipped, 
its upper lip glabrous; filaments glabrous. W. O. castilleoides 

MM. Bracts crimson or purple at least at tips; corolla crimson or purple, its 
upper lip bearded on the back; filaments pubescent. W. 

O. purpurascens (PURPLE OWL CLOVER) 
LL. Bracts with tips uncolored. 

N. Stem much branched; calyx 10-12 mm. long; its teeth lanceolate, about \ as 
long as the tube; corolla yellow; anthers i-celled. W. O. erianthera 

NN. Stem simple or with a few branches above; calyx 4 mm. long; its teeth subu- 
late, about as long as the tube ; corolla cream-colored or pale-rose ; anthers 
2-celled. U. O. lithospermoides 



Annual. Leaves narrow, entire to dissected. Flowers in terminal leafy- 
bracted spikes or fascicles. Sepals apparently 2. Corolla purple or yellow. 
Stamens 4, 2 shorter or antherless or not present ; anther cells either pilose- 
ciliate or with the base and apex minutely bearded, unlike, outer attached 
by its middle, inner hanging by its end. (Gk. adenos = a gland, stegia = a 
sheath; floral leaves and bracts are tipped with glands.) 

A. Plant not viscid-glandular; upper calyx lobe 2-toothed or emarginate. 
B. Corolla purplish; anther-bearing stamens 2, rudimentary stamens 2; anthers 
i-celled; capsule 8-seeded. C. E. A. capitata 

BB. Corolla yellow; anther-bearing stamens 4; anthers 2-celled; capsule 2o-seeded. 

E. A. ramosa 
AA. Plant viscid-glandular; upper calyx lobe acuminate. U. A. viscida 


Flowers in terminal spikes or racemes. Calyx tubular. Corolla strongly 
2-lipped; tube cylindric; upper lip laterally compressed; lower lip erect 
or ascending, 3-lobed; lobes of lower lip spreading or reflexed, middle one 
smallest. Stamens 4, 2 shorter. Seeds many. (L. pediculus a louse ; 
it was thought these plants caused lice in sheep.) 

A. Stem leaves alternate or opposite. 
B. Leaves doubly crenulate; corolla whitish or yellowish. W. C. E. 

P. racemosa (ELEPHANT TRUNK) 
BB. Leaves or some of them pinnately parted. 
C. Corolla whitish or yellowish. 

D. Basal leaves none. U. P. howellii 

DD. Basal leaves present. 

E. Leaf lobes linear; calyx 8-10 mm. long; corolla beak slender, inrolled. C. E. 

P. contorta (ELEPHANT TRUNK) 

EE. Leaf lobes lanceolate; calyx about 18 mm. long, corolla beak wide, hood- 
like. W. C. E. P. bracteosa 
CC. Corolla scarlet or purple. 

F. Corolla beaked. 

G. Stems leafy; corolla beak long, threadlike. W. C. E. 

P. groenlandica (BUTTERFLY TONGUE) 
GG. Stems scapose or with i pair of leaves; corolla beak short, conic. C. E. 

P. ornithorhyncha (BIRD BEAK) 
FF. Corolla beakless. 

H. Plant glabrous; stems branching; calyx 2-cleft; corolla purplish, 12 mm. 
long. W. C. P. parviflora 

HH. Plant pubescent or glabrate; stems simple; calyx s-toothed; corolla scar- 
let, 25-37 mm. long. U. C. P. densiflora (SCARLET LOUSEWORT) 
AA. Stem leaves in whorls or nearly so. W. P. menziesii 



Herbs, erect, low, root parasites, white or yellow or brown or 
purple, without green; stem simple. Leaves scalelike, alternate. 
Flowers perfect, irregular. Calyx various. Corolla 2-lipped, 
5-lobed. Stamens 4, 2 shorter, on the corolla tube, alternate with 
corolla lobes. Ovary superior, i-celled; style slender. Capsule 
2-valved. Seeds many. 

A. Plant glandular-pubescent; inflorescence often not conelike; upper lip of 

corolla 2-lobed. 

B. Peduncles 2.5-20 cm. long, naked. THALESIA (p. 209) 

BB. Peduncles 0-2 cm. long, often with bracteoles at base of calyx or farther 
down. OROBANCHE (p. 209) 

AA. Plant glabrous; inflorescence conelike; upper lip of corolla entire. 



Leaves scattered. Flowers on long bractless scapelike peduncles. Calyx 
nearly equally 5-cleft. Corolla long, curved, slightly 2-lipped; lower lip 
3-lobed. Anther sacs mucronate at base. (Honor of the Greek philosopher 

A. Flowers 1-4; calyx lobes subulate, acuminate, longer than the tube. W. C. E. 

T. uniflora 

AA. Flowers 3-20; calyx lobes triangular, acute, shorter than the tube. W. C. E. 

T. fasciculata 


Parasitic on plants of the family Ericaceae. Leaves densely crowded. 
Flowers sessile or short-pedicelled. Calyx shorter at the back, with 3 teeth 
in front. Corolla swollen at base on i side ; lower lip 3-lobed or -toothed. 
Anther sacs blunt at base. (Honor of some Russian, a Mr. Boschniak.) 

A. Calyx with 2 hairlike bracteoles at base; calyx teeth subulate; corolla lips nearly 
equal; placentae 4. W. B. strobilacea 

AA. Calyx without bracteoles; calyx teeth triangular, blunt; lower corolla lip J as 
long as the upper; placentae 2. W. B. hooker! 


Leaves scattered. Flowers in spikes or racemes. Calyx unequally 
5-toothed. Corolla strongly 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed. Anther sacs 
usually mucronate at base. (Gk. orobos = a vetch, agchone a strangler ; 
thought injurious to vetches.) 

A. Calyx lobes plainly longer than the tube. 
B. Pedicels 5-16 mm. long; stem simple or branched. 

C. Stem 5-10 cm. high; anthers woolly. W. E. O. comosa 

CC. Stem 20-30 cm. high; anthers glabrous or slightly hairy. E. O. californica 

F. & R. EL. FL. 14 


BB. Pedicels 0-3 mm. long; stem simple. E. O. ludoviciana 

AA. Calyx lobes equaling or shorter than the tubes; stem branched above; flowers 

nearly sessile. E. O. pinorum 


Herbs, in water or on damp soil. Flowers perfect; pedicels brac- 
teolate. Calyx 2-5-parted. Corolla spurred at base, 2 -lipped; 
upper lip plicate, entire or 2-lobed; lower lip larger, 3-lobed, with 
a palate. Stamens 2. Ovary superior, ovoid or globose, i -celled; 
style short or none; stigma 2-lobed. Fruit a capsule. Seeds many. 

A. Terrestrial plants; leaves entire; flowers purple- violet. W. C. E. (L. pin- 

guis = fat; the leaves have a fatty feel.) Pinguicula vulgaris (BUTTERWORT) 

AA. Aquatic or marsh plants; leaves dissected or apparently none; flowers yellow. 



Free-floating or mud-anchoring. Leaves finely divided in nearly all, 
sometimes apparently none, bladder-bearing in most water species, with a 
few mud-covered bladders or none in mud species. Flowers yellow, con- 
spicuous, elevated above the water, very rare. 

A. Leaf segments terete, their margins entire. 

B. Leaves 12-25 mm. long, 2-3-pinnately segmented, very bladdery; bladders 3-4 

mm. long. W. C. E. U. vulgaris 

BB. Leaves 4-8 mm. long, several times forked, with few or no bladders; bladders 

1-2 mm. long. 

C. Corolla spur short, obtuse. W. C. U. minor 

CC. -Corolla spur conic, acute. C. U. occidentalis 

AA. Leaf segments flat, their margins minutely bristle-toothed; leaves 6-12 mm. 
long, repeatedly forked; bladders nearly always on leafless branches. C. E. 

U. intermedia 


Herbs, acaulescent. Leaves basal. Flowers small, perfect or im- 
perfect, in spikes or heads; clusters terminal, on scapes. Calyx 
4-parted, persistent. Corolla scarious or membranous, 4-lobed. 
Stamens 2 or 4, on the corolla. Ovary superior, i-4-celled; style i. 
Fruit a capsule, opening by a lid. Seeds i to several. Only the 
following genus. 

Flowers greenish or purplish. (The Latin name.) 

A. Leaves ovate. W. C. E. P. major (COMMON PLANTAIN) 

AA. Leaves lanceolate. 
B. Seeds 1-2, flat or concave on the face. 


C. Scape glabrous or slightly hairy above. W. C. E. 

P. lanceolata (ENGLISH PLANTAIN) 

CC. Scape densely woolly above. W. P. macrocarpa 

BB. Seeds 4-5, plump, neither flat nor concave on the face. E. P. eriopoda 

AAA. Leaves linear. 
D. Capsule 2-seeded. 

E. Leaves fleshy; seashore plant. W. P. maritima (SEASIDE PLANTAIN) 

EE. Leaves not fleshy; not particularly seashore plants. 
F. Bracts J-iJ as long as the calyx, not aristate. 

G. Scape densely woolly; bracts about as long as calyx. W. C. E. P. purshii 
GG. Scape glabrous to pubescent; bracts about as long as the calyx. U. 

P. tetrantha 

FF. Bracts 2-8 times as long as the calyx, aristate. 
H. Spikes dense; plant dark green; bracts 5-10 times as long as the calyx. W. 

P. aristata 

HH. Spike interrupted; plant light green; bracts about twice as long as the calyx. 
E. P. spinulosa 

DD. Capsule 4-seeded. 

I. Plant usually glabrous; leaves linear; corolla-lobes remaining open in the cap- 
sule; spike dense; capsule 3-4 mm. long. W. P. bigelovii 
n. Plant ashy-puberulent; leaves linear-spatulate; corolla lobes closing over the 
capsule; spike not dense; capsule 2 mm. long. C. E. P. elongata 


Herbs, annual or perennial. Leaves simple, opposite or whorled, 
i-5-veined from the base. Flowers perfect, regular. Calyx 
4-toothed, or limbless and thus apparently none. Corolla funnel- 
form to rotate, 4-lobed. Stamens as many as corolla lobes and 
alternate with them, on the corolla. Ovary inferior, 2-celled; 
styles 1-2. Fruit a capsule or berry or drupe; 2-lobed or -parted. 
Seeds i to many. 

A. Leaves opposite; stipules small, scarious. W. C. E. (Honor of A. Kellogg, 
an American botanist.) Kelloggia galioides 

AA. Leaves whorled or occasionally some of them opposite; stipules none. 

GALIUM (p. 211) 

Stem 4-angled. Calyx-limb none or minutely toothed. Corolla rotate. 
Styles 2. Fruit of 2 somewhat spherical halves, dry or fleshy, smooth to 
bristly ; separating into 2 indehiscent carpels. (L. gala = milk ; some 
species were used to curdle milk.) 

A. Leaves 2-4 in a whorl but never all in 2's, i-s-veined from the base. 
B. Leaves 3-s-veined from the base. 

C. Fruit hispid with hooked hairs; leaves 12-37 mm. long; leaf margin ciliate; 
flowers yellowish green. W. C. G. kamtschaticum (NORTHERN WILD LICORICE) 
CC. Fruit either smooth or hispid with hooked hairs; leaves 25-63 mm. long ; 
leaf margin ciliate or not; flowers clear white. W. C. E. 



CCC. Fruit hispid with straight hairs; leaves 8-16 mm. long; leaf margin not 
ciliate; flowers yellowish green. E. G. multiflorum 

BB. Leaves i -veined from the base. 

D. Annual; leaves 2-4 in a whorl, if 4 then 2 of them only J-f as long as the other 
2; fruit minutely hispid with hooked bristles. U. C. E. 


DD. Perennial; leaves 4 in a whorl, all 4 about equal; fruit smooth. 
E. Leaves flat, linear or oblong or wider, not densely crowded; plant 3-12 dm. 

high, diffuse or climbing. 

F. Plant 7-12 dm. high; leaves obtuse, often mucronate. U G. nuttallii 

FF. Plant 3-6 dm. high; leaves acute, not mucronate. U. C. G. bolanderi 

EE. Leaves awl-shaped, angular, densely crowded; plant 0.5-2.5 cm. high, de- 
pressed, caespitose. U. G. andrewsii 
AA. Leaves 4-6 in a whorl but never all in 4's, i-veined from the base; peren- 

G. Leaves acute to rounded, 4-6 in a whorl; fruit smooth. 
H. Flowers 1-3 on peduncles which are solitary in the leaf axils. W. C. E. 

G. trifidum (SMALL BEDSTRAW) 

HH. Flowers in cymes, numerous. W. G. cymosum 

GG. Leaves acuminate or cuspidate, 6 in a whorl; fruit minutely or plainly stiff- 
I. Fruit covered with hooked hairs; leaves 1-2.5 cm. long. W. C. E. 


n. Fruit rough or minutely hairy but not with hooked hairs; leaves 2.5-5 cm. long. 

E. G. asperrimum 

AAA. Leaves 6-8 in a whorl but never all in 6's, i-veined from the base; fruit covered 

with hooked bristles; annual. 
J. Stems erect or ascending; fruit 2-3 mm. wide; leaves 1-2.5 cm. long. E. 

G. vaillantii 
JJ. Stems reclining; fruit 4-6 mm. wide; leaves 2.5-7 cm. long. W. E. 

G. aparine (CLEAVERS) 


Herbs or shrubs or trees, perennial, vining to erect. Leaves 
opposite, simple or pinnately odd-compound, pinnately or pal- 
mately veined. Flowers perfect. Calyx entire or 5-toothed, 
sometimes apparently none through complete adherence to the 
ovary. Corolla rotate to tubular, 5-lobed, sometimes 2-lipped. 
Stamens 4-5, on the corolla tube, alternate with the lobes. Ovary 
inferior, i-6-celled. Fruit a berry or drupe or capsule. 

A. Leaves pinnately compound; tall shrubs or trees ; fruit berrylike, black or red 
or yellow, 3-5-seeded. SAMBUCUS (p. 213) 

AA. Leaves simple. 

B. Leaves palmately 3-5 -veined; fruit drupelike, red or black, i -seeded; tall 
shrubs. VIBURNUM (p. 213) 

BB. Leaves pinnately veined; fruit dry or berrylike. 

C. Leaves coriaceous, evergreen, blade not over 2 cm. long; fruit dry, i-seeded; 
shrubby herb, prostrate, vinelike, creeping. W. C. E. (Honor of C. von 
Linnaeus the great Swedish botanist.) Linnaea americana (TWIN-FLOWER) 


CC. Leaves not coriaceous, not evergreen, blade usually larger; fruit berrylike, 
2-4-seeded; plainly a shrub or tree, vine to erect, often climbing or reclining. 
D. Corolla regular, 12 mm. or less long; ovary 4-celled; berry white, 2-seeded; 
leaves entire or dentate or irregularly lobed, not united at base; shrub, erect 
or rarely trailing. SYMPHORICARPOS (p. 213) 

DD. Corolla irregular, 12 mm. or more long; ovary 2-3-celled; berry red or 
black, 2-4-seeded; leaves entire or merely sinuate, upper pair sometimes 
united at base; shrubs or trees, erect or often trailing or a climbing vine. 

LONICERA (p. 214) 


Leaflets serrate to laciniate. Flowers small, white or pinkish, in cymes. 
Corolla rotate, regular. Stamens 5, on base of corolla. Ovary 3-5-celled; 
style 3-parted. (Gk. sambuke = a musical instrument ; said to have been 
made of Elder.) 

A. Inflorescence flat-topped; pith in i-year-old stems white or slightly brownish; 

berries black but gray with a bloom. W. C. E. S. glauca (TREE ELDER) 

A A. Inflorescence conic; pith in i -year-old stems yellowish brown. Both these have 

edible fruits. 
B. Fruit black, without a bloom; leaves blackening in drying. C. E. 

S. melanocarpa (BLACK ELDER) 
BB. Fruit bright red to yellow; leaves not blackening in drying. W. C. E. 

S. callicarpa (RED ELDER) 


Flowers white or pink, in compound cymes, the outer flowers sometimes 
raylike and neutral. Calyx limb short. Corolla rotate or short-campanu- 
late, regular. Stamens 5. Ovary i-3-celled; style 3-lobed or -parted. 
(Said to be from L. mere = to tie; because the twigs of some are very 

A. Leaves or some of them 3-lobed; fruit red, its stone not or hardly grooved on 

either face. 

B. Erect shrub; cyme 6-10 cm. wide, its outer flowers much larger than the others. 


BB. Straggling shrub; cyme 1-3 cm. wide/its outer flowers not larger than the others. 

C. E. V. pauciflorum (SQUASH BERRY) 

AA. Leaves not lobed, merely dentate above the middle; fruit black, its stone grooved 

on both faces; cyme 4-10 cm. wide, its outer flowers not larger than the others. 

W. C. E. V. ellipticum (BLACK HAW) 


Flowers 2-bracteolate, white or rose colored. Calyx tube spherical. 
Corolla short-campanulate to salverform. Stamens 5, on the corolla throat. 
Berry globose, white. (Gk. syn = together, phero = I bear, karpos = 
fruit; from the clustered berries.) 

A. Corolla 2-4 mm. long. 
B. Erect; leaves glabrous. W. C. E. S. racemosus 


BB. Trailing; leaves pubescent. W. C. E. S. mollis 
AA. Corolla 6-12 mm. long. 

C. Corolla tube 2-3 times as long as its lobes ; leaves tomentulose or pubescent. 
C. E. S. rotundifolius 

CC. Corolla tube 4-5 times as long as its lobes; leaves glabrous or sparsely hairy. 

E. S. orephilus 


Shrubs or small trees, erect to climbing. Flowers in spikes or heads or 
pairs. Calyx tube ovoid or nearly spherical ; limb none or slightly 5-toothed. 
Corolla tubular to campanulate, either oblique or 2-lipped. Stamens 5. 
(Honor of A. Lonitzer, a German botanist.) 

A. Climbing or twining or trailing, vinelike; flowers in terminal clusters; upper pair 

of leaves united at base. 

B. Flowers orange to scarlet; young stem glabrous. 

C. Corolla 25-40 mm. long, its tube many times as long as its lower lip; leaf margin 

usually ciliate. W. C. E. L. ciliosa (ORANGE HONEYSUCKLE) 

CC. Corolla 12-16 mm. long, its tube less than twice as long as its lower lip; leaf 

margin not ciliate. U. L. californica (CALIFORNIA HONEYSUCKLE) 

BB. Flowers pink; young stem hairy. W. L. hispidula (PINK HONEYSUCKLE) 

AA. Erect, the branches sometimes long and reclining on other shrubs; flowers in pairs 

on axillary peduncles; upper pairs of leaves not united. 

D. Pair of flowers or fruits subtended by narrow or minute bracts, or bractless. 
E. Leaves green on both sides; fruit red. 

F. Corolla whitish, its lobes nearly equal; leaves obtuse. W. C. E. 

L. utahensis (RED TWIN-BERRY) 
FF. Corolla dark purple, 2-lipped; leaves acute or acuminate. C. E. 

L. conjugialis 

EE. Leaves somewhat pale beneath; fruit blue-black; corolla yellowish, 2-lipped. 

C. L. coeiulea (EDIBLE TWIN-BERRY) 

DD. Pair of flowers or fruits subtended by large wide leaflike bracts; flowers yellow; 

fruit black. W. C. E. L. involucrata (BLACK TWIN-BERRY) 


Herbs. Leaves opposite; stipules none. Flowers usually small, 
perfect or dioecious, clustered. Calyx limb inconspicuous or none 
in the flower, often becoming prominent in fruit. Corolla some- 
what irregular, 5-lobed. Stamens 3, on the corolla, alternate with 
corolla-lobes, usually exserted. Ovary inferior, i-3-celled; style i. 
Fruit dry, indehiscent. Seed I. 
A. Annual; calyx teeth not plumose; fruit 3-celled; leaves entire to dentate; 

flowers white or pink or blue. VALERIA NELLA (p. 215) 

AA. Perennial; calyx teeth plumose; fruit i-celled; leaves entire to compound; 

flowers white or pink or yellowish. VALERIANA (p. 215) 



Basal leaves tufted, entire; stem leaves sessile often dentate. Flowers 
perfect. Calyx limb short or none. Corolla nearly regular. (Diminutive 
of Valeriana, a related genus.) 

A. Stems not dichotomous; corolla white or pink; leaf margin not ciliate. 
B. Corolla 6-7 mm. long, rose color, the spur half as long as the tube or less; fruit 
strongly keeled on the back, broadly winged. W. C. E. V. congesta 

BB. Corolla 1-3 mm. long. 
C. Spur of the corolla about as long as the tube; fruit obscurely keeled on the back. 

D. Wing of the fruit wide, as long as the fruit body. E. V. macrocera 
DD. Wing of the fruit narrow, shorter than the body. E. V. mamillata 

CC. Spur of the corolla none or about half as long as the tube; fruit strongly keeled 
on the back. 

E. Corolla spurred. 

F. Fruit wingless. W. C. E V. samolifolia 

FF. Fruit winged. U. E. V. aphanoptera 

EE. Corolla spurless; fruit winged. W. C. E. V. anomala 

AA. Stems dichotomous; corolla pale blue; upper leaves ciliate at margin. W. 

V. olitoria 


Flowers perfect or dioecious or the two mixed. Calyx teeth deciduous, 
inrolled and hidden when in bloom. Corolla tube cylindric to obconic, not 
spurred. (Said to be from L. valere = to be strong ; on account of the 
medicinal properties of V. officinalis.) 

A. Leaflets of the stem leaves coarsely dentate, ovate-lanceolate to orbicular; flowers 
6-8 mm. long; plant from a creeping rhizome. W. C. E. V. sitchensis 

AA. Leaflets of the stem leaves entire or the terminal one merely 3-cleft. 
B. Corolla 4-8 mm. long, its tube less than twice as long as its limb. 
C. Basal leaves mostly of 3-5 leaflets; divisions of the stem leaves ovate-lanceolate 

to orbicular; plant from a creeping rhizome. (See A.) 
CC. Basal leaves mostly simple and entire; divisions of the stem leaves linear to 


D. Leaves thick, entire or the segments not dentate, veins somewhat parallel; 

stems from an erect fusiform rhizome-root. E. V. ceratophylla (TOBACCO ROOT) 

DD. Leaves thin, entire or the segments dentate, veins reticulate; stems from 

horizontal rhizomes. C. V. sylvatica (WOOD VALERIAN) 

BB. Corolla 14-15 mm. long, its tube twice as long as its limb. E. V. columbiana 


Herbs, biennial, rough-hairy or prickly. Leaves opposite; stip- 
ules none. Flowers perfect, lilac, in dense involucrate spiny heads, 
subtended by bracts and involucels; receptacle elongated or glo- 
bose. Calyx limb cup-shaped, 4-toothed. Corolla 2-lipped, 4- 
lobed. Stamens 4 on corolla tube, alternate with the lobes; an- 
thers versatile. Ovary inferior, i -celled; style filiform. Fruit 


an akene, crowned with the persistent calyx lobes. W. E. (Gk. 
dipsen = to thirst; because the leaf bases of some catch water.) 

Dipsacus sylvestris (Teasel) 


Herbs, vines, with tendrils, perennial. Leaves alternate, petioled, 
palmately lobed; stipules none. Flowers racemose, monoecious, 
white. Calyx limb campanulate, usually 5-lobed. Corolla rotate ; 
limb deeply 5-lobed. Stamens 3, monadelphous. Style i, termi- 
nal. Fruit fleshy, becoming dry, prickly, dehiscent at the summit; 
Seeds, few, flat. W. E. (Gk. echinos = a hedgehog, kystis = a 
bladder; referring to the prickly inflated fruit.) 

Echinocystis oregana (WILD CUCUMBER) 


Herbs. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules none. Flowers regular, 
solitary-axillary or racemose, white or blue or violet. Calyx 
3~5-lobed. Corolla sympetalous, 5-lobed, rotate to campanulate. 
Stamens 5, usually free from the corolla. Ovary inferior; style i. 
Fruit a capsule, prismatic or terete, 2-5-celled. Seeds many, small. 

A. Stem leaves lanceolate or spatulate to linear, petioled or sessile, not clasping. 

B. Calyx lobes not over i cm. long; perennial; leaves sessile or petioled. 

CAMPANULA (p. 216) 

BB. Calyx lobes 2-4 cm. long; annual; leaves sessile. W. E. (Githago is 
another genus; Gk. opsis = like.) Githopsis specularioides 

AA. Stem leaves ovate to orbicular, sessile, clasping; annual. 

C. Calyx lobes triangular-lanceolate, entire; corolla rotate; capsule opening by 
lateral pores; seed lens-shaped. W. E. (L. speculum = a mirror; referring 
to the corolla of a European species.) 

Specularia perfoliata (VENUS' LOOKING-GLASS) 

CC. Calyx lobes triangular-ovate, somewhat toothed; corolla open-campanulate; 
capsule bursting irregularly; seed obscurely 3-angled. E. (Gk. heteros = 
different, kodon = a bell; referring to the 2 forms of flowers.) 

Heterocodon rariflorum 


Flowers white or blue or violet. Calyx tube hemispheric to prismatic. 
Corolla campanulate. Ovary 3-5-celled; stigma 3~5-lobed. Capsule 
crowned by the persistent calyx lobes. (Diminutive of L. campana = 
a bell ; referring to the corolla.) 

A. Stem leaves ovate to lanceolate; corolla lobes spreading; style long-exserted. 
B. Stems not clustered; leaves acuminate; pedicel longer than the flower. W. C. E. 

C. scouleri 


BB. Stems clustered; leaves acute; pedicel shorter than the flower. U. 

C. prenanthoides 
AA. Stem leaves linear or spatulate or cuneate; corolla lobes erect; style included. 

C. Plant puberulent; leaves all entire; basal-leaves spatulate; stem leaves mostly 
linear. C. E. C. scabrella 

CC. Plant glabrous; at least the basal leaves not entire. 

D. Stem leaves spatulate-oblanceolate, dentate; basal leaves similar in form to 
the stem leaves. W. C. piperi 

DD. Stem leaves linear, entire; basal leaves orbicular to cordate. W. C. E. 

C. rottmdifolia (BLUEBELL) 


Herbs, often with milky or acrid juice. Leaves alternate, simple; 
stipules none. Flowers perfect, parts in 5*5, racemose or solitary- 
axillary. Calyx i-lobed. Corolla-limb 2-lipped. Anthers and 
rarely the filaments united about the style. Ovary inferior or ^ 
inferior, i-2-celled; style i; stigma with a rim of hairs. Seed 

A. Plants merely of wet places, not aquatic; flowers blue. 

B. Leaves wavy-denticulate or some of them entire; capsule free from the calyx 
at its top; corolla cleft to the base on one side. LOBELIA (p. 217) 

BB. Leaves all entire; capsule wholly inferior. 

C. Calyx tube oblong or shorter; capsule short; stems creeping or diffuse, root- 
ing at the nodes; corolla without white or yellow center. E. (Honor of M. A. 
Laurenti, an Italian botanist.) Laurentia carnulosa 

CC. Calyx tube 10 or more times as long as wide; capsule 2-7 cm. long; stems 
diffuse or erect, not rooting at the nodes; corolla deep blue with white or yellow 
center. DOWNINGIA (p. 217) 

AA. Plants aquatic; submerged leaves linear-setaceous or terete. 

D. Submerged leaves 2-5 cm. long, all in a basal tuft; perrennial; corolla blue. 

LOBELIA (p. 217) 

DD. Submerged leaves 5-15 cm. long, scattered along an elongated stem; annual; 
corolla white. W. (Honor of J. and T. Howell, Oregon botanists.) 

Howellia aquatica 


Perennial. Leaves alternate or all basal, simple. Flowers blue, in 
racemes, bracted. Corolla divided to base on i side. Stamens free from 
corolla, monadelphous at least above ; 2 or 5 of the anthers with a tuft of 
hair at tip. Seeds many. (Honor of M. de 1'Obel, a Flemish botanist.) 

A. Aquatic; leaves all basal, terete, hollow. W. L. dortmanna (WATER LOBELIA) 
AA. Terrestrial; most of the leaves scattered along the stem, flat, linear to spatulate. 

E. L. kalmii 


Annual, glabrous. Leaves sessile. Flowers solitary-axillary, sessile, 
deep blue with white or yellow center. Corolla tube not split ; large lip 


3-lobed; small lip 2-lobed. Filaments and anthers united into a tube; 
2 anthers with a tuft of hair at tip. Seeds many. (Honor of A. J. Down- 
ing, an American horticulturist.) 

A. Leaves acute, lanceolate to ovate; 2 lobes of the smaller lip of the corolla lanceo- 
late. E. D. elegans 

AA. Leaves mostly obtuse, lanceolate to linear; 2 lobes of the smaller lip of the corolla 
ovate-oblong. U. E. D. pulchella 


Herbs or shrubs. Leaves various in form and arrangement. 
Flowers in heads, often of 2 kinds, their parts in 4's or 5*5; heads 
involucrale. Calyx limb none or cuplike, or of teeth or scales or 
awns or capillary bristles, often serving as a means of seed dispersal. 
Corolla on the calyx, tubular or strap-shaped, or else the inner 
tubular (disk flowers) and the outer strap-shaped (ray flowers). 
Stamens as many as corolla lobes, alternate with them, on the 
corolla tube; anthers syngenesious . Ovary i -celled, ovule i; 
style i ; stigmas 2 in fertile flowers. Fruit an akene. A difficult 
family. Keys mostly to genera only. (F. & R. pp. 372-430.) 


A. Corollas all tubular and regular, or only the marginal ones ligulate. 
B. Heads rayless or radiate ; anther not tailed at base; style branches either trun- 
cate or tipped with an appendage. 
C. Heads rayless; flowers never yellow, all perfect; style branches clavate. 

EUPATOREAE (p. 220) 

CC. Heads usually radiate, very rarely both rayless and yellow; style branches 
rarely clavate. 

D. Style branches of the perfect flowers either flat or tipped with a distinct 
appendage; leaves mostly alternate. . . . . ASTEREAE (p. 221) 
DD. Style branches of the perfect flowers truncate or appendaged, but not 
flattened; leaves often opposite. 
E. Involucre not scarious. 
F. Pappus none or not capillary. 

G. Receptacle chaffy HELIANTHEAE (p. 224) 

GG. Receptacle not chaffy except in Gaillardia. . HELENEAE (p. 228) 
FF. Pappus capillary; receptacle not chaffy. . . SENECEAE (p. 232) 
EE. Involucre scarious; pappus none or not capillary; receptacle not chaffy 
except in Anthemis and Achillea. . . . ANTHEMEAE (p. 230) 

BB. Heads rayless (except Inula); anthers tailed at base; style branches neither 
truncate nor tipped with an appendage. 
H. Corollas not deeply cleft; receptacle not bristly (except Evax). 

INULEAE (p. 223) 

HH. Corollas deeply cleft; receptacle bristly. . CYNAREAE (p. 235) 

AA. Corollas all ligulate, all perfect CICHOREAE (p. 236) 



A. Herbs. 

B. Flowers either all tubular or the outer ligulate and the inner tubular; juice 
rarely milky. 

C. Pappus of capillary or plumose bristles. 
D. Heads radiate. 
E. Rays yellow. 
F. Heads 3-10 cm. wide; basal leaves 2-5 dm. long, 1-2 dm. wide, oblong, 

denticulate. INULEAE (p. 223) 

FF. Heads less than 2 cm. wide; leaves smaller. 

G. Involucre bracts in more than 2 series. . . ASTEREAE (p. 221) 

GG. Involucre bracts in 1-2 series. 

H. Rays 20-30 or more ASTEREAE (p. 221) 

HH. Rays fewer. . . . . . . SENECEAE ( p. 232) 

EE. Rays not yellow. 

I. Flowers appearing before the foliage leaves; staminate and pistillate 
flowers on separate plants; foliage leaves large, palmately lobed, all basal. 

SENECEAE (p. 232) 

II. Flowers on foliage-bearing stems, or appearing after the leaves when they 
are all basal; leaves not as above ASTEREAE (p. 221) 

DD. Heads rayless. 
J. Heads distinctly yellow. 

K. Involucre bracts white, many, almost hiding the few small yellow flowers, 

the most prominent feature of the head. . . INULEAE (p. 223) 

KK. Involucre bracts either not white, or not the most prominent feature 

of the head. 

L. Corolla deeply s-lobed. .- . ... . . . CYNAREAE (p. 235) 

LL. Corolla with 4-5 merely triangular teeth. 

M. Involucre bracts in more than 2 series. . . ASTEREAE (p. 221) 
MM. Involucre bracts in 1-2 series. 
N. Akenes not ribbed, flattish, 0-4 lateral veins. ASTEREAE (p. 221) 

NN. Akenes s-is-ribbed SENECEAE (p. 232) 

JJ. Heads not yellow; corolla often hidden in white wool or so inconspicuous 

that it shows little if any color. 

O. Leaves large, palmately lobed, squash-leaf-like. . SENECEAE (p. 232) 
OO. Leaves pinnately veined. 

P. Corolla deeply lobed CYNAREAE (p. 235) 

PP. Corolla with 4-5 merely triangular teeth. 

Q. Leaves white- woolly at least beneath. . . INULEAE (p. 223) 
QQ. Leaves not white- woolly. 
R. Akenes 5-is-ribbed or striate. . . . EUPATOREAE (p. 220) 

RR. Akenes flattish, 0-4- veined ASTEREAE (p. 221) 

CC. Pappus none, or of scales, or of rigid bristles. 
S. Heads radiate. 
T. Rays yellow. 
U. Receptacle chaffy. 

V. Leaves in most species opposite at least below; involucre not scarious 



W. Leaves alternate; involucre scarious. . . ANTHEMEAE (p. 230) 
UTJ. Receptacle not chaffy. 

W. Leaves opposite HELENEAE (p. 228) 

WW. Leaves alternate. 

X. Involucre gummy, not glandular-hairy, glabrous. ASTEREAE (p. 221) 
XX. Involucre not gummy, or merely with glandular hairs if sticky. 

Y. Herbage resinous, glabrous ASTEREAE (p. 221) 

YY. Herbage not resinous, mostly not glabrous. HELENEAE (p. 228) 
TT. Rays not yellow. 
Z. Involucre bracts scarious or scarious-margined. 

a. Leaves pinnately dissected or compounded. . ANTHEMEAE (p. 230) 
aa. Leaves entire ASTEREAE (p. 221) 

ZZ. Involucre bracts herbaceous throughout. 

b. Leaves all basal ASTEREAE (p. 221) 

bb. Leaves not all basal HELIANTHEAE (p. 224) 

SS. Heads rayless. 

c. Involucre gummy but not glabrous; flowers yellow. ASTEREAE (p. 221) 
cc. Involucre not gummy or merely glandular-hairy if sticky. 
d. Corolla deeply lobed; flowers rarely yellow. . . CYNAREAE (p. 235) 
dd. Corolla with 4-5 merely triangular teeth, 
e. Receptacle chaffy or hairy. 

f. Plants pubescent with jointed hairs. . . . HELENEAE (p. 228) 
ff. Plants without jointed hairs. . . . HELIANTHEAE (p. 224) 

ee. Receptacle neither chaffy nor hairy. 

g. Heads distinctly white; at least the inflorescence very glandular. 

INULEAE (p. 223) 
gg. Heads yellowish or brownish or purplish; plant usually not glandular. 

h. Salt-marsh plants ANTHEMEAE (p. 230) 

hh. Not salt-marsh plants. 
i. Involucre bracts scarious at least at margin. 

j. Leaves entire. INULEAE (p. 223) 

jj. Leaves not entire. .... ANTHEMEAE (p. 230) 

ii. Involucre bracts not scarious though sometimes burlike. 

HELENEAE (p. 228) 

BB. Rowers all ligulate; juice milky in most. . . CICHOREAE (p. 236) 
AA. Shrubs, 
k. Leaves glabrous or pubescent but not hoary. 

I. Flowers white or pinkish EUPATOREAE (p. 220) 

II. Flowers yellow ASTEREAE (p. 221) 

kk. Leaves hoary with white or woolly hairs. 

m. Pappus of capillary bristles. 

n. Involucre of 4-6 bracts SENECEAE (p. 232) 

nn. Involucre of more than 6 bracts ASTEREAE (p. 221) 

mm. Pappus none ANTHEMEAE (p. 230) 

EUPATOREAE (Boneset Tribe). Perennial. Leaves entire to den- 
tate. Heads rayless, all alike, 10-15 -flowered; receptacle naked, flat. 
Flowers perfect, fertile ; corolla tubular, regular, 5-toothed, never yellow. 


Anthers without tails at base. Style branches somewhat club-shaped, 
obtuse. Pappus bristles capillary, in i series, scabrous to almost plumose. 

A. Akenes s-angled, without intermediate ridges or lines; involucre bracts nearly 
veinless. E. (Honor of Mithridates Eupator, king of Pontus, who first used one 
of these in medicine.) Eupatorium occidental e (BONESET) 

AA. Akenes to-ribbed or -striate; involucre bracts striate-veined. (Gk. koleos = 
a sheath, anthos = a flower; probably referring to the involucre.) 

Coleosanthus (THOROUGHWORT) 

ASTEREAE (Aster Tribe). Leaves mostly alternate. Heads radiate 
or rayless, all alike (except staminate and pistillate on separate plants in 
Baccharis] ; receptacle naked. Ray flowers pistillate or rarely neutral. 
Corolla of disk flowers nearly always yellow, regular, tubular, 4~5-lobed; 
style branches flat, appendaged. Anthers not tailed at base. Pappus none 
or various, in most species of capillary bristles. 

A. Rays none or very inconspicuous. 
B. Herbs though sometimes woody at base; hairy or glabrous, not usually sticky; 

heads all alike. 

C. Pappus of 2-8 rigid awns; involucre glabrous and shining but very gummy. 

GRINDELIA (p. 223) 
CC. Pappus of scabrous capillary bristles; involucre often glandular but then not 


D. Involucre bracts in 2-6 vertical rows. (Gk. chrysos = gold, thamnos = a 
shrub; shrubby plants with yellow flowers.) Chrysothamnus (RABBIT BRUSH) 
DD. Involucre bracts not in vertical rows. 
E. Leaves all entire. 
F. Heads only i on a stem. 
G. Involucre glandular; plant 15-30 cm. high, white-tomentose. (See T.) 


GG. Involucre hairy, not glandular; plant 5-15 cm. high, white-puberulent 
to glabrous. (See QQ.) Erigeron (FLEABANE) 

FF. Heads more than i on a stem. 

H. Plant white-tomentose; involucre glandular. (See T.) Aplopappus 

HH. Plant not tomentose; involucre rarely glandular. 

I. Involucre bracts recurved at tip. (See Y.) Aster (ASTER) 

n. Involucre bracts appressed or erect, not recurved. 

J. Involucre bracts in 1-3 whorls, herbaceous; annual or biennial. (See 

QQ.) Erigeron (FLEABANE) 

JJ. Involucre bracts in 3 or more whorls, scarious, often with green tips, 

thin or firm; perennial. 
K. Leaves oblong; plant viscid-pubescent, 1.5-3 dm. high. (See Q.) 

Chrysopsis (GOLDEN ASTER) 

KK. Leaves ovate-lanceolate; plant glabrous or nearly so, not viscid, 6-9 
dm. high. (See Y.) Aster (ASTER) 

EE. Leaves or at least the lower ones not entire. 

L. Teeth of the leaves spinulose-tipped. (See T.) Aplopappus 

LL. Teeth of the leaves not spinulose-tipped. (See Y.) Aster (ASTER) 

LLL. Leaves or nearly all of them entire. 

M. Involucre bracts recurved at tip. (See QQ.) Erigeron (FLEABANE) 

MM. Involucre bracts erect or appressed at tip, not recurved. (See Y.) 

Aster (ASTER) 


BB. Shrubs, glabrous but sticky; staminate and pistillate heads on separate plants. 
E. (The name of some shrub dedicated to the god Bacchu c .) 

Baccharis pilularis (WINE BUSH) 
AA. Rays yellow. 
N. Pappus of scales or rigid awns. 

O. Heads large, 10-25 mm. high, many-flowered; pappus of 2-8 rigid awns; invo- 
lucre bracts often gummy, often recurved at tip. GRINDELIA (p. 223) 
OO. Heads small, 4-6 mm. high, 2-20 flowered; pappus of 4-14 scales; involucre 
bracts not gummy, not recurved at tip. (Honor of the Gutierrez family of the 
Spanish nobility.) Gutierrezia (BROWN-WEED) 
NN. Pappus or most of it of capillary bristles. 
P. Pappus of 2 distinctly different whorls, an inner of scabrous capillary bristles, 

an outer of small scales or bristles. 

Q. Involucre bracts in several indistinct whorls, the outer distinctly shorter. 
(Gk. chrysos = gold, opsis = like; referring to the golden yellow flowers.) 

Chrysopsis (GOLDEN ASTER) 

QQ. Involucre bracts in 1-2 indistinct whorls, all about equal. (Gk. er = 
spring, geron = an old man; some early species are very hoary.) 

Erigeron (FLEABANE) 

PP. Pappus of a single whorl of bristles or else the whorls alike when more than i. 
R. Involucre bracts not in vertical rows; rays rarely fewer than 5; leaves various ; 

herbs or shrubs. 

S. Pappus bristles equal or nearly so; heads 3-12 mm. wide. (L. solidare = to 
make whole; on account of the reputed vulnerary properties.) 

Solidago (GOLDENROD) 

SS. Pappus bristles unequal; heads often more than 12 mm. wide. 
T. Leaves often not as in TT in all characters; involucre hemispheric or widely 
campanulate; herb or shrub, viscid or not. (Gk. aploos = simple; -4- pappus; 
the pappus is not plumose.) Aplopappus 

TT. Leaves spatulate to filiform, 6-25 mm. long, sessile, entire; involucre 
narrowly campanulate to oblong; shrub, viscid. E. Erica is a genus of 
heather. (Gk. meros = a part; because the leaves are heather-like.) 

Ericameria nana (FALSE HEATHER) 

RR. Involucre bracts in 3-4 vertical rows; rays 1-4; leaves narrowly linear or 
spatulate-linear; shrub. (See D.) Chrysothamnus (RABBIT BRUSH) 

AAA. Rays some color other than yellow. 
U. Pappus none or of scales or of small hairlike bristles or of stout awnlike bristles, 

in one whorl. 

V. Plant glabrous, 3-18 dm. high; heads many; rays white; pappus of several small 
scales and 2 small stiff bristles. E. (Honor of J. Bolton, an English botanist.) 

Boltonla occidentalis 

W. Plant puberulent to very hairy, acaulescent to 4 dm. high; heads few in most 
species; rays various; pappus of ray flowers either none or of more than 2 

W. Scapes leafless and bractless; leaves obovate or spatulate, entire or obscurely 
dentate; pappus either none or a ring of minute bristles. W. Sometimes 
sown on lawns for beauty. (L. bellis = pretty; referring to the flowers.) 

Bellis perennls (GARDEN DAISY) 

WW. Scapes sometimes leafy below, bracted; leaves spatulate to linear, entire; 

pappus a ring of stout rough awnlike bristles. E. (Honor of D. Townsend, an 

American botanist.) Townsendia (TOWNSENDIA) 

UU. Pappus of many capillary bristles, sometimes in 2 whorls and then the outer 

sometimes of shorter bristles or of scales. 
X. Either involucre bracts or else rays not as below; akenes usually flat. 


Y. Involucre bracts in more than 2 indistinct whorls; rays unequal, wider than 

filiform, in i whorl; pappus in i whorl. (Gk. aster = a star; referring to the 

radiate heads of most species.) Aster (ASTER) 

YY. Involucre bracts in 1-2 indistinct whorls, usually nearly equal; rays mostly 

filiform, in i or more whorls; pappus in 12 whorls, the outer whorl often of scales 

or shorter bristles. (See QQ.) Erigeron (FLEABANE) 

XX. Involucre bracts white, green-tipped; rays about 5, white; akenes not or 

hardly flattish. W. (Gk. serikos = silky, karpos = a fruit; referring to the 

hairy akenes.) Sericocarpus rigidus (WHITE-TOPPED ASTER) 


Herbs, often gummy specially on the involucre, coarse. Leaves alter- 
nate; stem leaves sessile to clasping. Ray flowers none or in i series; 
corolla yellow. Disk flowers perfect; corolla yellow. Pappus of 2-8 
nearly smooth and easily separating awns or bristles. (Honor of D. H. 
Grindel, a Russian botanist.) Sometimes a bad pasture weed. 

A. Stem leaves widest at their base, acute or acuminate; heads radiate, more than 
15 mm. high. W. G. integrifolia 

AA. Stem leaves narrowed at their base, obtuse in most. 

B. Heads more than 15 mm. high, radiate; plant glabrous or sparingly hirsute. W. 

G. oregana 

BB. Heads 10-15 mm. high, radiate or rayless; plant glabrous throughout or slightly 
chaffy. W. C. E. G. nana 

INULEAE (Elecampane Tribe). Herbs. Leaves entire (except Inula). 
Heads not radiate (except Inula). Involucre usually dry and scarious. 
Pistillate flowers mostly filiform and truncate. Anthers tailed at base 
(except Dimeresia and Adenocaulon) . Style branches naked, obtuse to 
truncate, unappendaged. Pappus none or of capillary bristles. 

A. Heads less than 2 cm. wide, rayless; basal leaves smaller than in AA; leaves often 

B. Leaves linear to oblong or obovate, not cordate at base, often woolly on both 


C. Leaves alternate. 
D. Pappus none, except a few bristles on sterile flowers. 

E. Style and corolla lateral; plant simple or sparingly branched above, loose- 
woolly. U. (Gk. micros = small, pous = foot; application not clear.) 

Micropus californicus 

EE. Style and corolla terminal; plant branching from the base, appressed- woolly. 
U. (Gk. stylos = a column, kline = a bed; referring to the receptacle.) 

Stylocline filaginea 
DD. Pappus of capillary bristles. 

F. Involucre bracts many and white throughout, conspicuous and almost hiding 
the small group of yellow flowers within. W. C. E. (Gk. a = not, knaphalon 
= a lock of wool; because the heads are chaffy rather than woolly.) 

Anaphalis margaritacea (PEARLY EVERLASTING) 
FF. Involucre bracts either few or not white throughout, not so conspicuous as 

the group of flowers within. 

G. Heads dioecious or sometimes the 2 kinds on the same plant; pappus bristles 
of the staminate flowers swollen at tip. (The pappus bristles of the sterile 
flowers suggested the antennae of insects.) Antennaria (EVERLASTING) 


GG. Heads all alike, of both pistillate and perfect flowers; pappus bristles not 
swollen at tip. (Gk. gnaphalon = a lock of wool; referring to the heads.) 

Gnaphalium (CUDWEED) 
CC. Most of the leaves opposite. 

H. Pappus none or of capillary bristles; heads many-flowered; involucre bracts 
several to many. 

I. Receptacle depressed-globose, chaffy; akenes inclosed in involucre bracts. 
(Gk. psilos = naked, carphos = a small dry body; probably because the 
akenes are naked.) Psilocarphus 

II. Receptacle columnar, villous; akenes hardly inclosed in involucre bracts. 
U. (Possibly from Gk. evaxos = easily broken.) Evax 

HH. Pappus of stout plumose bristles; heads 2-flowered; involucre bracts 2. E. 

(Origin undetermined.) Dimeresia howellii 

BB. Leaves broadly ovate, cordate at base, glabrous and green above, white-woolly 

beneath; pappus none. W. C. E. (Gk. aden = a gland, kaulos = a stem; the 

stem is very glandular above.) Adenocaulon bicolor (SILVER-GREEN) 

AA. Heads 3-10 cm. wide, radiate; basal leaves 1-2 dm. wide, 2-5 dm. long; leaves 

pubescent but not woolly; pappus bristles capillary, rough. W. Medicinal plant. 

(The Latin name.) Inula helenium (ELECAMPANE) 

HELIANTHEAE (Sunflower Tribe). Herbs. Leaves commonly oppo- 
site at least below. Heads radiate or rayless; involucre not scarious; 
receptacle chaffy. Ray flowers yellow or white or pinkish. Disk flowers 
various in color. Anthers not tailed at base. Style branches of the perfect 
flowers truncate or tipped with a hairy appendage. Pappus none or never 
of capillary bristles. 

A. Heads radiate, i.e., with some ligulate outer flowers. 
B. Rays yellow. 

C. Disk flowers dark brown or purple. 
D. Upper leaves mostly not dissected, or when some are dissected the plant not 

glabrous; pappus of 2 to several teeth or awns. 

E. Receptacle in fruit conical to columnar, akenes 4-angled, not winged; leaves 

alternate, entire to pinnatifid. RUDBECKIA (p. 226) 

EE. Receptacle in fruit flat or convex; akene flat or 4-angled, often somewhat 

winged; leaves alternate or opposite, entire or merely dentate. 
F. Annual; receptacle flat; akene somewhat 4-angled; not at all winged. 

HELIANTHUS (p. 227) 

FF. Perennial; receptacle convex; akene flat, i or both edges somewhat 

winged. E. (Diminutive of Helianthus, a related genus.) Helianthella 

DD. Upper leaves nearly all of 3 leaflets; plant glabrous throughout; pappus of 

2 short teeth. W. E. (Gk. koris = a bug, opsis = like; referring to the form 

of the akene.) Coreopsis atkinsoniana (TICKSEED) 

CC. Disk flowers yellow. 

G. Pappus either none or else not of retrorsely-barbed awns. 
H. Heads 2.5 cm. or more wide; involucre bracts flat or nearly so, not inclosing 

a ray akene; leaves often wider than lanceolate. 
I. Most of the leaves basal; ray flowers pistillate, fertile. 

J. Pappus none; leaves opposite or alternate, in some species pinnately lobed 

to pinnatifid. BALSAMORHIZA (p. 227) 

JJ. Pappus a crown of 3-10 teeth, some of which may be awn-tipped; leaves 

all alternate, mostly entire, never pinnately lobed. WYETHIA (p. 227) 


II. Most of the leaves on the stem; ray flowers neutral; pappus of 2-6 deciduous 

scales or awns. HELIANTHUS (p. 227) 

HH. Heads less than 2.5 cm. wide; involucre bracts boat-shaped, more or less 

inclosing an outer or ray akene; leaves lanceolate or narrower (except Lago- 


K. Akenes flattened at right angles to the involucre; involucre bracts keeled 

on back; plants mostly viscid-glandular; pappus none except in M. madioides, 

of 5-8 scales. (From madi, the name in Chile.) Madia (TARWEED) 

KK. Akenes not flattened at right angles to the involucre; involucre bracts 

rounded or flattish on the back. 
L. Pappus none. 

M. Leaves of the stem pinnatifid; leaves of the branches and fascicles entire, 
spinulose-tipped; involucre bracts spinulose-tipped; disk flowers 10 or more; 
ray flowers 10 or more; most of the leaves alternate. (Gk. hemi = half, 
zone = a girdle; the ray akenes are swollen on one side.) Hemizonia 

MM. Leaves all entire, not spinulose-tipped; involucre bracts not spinulose- 
tipped; disk flowers 1-6; ray flowers 4-6. 

N. Disk flowers 1-2, fertile; akenes slightly hairy; plant 2.5-20 cm. high; 

most of the leaves opposite, 2.5 or less long. W. C. (Diminutive of 

Hemizonia a related genus.) Hemizonella durandii 

NN. Disk flowers 5-6, sterile; akenes smooth; plant 15-75 cm. high; most 

of the leaves alternate, 5 cm. or less long. E. (Gk. lagos = a rabbit, 

phyllon = a leaf. Application not clear.) Lagophylla ramosissima 

LL. Pappus present at least on the disk akenes, of 7-12 scales which are often 


O. Upper leaves spinulose- or gland-tipped; pappus of 7-12 scales, in i whorl, 

often awn-tipped, its scale portion 3 mm. or less long. (See M.) Hemizonia 

OO. Leaves neither spinulose- nor gland-tipped; pappus of about 10 scales, 

in 2 whorls, not awn-tipped, inner whorl about 6 mm. long. U. (Gk. 

achyron = chaff, achaino = an akene; probably referring to the chaff-like 

pappus.) Achyrachaena mollis 

GG. Pappus of 2-6 stout retrorsely-barbed awns; heads 0.8-10 cm. wide. 

BIDENS (p. 228) 
BB. Rays white or pink. 

P. Involucre bracts almost flat, not inclosing the ray akenes; leaves narrowly linear, 
margins involute or revolute; heads 12-30 mm. wide; rays 3-6. E. (Gk. ble- 
pharon = an eyelash; + pappus.) Blepharipappus 

PP. Involucre bracts boat-shaped, inclosing each an outer or ray akene. 
Q. Heads 12-25 mm. wide; rays 8-13; basal leaves often laciniately lobed or in- 
cised. E. (Meaning not determined.) Layia glandulosa 
QQ. Heads 4-12 mm. wide; rays 1-7; leaves all entire or nearly dentate. (See M.) 

AA. Heads rayless, i.e., without ligulate flowers. 

R. Pappus none; heads few-flowered; flowers yellow or greenish, the staminate and 

pistillate often in separate heads; fruit often burlike. 
S. Leaves broadly lanceolate or wider, often lobed or pinnatifid; heads staminate 

or pistillate or with both kinds of flowers. 

T. Involucre neither tubercled nor spiny; fruit not a bur; staminate and pistillate 
flowers in the same head; plant merely puberulent or scabrous; lower leaves 
opposite. E. (Named from Ajuga iva, a plant with a similar odor.) 


TT. Involucre of pistillate heads either tubercled or spiny, making fruit rough or 
burlike; staminate and pistillate flowers in separate heads; plant either hairy 
or all the leaves alternate. 

F. & R. EL. FL. 15 


U. Involucre bracts of the staminate heads united; fruit often not a bur but when 

so the bristles usually not hooked. 
V. Fruit with i whorl of prickles at the top, i-seeded. E. 

AMBROSIA (p. 226) 

W. Fruit with prickles in more than i whorl or scattered, i-4-seeded. 

(Honor of A. Franseri, a Spanish botanist.) Franseria (SAND BUR) 

UU. Involucre bracts of the staminate heads distinct; fruit a bur with 20-100 

usually hooked bristles. Persistent field weeds. The burs cling to the wool 

of sheep, and the tails of horses and cattle. (Gk. xanthos = yellow; the Greeks 

secured a yellow dye from one species.) Xanthium (COCKLE BUR) 

SS. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, entire or remotely serrulate; heads with 

perfect flowers only; involucre neither tubercled nor spiny. (See K.) 

Madia (TARWEED) 
RR. Pappus of short teeth or barbed awns; heads many-flowered, all alike; flowers 

yellow or brown or purple, perfect; fruit not burlike. 
W. Leaves all alternate; flowers purple or brown; pappus a crown of 2-4 scales. 

RUDBECKIA (p. 226) 

WW. Leaves opposite at least below; flowers yellow; pappus of 2-6 retrorsely- 
batbed awns. BIDENS (p. 228) 


Leaves entire to pinnately- or palmately-divided. Heads small, monoe- 
cious. Staminate heads in spikes or racemes, in the upper axils and ter- 
minal, many-flowered; corolla 5-toothed. Pistillate heads solitary or 
clustered, in the upper axils, i-flowered ; corolla none. (Gk. ambrosia = 
food for the gods; quite inappropriate for ours.) 

A. Leaves all opposite, entire to coarsely and palmately 3~5-lobed or -cleft; receptacle 
naked; involucre of the staminate heads 3~4-ribbed; annual. E. A weed. 

A. trifida (GREAT RAGWEED) 
AA. Some of the leaves often alternate, entire to i-3-pinnatifid; receptacle chaffy; 

involucre of the staminate heads not ribbed. 

B. Annual; leaves thin, entire to 2-pinnatifid; fruit with acute teeth. E. A 
bad pasture weed. A. artemisiaefolia (BITTERWEED) 

BB. Perennial; leaves thick, i-pinnatifid; fruit with blunt teeth or unarmed. E. 

A. psilostachya (WESTERN RAGWEED) 


Coarse. Leaves alternate. Heads rayless or radiate, large, on long 
peduncles, solitary, in the axils or terminal ; receptacle conic or convex. 
Ray flowers yellow or none, neutral. Disk flowers purple or brown, perfect. 
Pappus none or a crown of 2-4 short teeth. (Honor of C. Rudbeck> a 
Swedish botanist.) 

A. Rays present. 

B. Leaves stiff-hairy; pappus none; disk globose-ovoid. W. 


BB. Leaves finely soft-hairy; pappus of 4 irregular bractlike teeth; disk columnar. 
U. R. californica (MEXICAN HAT) 

AA. Rays none. 

C. Plant pubescent; leaves mostly 3~s-parted toward the base. E. R. alpicola 
CC. Plant glabrous or nearly so, somewhat glaucous; leaves entire or dentate. E. 

R. occidentalis (NIGGKR THUMB) 



Perennial, low, with scapelike or few-leaved stems ; roots thick, resinous. 
Leaves entire to 2-pinnate. Heads radiate, many-flowered, 1-7 on a stem; 
receptacle flat or barely convex. Disk flowers perfect. (Gk. balsamon = 
balsam, rhiza = root; the root is aromatic.) 

A. Leaves entire to serrate; stems with 1-7 heads. 

B. Ray corolla 2-2.5 cm. long, persistent to the akenes; akenes all canescent. E. 

B. careyana 

BB. Ray corollas 2.5-5 cm. long, deciduous from the akenes; akenes all glabrous. 
C. Plant silvery-canescent; involucre woolly; stem leaves linear to spatulate. E. 

B. sagittata 

CC. Plant green, though pubescent to glabrate; involucre not woolly or only so 
at base; stem-leaves lanceolate. W. E. B. deltoidea 

AA. Leaves laciniately lobed to 2-pinnatifid; stems with only i head. 
D. Plant green, glabrous or somewhat hairy. 

E. Leaves deltoid in outline, entire to laciniate, not stiff-hairy; involucre more or 
less woolly, not stiff-hairy. E. B. terebinthacea 

EE. Leaves lanceolate in outline, pinnately-parted or -divided, stiff-hairy; in- 
volucre rarely woolly, stiff-hairy. E. B. hirsuta 
DD. Plant canescent or white-tomentose. 

F. Plant canescent with appressedor spreading hairs; leaf divisions linear. W. E. 

B. hookeri 

FF. Plant densely white-tomentose with often floccose hairs; leaf division oval or 
oblong. E. B. incana 


Perennial; stems usually simple, from stout root or rhizome. Heads 
large, i to few, all alike ; receptacle slightly convex. Ray. flowers 2-10 
cm. long. Disk flowers 5-toothed. Akenes 4~5-angled. (Honor of 
N. J. Wyeth, an American botanist.) 

A. Ray corollas white to pale yellow; leaves oval to broadly lanceolate; stem stiff- 
hairy. E. W. helianthoides 
AA. Ray corollas bright yellow; leaves oblong-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate. 
B. Plant sparsely stiff-hairy; involucre very stiff-hairy. W. E. W. angustifolia 
BB. Plant smooth and glabrous throughout; involucre glabrous. 
C. Basal leaves oblong-lanceolate, 17-38 cm. long, 7-10 cm. wide; upper stem 
leaves partly clasping. E. W. amplexicaulis (PE-IK) 
CC. Basal leaves lanceolate, 5-15 cm. long, 2-10 cm. wide; upper stem leaves 
barely sessile and not clasping. E. W. lanceolata 


Leaves simple. Heads large; receptacle flat to conic. Ray flowers 
neutral. Disk flowers yellow or brown or purple, perfect, fertile, 5-lobed. 
Akene flattish to 4-angled. Pappus of 2 scales or awns, or sometimes with 
2-4 additional shorter ones, deciduous. (Gk. helios = the sun, anthos = a 
flower ; said to refer to the resemblance.) 


A. Annual; disk flowers brownish or dark purple. 
B. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or wider; rays more than 8; chaff of the receptacle 3- 

toothed or -cleft, not awnlike at tip; disk often over 12 mm. wide. 
C. Disk about 1.5 cm. wide; leaves oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-8 cm. long. E. 

H. petiolaris (PRAIRIE SUNFLOWER) 

CC. Disk 2.5 cm. or more wide; at least the lower leaves ovate or cordate, 5-17 cm. 
long. E. Often cultivated for beauty or seed. 


BB. Leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate; rays 5-8; chaff of the receptacle not 
3-toothed, narrowed into awnlike tooth; disk 12 mm. or less wide. U. H. exilis 
AA. Perennial; disk flowers yellow. 
D. Stems 1.2 m. or less high or long, often not erect; plant scabrous, without hairs; 

leaves entire or serrulate. 

E. Stems 3-12 dm. high or long; leaves acute or acuminate, entire or serrulate. E. 

H. nuttallii 

EE. Stems 1-3 dm. high or long; leaves obtuse, entire. E. H. cusickii 

DD. Stems 1.5-3.5 m. high, erect; plant pubescent or hirsute; leaves coarsely ser- 
rate or lobed. W. E. Cultivated for the tubers for stock. 



Leaves opposite at least below. Heads radiate or rayless; receptacle 
flat or nearly so. Pappus of 2-6 teeth or awns ; awns retrorsely hispid or 
barbed. (L. bi = 2, dens = a tooth; the akenes of some have 2 barbed 
teeth.) Weeds. Akenes adhere to wool of animals and to clothing. 

A. Leaves usually 5-divided; plant terrestrial; pappus of 2 awns; akene and awns 
retrorsely barbed to base; annual. E. B. vulgata (S-LEAVED BEGGAR-TICK) 

AA. Leaves serrate to laciniate, or submerged and divided into many capillary seg- 
ments; pappus of 3-6 awns. 

B. Annual, terrestrial; stem erect; leaves 7-15 cm. long; rays none or not over 
16 mm. long; akenes not barbed; pappus awns retrorsely barbed above only. 

BB. Perennial, aquatic; stem slender and not usually erect; leaves 1-5 cm. long; 
rays 20-25 mm. long; akenes retrorsely barbed at margins; pappus awns retrorsely 
barbed to base. W. E. B. beckii (WATER BEGGAR-TICK) 

HELENEAE (Sneezeweed Tribe). Herbs. Heads radiate or appar- 
ently rayless; involucre bracts not scarious; receptacle naked except 
in Gaillardia. Disk flowers fertile, 4-5-toothed, tubular. Anthers not 
tailed at base. Style branches of perfect flowers truncate or appendaged, 
not flat. Pappus none or chaffy or awns or bristles but the bristles not 

A. Leaves opposite, except sometimes the upper. 
B. Leaves entire. 
C. Plants of salt marshes. 

D. Pappus none, involucre bracts not united. W. (Honor of I. H. Jaume St, 

Hilare, a French botanist.) Jaumea carnosa 

DD. Pappus of 5-10 chaffy scales; involucre bracts united to form a s-is-toothed 

cup. U. (Honor of Lasthenia, a pupil of Plato.) Lasthenia glaberrima 

CC. Plants of dry soil, not of salt marshes. 


E. Involucre bracts flat; receptacle conic to subulate. U. (Honor of K. E. 

von Baer, a Russian botanist.) Baeria aristosa (GOLD FIELDS) 

EE. Involucre bracts inrolled; receptacle flat. E. (Gk. rigios = stiff; + 

pappus.) Rigiopappus leptocladus 

BB. Leaves palmately 2-s-parted. E. (Honor of J. F. Bahi, a Spanish botanist.) 

Baliia oppositif olia 
AA. Leaves alternate. 
F. Heads radiate. 
G. Receptacle not chaffy. 
H. Akenes 4-angled; pappus scales blunt or lacerate. 

I. Involucre bracts somewhat united; rays none or present; herbage floccose- 
woolly. ERIOPHYLLUM (p. 229) 

II. Involucre bracts not united; rays none; herbage viscid-pubescent. E. 
(Honor of G. W. Hulse, a U. S. army surgeon.; Hulsea nana 

HH. Akenes 5-io-ribbed; pappus scales acuminate or aristate. 
J. Involucre bracts erect. E. (Diminutive of Gk. aktis = a ray; probably 
because the rays are present, though short.) Actinella richardsoni 

JJ. Involucre bracts spreading or reflexed. HELENIUM (p. 229) 

GG. Receptacle with bristlelike chaff. W. E. (Honor of Gaillard de Meren- 
tonneau, a French botanist.) Gaillardia aristata 

FF. Heads rayless. 

K. Involucre bracts with white or purplish tips. E. (Gk. hymen = a membrane; 
+ pappus; because the pappus scales are hyaline.) Hymenopappus filifolius 

KK. Involucre bracts green to the tips. 

L. Involucre bracts somewhat united; corollaslyellow. ERIOPHYLLUM (p. 229) 
LL. Involucre bracts not united ; corollas yellow or white or flesh-colored. 
(Gk. chainein = to yawn, aktis = a ray; referring to the dilated marginal corol- 
las.) Chaenactis 


Floccose-woolly. Heads many-flowered ; involucre green. Ray flowers 
yellow, or so short that there are practically none. Disk flowers yellow. 
Pappus of blunt veinless chaffy scales. (Gk. erion wool, phyllon = a 

A. Rays 1-3 mm. long. U. E. stachadifolium 

AA. Rays 10-20 mm. long. 

B. Akenes glabrous. W. C. E. E. lanatum 

BB. Akenes glandular. U. C. E. E. multiflorum 


Heads many-flowered; involucre herbaceous. All flowers yellow. 
Akenes hairy on the ribs. Pappus scales 5-6, thin, scarious, acuminate or 
awn-pointed. (Said to be in honor of Helen of Troy, who used it cos- 

A. Leaf blades not decurrent on the stem. E. H. hoopesii 
AA. Leaf blades decurrent on the stem. 

B. Leaves dentate; heads several to many. W. C. E. Poisonous to cattle and 

sheep. H. autumnale 

BB. Leaves entire; head i. U. H. bigelovii 


ANTHEMEAE (Sagebrush Tribe). Herbs or shrubs. Heads rayless 
or radiate ; involucre bracts imbricated, not foliaceous, rarely herbaceous, 
usually dry and scarious; receptacle naked or somewhat chaffy. Anthers 
not tailed at base. Style branches of the perfect flowers truncate, sometimes 
obscurely conic-tipped. Pappus none or chaffy or scalelike or crownlike. 

A. Herbs. 

B. Rays present. 

C. Rays 4-6, 4-6 mm. long; receptacle chaffy. W. C. E. Medicinal plant. 
(Honor of Achilles, who first used it as a vulnerary.) 

Achillea millefolium (YARROW) 
CC. Rays 10 or more, 10 mm. or more long. 

D. Receptacle chaffy, at least toward its tip. ANTHEMIS (p. 230) 

DD. Receptacle naked or merely hairy. 

E. Leaf segments terete or nearly so; receptacle conic. MATRICARIA (p. 230) 
EE. Leaf segments plainly flat; receptacle flat to hemispheric. 

BB. Rays none. 

F. Heads sessile in the leaf axils or stem forks. U. (Perhaps L. solus = alone, 
vagus = wandering.) Solvia sessilis 

FF. Heads peduncled, either terminal on the branches or clustered. 
G. Salt-marsh plants; leaves fleshy. COTULA (p. 231) 

GG. Not salt-marsh plants; leaves not fleshy. 
H. Heads terminal on the leafy branches; receptacle conic. 

MATRICARIA (p. 230) 
HH. Heads in flat-topped leafless clusters; receptacle flat or hemispheric. 

TANACETUM (p. 231) 

HHH. Heads in bracted spikes or racemes or panicles, not in flat-topped clusters; 

receptacle flat to hemispheric. ARTEMISIA (p. 231) 

AA. Shrubs. ARTEMISIA (p. 231) 


Leaves alternate, pinnatifid or dissected. Involucre bracts scarious- 
margined. Ray flowers white or yellow. Disk flowers yellow. Pappus 
none or a mere border. (The Greek name.) 

A. Rays white. 

B. Leaves glabrous, with bad odor; rays neutral. W. E. A. cotula (DOG FENNEL) 
BB. Leaves pubescent, without bad odor; rays fertile. W. E. 

A. arvensis (FIELD MAYWEED) 
AA. Rays yellow; leaves somewhat tomentose. W. A. tinctoria (YELLOW MAYWEED) 


Herbs, annual. Leaves alternate, 2-3-dissected into narrow or filiform 
segments. Receptacle naked. Ray flowers white. Disk flowers yellow. 
Pappus none. (L. mater = mother, cara = dear ; dear to mothers from 
reputed medicinal properties.) 

A. Heads radiate. 

B. Rays 20-30; pappus a crown, entire or 4-toothed; akenes obpyramidal, promi- 
nently 3-ribbed; herbage nearly odorless. W. E. M. inodora (SCENTLESS CAMOMILK 


BB. Rays 10-20; pappus none; akenes oblong, faintly 3-5-ribbed; herbage sweet- 
scented. W. E. Medicinal plant. M. chamomille (GARDEN CAMOMILE) 
AA. Heads rayless. W. C. E. M. suaveolens (PINEAPPLE WEED) 


Perennial. Leaves alternate, incised or dissected. Heads large. Ray 
flowers white. Disk flowers yellow. (Gk. chrysos = gold, anthos = a 
flower ; some species outside our range even have yellow rays.) 

A. Heads 1-2 cm. wide, many, corymbose; rays 10-20, about twice as long as wide; 

pappus a toothed crown. E. C. parthenium (FEVERFEW) 

AA. Heads 2.5-5 cm. wide, few, terminal; rays 20-30, 4 or more times as long as 

wide; pappus none. W. A very bad meadow weed. 

C. leucanthemum (OX-EYE DAISY) 


Leaves alternate. Heads many-flowered, with 2 kinds of flowers; re- 
ceptacle naked. Outer flowers pistillate, in 1-3 rows, apetalous. Inner 
flowers 4-toothed, yellow, perfect. Pappus none or a mere ring. (Gk. 
kotula a small cup, referring to the hollow at the base of the clasping 

A. Herbage glabrous or very nearly so. W. 

C. coronopifolia (SALT-MARSH BUTTERHFAD) 
AA. Herbage pubescent. W. C. australis 


Perennial, aromatic. Leaves alternate, entire to dissected. Heads with 
i or 2 kinds of flowers ; receptacle naked. Pappus none or crownlike. 
(Said to be from Gk. athanatox immortal ; referring to the durable flowers.) 

A. Leaves 2-s-lobed or parted, but some of the leaves may be entire. 

B. Leaf lobes linear. E. T. capitatum 
BB. Leaf lobes not linear or none of the leaves lobed. E. T. nuttallii 

AA. Leaves pinnately-parted or -dissected into many segments. 

C. Herbage quite pubescent. 

D. Herbage silky with white hairs; heads many, 6-8 mm. wide. E. 

T. potentilloides 
DD. Herbage villous-pubescent; heads 1-8, 12-16 mm. wide. W. 

T. huronense (SEASHORE TANSY) 

CC. Herbage glabrous or very nearly so; heads many, 6-10 mm. wide. W. 
Medicinal plant. T. vulgare (GARDEN TANSY) 


Herbs or shrubs, annual or perennial, bitter, aromatic. Leaves alternate. 
Heads rayless, small ; flowers of i or 2 kinds, white or yellowish ; receptacle 
naked or woolly. Outer flowers pistillate and inner perfect, or all perfect. 
Pappus none. (Honor of Artemisia, the wife of Mausolus.) 


A. Shrubs. 
B. Plant spiny; akenes with long cobweb-like hairs. E. 

A. spinescens (BUD-BRUSH) 

BB. Plant not spiny; akenes without cobweb-like hairs. 
C. Leaves 3~5-cleft or -parted, the lobes linear; 2-6 dm. high. 

D. Heads usually solitary in the axils of ordinary leaves; panicle spikelike. E. 


DD. Heads clustered; panicle thyrsoid. E. A. trifida 

CC. Leaves entire to 3-toothed or -lobed, but the lobes not linear. 

E. Plant 1-3 dm. high; leaves entire to 3~5-lobed, the lobes cuneate, obovate. E. 

A. arbuscula 
EE. Plant 5-20 dm. high; leaves entire to 3-toothed, the teeth triangular. E. 

A. tridentata (COMMON SAGEBRUSH) 
AA. Herbs or merely shrubby at base. 

F. Leaves parted or dissected into oblong or linear segments. 
G. Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 

H. Leaf lobes filiform, entire. E. A. prescottiana 

HH. Leaf lobes, wider, laciniate or toothed. E. A. biennis 

GG. Leaves pubescent. 
I. Receptacle woolly. 
J. Leaves silvery-pubescent, leaf segments short, filiform. E. 


JJ. Leaves not silvery; leaf segments oblong or linear-oblong. E. Medicinal 
plant. A. absinthium (WORMWOOD) 

n. Receptacle not woolly. 
K. Heads 2-3 mm. wide. 

L. Plants 5-15 cm. high. E. A. petatifida 

LL. Plants 30-70 cm. high. E. A. canadensis 

KK. Heads 4-5 mm. wide. W. C. E. A. borealis 

KKK. Heads 8-10 mm. wide. C. E. A. longipedunculata 

GGG. Leaves tomentose, at least on the lower surface. 

M. Involucre glabrous or nearly so. C. E. A. discolor 

MM. Involucre densely pubescent or tomentose. 

N. Leaves with scattered fine white-resinous dots. E. A. atomifera 

NN. Leaves not resinous dotted. E A. ludoviciana 

FF. Leaves entire to cleft or lobed. 
O. Leaves glabrous or very nearly so on both sides. 

P. Herbage sweet -aromatic; 4-8 dm. high; branches not drooping; heads 30-60- 
flowered. E. A. aromatica 

PP. Herbage not sweet-aromatic; 8-16 dm. high; branches drooping; heads 15- 
2o-flowered. E. A. dracunculoides 

OO. Leaves white-tomentose at least beneath. 
Q. Involucre persistently white-tomentose. (See MM.) 
QQ. Involucre glabrous to pubescent but green, not tomentose. 
R. Involucre cylindric; plant 9-15 dm. high. W. 

A. heterophylla (GOLDEN-ROD SAGE) 
RR. Involucre campanulate. 

S. Plant about 10 dm. high; involucre green. W. C. E. A. tilesii 

SS. Plant 3-6 dm. high; involucre gray-brown. E. A. lindleyana 

SENECEAE (Arnica Tribe). Herbs or shrubs. Heads rayless or 
radiate; receptacle naked (except sometimes hairy in Arnica). Anthers 
without tails at base though often sagittate. Style branches of perfect 


flowers usually truncate or obtuse, without appendages at tip or with short 
ones. Pappus of capillary bristles but often deciduous; bristles many, 
smooth to plumose. 

A. Herbs. 

B. Most of the leaves on each plant opposite. (Said to be from Gk. arnakis = a 
lamb's skin; referring to the softness of the heads.) Some medicinal; many poisonous. 


BB. Leaves alternate or all basal. 
C. Leaves all basal. 

D. Scapes densely large-bracted; leaves wider than lanceolate, often more than 
10 cm. long; flowers white or pinkish. PETASITES (p. 233) 

DD. Scapes naked; leaves linear to oblanceolate, 2.5-10 cm. long; flowers 
yellow. (Diminutive of Raillardia, a related genus.) Raillardella 

CC. Some leaves on the stem. 

E. Heads radiate. 

F. Annual; receptacle conic. W. E. (Gk. krokis = the nap or woolliness of 
cloth; the leaf -axils are hairy.) Crocidium multicaule 

FF. Perennial; receptacle flat. A large and difficult genus. (L. senex = an 
old man; referring to the hoary heads of some.) Senecio (RAGWORT) 

EE. Heads rayless. 

G. Heads 4-io-flowered. 

H. Leaves entire, 1-2.5 cm. long; heads about lo-flowered. W. C. E. (An 

anagram of Inula, another genus of this family.) Luina hypoleuca 

HH. Leaves coarsely dentate, 5-25 cm. long; heads 4-6-flowered. C. (It 

was first found on Mt. Rainier.) Rainiera stricta 

GG. Heads more than xo-flowered. 

I. Leaves palmately 5-Q-lobed or -cleft or -parted, palmately veined. C. E. 
(Cacalia is a related genus; Gk. opsis = like; hence resembling Cacalia.) 

Cacaliopsis nardosmia 
n. Leaves entire to pinnately compound, not palmately veined. (See FF.) 

Senecio (RAGWORT) 

AA. Shrubs. E. (Gk. tetradymos = 4-fold; because many species have just 4 flowers 
in a head.) Tetradymia 


Perennial; rhizome thick, horizontal. Heads rayless or radiate, in a 
raceme or corymb, on large bracted stems, appearing before the leaves, 
dioecious or somewhat so; involucre herbaceous. Pistillate corolla 2-5- 
toothed. Pappus bristles soft, white, long. (Gk. petasos = a broad- 
brimmed hat; referring to the leaves.) 

A. Leaves reniform-orbicular, 1.5-4 dm. wide, 7-n-cleft. W. E. Petioles cooked 
and eaten like Rhubarb. P. speciosus (LARGE COLT'S-FOOT) 

AA. Leaves longer than wide, 0.5-2.5 dm. long. 
B. Leaves broadly sagittate, irregularly dentate to almost entire. E. 

P. sagittatus (ARROW-LEAF COLT'S-FOOT) 
BB. Leaves ovate or oblong, s-y-lobed; alpine. W. C. E. 

P. frigidus (ARCTIC COLT'S-FOOT) 

CYNAREAE (Thistle Tribe). Herbs. Leaves alternate. Heads ray- 
less ; involucre much imbricated. Corolla 5-cleft. Anthers tailed at base. 


Style unbranched or the branches appendaged. Pappus none or chaff or 
stiff bristles or capillary bristles, simple or plumose 

A. Involucre bracts hooked at tip; leaves not spiny. ARCTIUM (p. 234) 

AA. Involucre bracts not hooked at tip. 
B. Leaves not spiny. 

C. Pappus at least partly of plumose bristles. 

D. Leaves entire or dentate; heads 1-3 cm. wide. W. C. E. (Honor of H. B. 
de Saussure, a Swiss botanist.) Saussurea americana (SAW-WORT) 

DD. Leaves pinnatifid; heads 5-10 cm. wide. W. Heads edible. (Gk. kyon = 
a dog; the involucre spines suggest dog-teeth.) Cynaria scolymus (ARTICHOKE) 
CC. Pappus none or of simple bristles or scales. CENTAUREA (p. 235) 

BB. Leaves somewhat spiny and often also the involucre. 
E. Pappus distinctly plumose. 

F. Heads 1-5 cm. wide; involucre bracts not fleshy; akenes not ribbed. 

CARDUUS (p. 234) 

FF. Heads 5-10 cm. wide; involucre bracts fleshy; akenes slightly ribbed. (See 
DD.) Cynaria scolymus (ARTICHOKE) 

EE. Pappus none to barbellate or fimbriate. 

G. Heads 6-7 cm. wide; leaves green and blotched with white. W. E. (Gk. 
silybos = the name of a thistle with edible stem.) 

Silybum marianum (LADY'S THISTLE) 
GG. Heads 2-4 cm. wide; leaves not white-blotched. 

H. Heads not subtended by bristly leaves. CENTAUREA (p. 235) 

HH. Heads subtended by bristly leaves, sessile. U. E. (Gk. kniso = to prick.) 

Cnicus benedictus (BLESSED THISTLE) 


Tall, coarse. Leaves broadly ovate, cordate at base, 2-5 dm. long. 
Heads clustered; receptacle densely bristly. Pappus-bristles short, many, 
rough, deciduous, in i whorl. (Gk. arktos = a bear ; from the rough 

A. Heads racemose, 1.5-3 cm. wide. W. A. minus (COMMON BURDOCK) 

AA. Heads corymbose, 2-5 cm. wide. W. A. lappa (GREAT BURDOCK) 


Stout, erect. Heads rayless, all alike (or dioecious in C. arvensis}. Re- 
ceptacle flat, densely bristly. Flowers white or red or rarely yellowish. 
Pappus bristles many, long, in i whorl, united into a ring at base. (The 
Latin name; said to be from Celtic ard a sharp point.) 

A. Perennial by spreading horizontal rootstocks; heads 15-25 mm. high, dioecious. 
W. E. One of our worst weeds in cultivated fields. C. arvensis (CANADA THISTLE) 
AA. Biennial; heads larger, all alike. 

B. None of the involucre bracts spine-tipped, all with dilated fringed tips. W. E. 

C. americanus 

BB. Outer involucre bracts spine-tipped, inner ones not. 
C. Involucre bracts not at all glandular on the back. 

D. Involucre bracts either nearly equal or some with spreading herbaceous tips. 
E. Flowers cream-colored. W. C. E. C. remotifolius 


EE. Flowers white to red. 

F. Plant very white-woolly. U. C. occidentalis 

FF. Plant densely pubescent to glabrate. 

G. Inner involucre bracts with dilated tips. E. C. magnificus 

GG. None of the involucre bracts with dilated tips. 

H. Herbage pubescent, grayish or green; leaves weakly prickly; 10-30 dm. 
high. W. C. E. A bad weed in waste places and logged off lands. 

HH. Herbage glabrate, green; leaves strongly prickly; 6-9 dm. high. E. 

C. hallii 
DD. Involucre bracts much shorter outward, appressed. 

I. Heads oblong or cylindric; inner involucre bracts purplish. E. C. andersoni 

II. Heads wider; inner involucre bracts not or very slightly purplish. 

J. Stem somewhat woolly; inner involucre bracts somewhat dilated. E. 

C. foliosus 

JJ. Stem glabrous; inner involucre bracts not dilated. E. C. drummondii 

CC. Involucre bracts with glandular ridge or spot on the back. 

K. Outer involucre bracts with spines nearly equaling the body. E. 

C. ochrocentrus (YELLOW-SPINED THISTLE) 

KK. Outer involucre bracts with spines distinctly shorter than the body. 
L. Leaves canescent on both sides. E. undulatus 

LL. Leaves green above. 

M. Leaves conspicuously prickly. E. C. brewer! 

MM. Leaves with few prickles. E. C. palousensis 

BB. All the involucre bracts spine-tipped. W. E. Bad pasture weed. 

C. lanceolatus (BULL THISTLE) 


Involucre bracts margined or appendaged ; receptacle bristly. Marginal 
flowers sometimes suggesting rays, color various. Pappus none or bristles 
or scales. (It is said that the centaur Chiron cured his wounded foot with 

A. Involucre bracts spine-tipped. 

B. Stem not winged; corollas purplish; pappus none. W. C. calcitrapa (CALTROPS) 
BB. Stem winged; corollas yellow; pappus of unequal bristles or scales. W. 

C. meltensis (TOCALOTE) 
AA. Involucre bracts not spine-tipped. 

C. Annual; pappus of unequal bristles; corollas white or red or blue or violet. E. 

C. cyanus (BLUE-BOTTLE) 
CC. Perennial; pappus none; corollas red. E. C. consimilis 

CICHOREAE (Dandelion Tribe). Herbs, nearly always with milky 
juice. Leaves alternate, often all basal. Heads involucrate; receptacle 
flat or nearly so. Flowers all alike, perfect. Corolla strap-shaped, variously 
colored, truncate but nearly always 5-toothed at apex. Anthers sagittate- 
auriculate but not caudate at base. Style branches filiform minutely papil- 
lose, not appendaged. 

A. Flowers yellow or orange or saffron-colored. 

B. Pappus none; stem leafy, branched; flowers in panicles; akenes 2o-3o-striate. 
W. E. (The Greek name of some plant of the Mustard family.) 

Lapsana communis (NIPPLEWORT) 


BB. Pappus scalelike or of bristles which have a scalelike base; akenes not beaked. 
C. Pappus of 4-10 scales or bristles, simple or plumose when bristles. 
D. Pappus of 4-10 bristles, each arising as a continuation of an unforked scale- 
like or enlarged base; heads erect. 

E. Annual; heads nodding; involucre bracts all nearly equal except for a few 

very small ones outside. U. (Gk. micros = small, seris = chicory.) Microseris 

EE. Perennial; heads erect; involucre scales gradually shorter in successive 

whorls. (Diminutive of Scorzonera, a related genus.) Scorzonella 

DD. Pappus of 5 bristles, each arising from the fork of a 2-toothed scalelike base; 

heads nodding; annual. E. (Gk. oura =a tail; + pappus; because the 

pappus scales are awned.) Uropappus linearifolium 

CC. Pappus of 15-40 scales or bristles. 

F. Stems 5-25 cm. high, leafy; pappus bristles plumose, 15-20; leaves entire to 
pinnatifid; young heads nodding. Gk. ptilon = a feather; Calais is an old genus 
of Compositaceae. Ptilocalais 

FF. Stem none; pappus bristles not plumose, 20-50; leaves entire or wavy; young 
heads always erect. E. (Gk. nothos = spurious ; Calais is an old genus of Composi- 
taceae.) Nothocalais 
BBB. Pappus of bristles without a widened scalelike base. 
G. Bristles of the pappus plumose. 
H. Bristles of the pappus plumose to near the tip; perennial. 

I. Leaves stiffy-hairy on both sides; receptacle chaffy; akene long-beaked. 
W. C. (Gk. hypo = under, chaeris = young pigs; because pigs like the roots.) 

Hypochaeris radicata (CAT'S-EAR) 

II. Leaves glabrous or thinly soft-hairy; receptacle naked; akene beakless or 
nearly so. W. (Gk. Icon = a lion, odous = a tooth; referring to the leaf- 
teeth.) Leontodon autumnale (FALL DANDELION) 

HH. Bristles of the pappus plumose only near the base; akenes beakless; annual. 


GO. Bristles of the pappus not plumose. 
J. Plants acaulescent; leaves all basal; flowers solitary on leafless bractless un- 

branched scapes. 

K. Leaves entire or merely obscurely wavy; scape only i; heads nodding in 

bud; mature akene beakless, truncate. (See EE.) Scorzonella 

KK. Leaves or some of them lobed or pinnatifid; scapes i or more; head erect in 

bud; mature akene beaked or attenuate. 

L. Chief involucre-bracts imbricated in one series; akenes spinulose at the 
apex, long-beaked. W. C. E. Medicinal plant. Bad lawn weed. (Gk. 
taraklikos = a cathartic; from its medicinal properties.) 

Taraxacum officinale (DANDELION) 

LL. Chief involucre-bracts in several series; akenes smooth at apex, attenuate or 

long-beaked. (Gk. aix = a goat, seris = chicory.) Agoseris (GOAT CHICORY) 

JJ. Plants with evident stems; stems simple or branched, leafy or bracted; 

flowers i or more on a stem. 
M. Akenes terete or 4~5-angled, not flat. 

N. Pappus of an inner whorl of bristles, and an outer whorl of short teeth with 
0-8 bristles among them, inner whorl deciduous; annual. E. (Gk. malache = 
soft, thrix = hair ; referring to the pappus.) Malacothrix 

NN. Pappus of bristles only and no teeth, persistent; annual or perennial. 
O. Pappus white; akenes somewhat narrowed at tip; leaves entire to dande- 
lion-like in their lobing. CREPIS (p. 238) 
OO. Pappus tawny or in a few almost white; akenes rarely narrowed at 
tip; leaves entire to shallowly toothed but not dandelion-like. 

HIERACIUM (p. 238) 


MM. Akenes somewhat flat. 

P. Akenes beakless, truncate; heads so-flowered or more. SONCHUS (p. 237) 
PP. Akenes beaked or attenuate; heads 6-3O-flowered. LACTUCA (p. 238) 

AA. Flowers white or pink or blue or purple; stems leafy or bracted. 
Q. Pappus a crown of short blunt scales; heads sessile or nearly so, in spikes or 
racemes. W. Root a substitute for coffee. (From chikouryeh, its Egyptian 
name.) Cichorium intybus (CHICORY) 

QQ. Pappus of simple bristles though often scabrous. 

R. Flowers white; leaves and lower part of stem with long white stiff spreading 

hairs; leaves lanceolate to oblong, entire. HTERACIUM (p. 238) 

RR. Flowers not white; plant without long white stiff spreading hairs; leaves 

usually not as described above. 

S. Leaves entire, lanceolate or narrower, not sagittate at base; flowers rose- 
colored or pink; akene terete, neither flat nor angled. E. (Gk. lygos = a twig, 
desma = a bundle ; referring to the tufted rushlike stems.) Lygodesmia 

SS. Leaves either not entire or else sagittate at base; flowers pink or blue or 

purplish; akene terete or 4-s-angled or somewhat flat. 

T. Akene terete or 4-s-angled, not flat; pappus tawny; leaves deltoid-hastate 
but becoming narrower up the stem; plant 3-6 dm. high. W. C. (The 
Latinized Indian name for the Rattlesnake-root.) 

Nabalus hastatus (RATTLESNAKE ROOT) 

TT. Akene somewhat flat; pappus white; leaves several times as long as wide; 
plant usually taller. LACTUCA (p. 238) 

QQQ. Pappus of plumose bristles. 

U. Heads solitary and terminating a leafy stem, 5-10 cm. wide; leaves all entire; 
akene with long slender beak; flowers purple. W. E. Cultivated as a vegetable 
for its root. (Gk. tragos = a goat, pogon = a beard; referring to the con- 
spicuous tawny pappus.) Tragopogon porrifolia (OYSTER PLANT) 
UU. Heads in panicles or corymbs, 2.5 cm. or less wide; mostly with at least the 

basal leaves not entire; flowers pink or white. 

V. Akene tapering into a slender beak as long as the body; involucre 18-25 mm. 

high, is-30-flowered. E. ^(Probably in honor of C. S. Rafinesque, an American 

botanist.) Rafinesquia calif ornica 

W. Akene truncate, beakless; involucre 6-15 mm. high, 3-6-flowered. E. (Gk. 

ptilon = a feather ; referring to the plumose pappus.) Ptiloria 


Stem leafy. Leaves mostly auriculate-clasping, entire to pinnatifid, 
prickly-margined. Heads in corymbs or panicles; receptacle naked. 
Corolla yellow. Pappus of bristles ; bristles many, white, capillary, simple. 
(Gk. sonchos = hollow ; referring to the stem.) 

A. Involucre glandular-pubescent, 25 mm. high; flowers bright yellow; perennial; 
leaves with acute basal angles; akenes transversely wrinkled. W. E. 

S. arvensis (FIELD sow THISTLE^ 

AA. Involucre glabrous, 12-16 mm. high; flowers pale yellow; annual. 
B. Leaves with acute basal angles; akenes transversely wrinkled. W. 

S. oleraceus (COMMON sow THISTLE) 

BB. Leaves with rounded basal angles; akenes not transversely wrinkled. W. E. 

S. asper (PRICKLY sow THISTLE) 



Stems tall, leafy. Heads in panicles ; receptacle naked. Corolla yellow 
or blue or purple. Pappus-bristles capillary, soft, many. (L. lac = milk ; 
from the abundant milky juice.) 

A. Pappus brownish; flowers blue; plant 1-3.5 m. high; involucre 10-12 mm. long; 
leaves not prickly on the mid-veins beneath. VV. C. E. L. spicata 

AA. Pappus white; flowers rarely blue, mostly yellow. 
B. Leaves not prickly on the mid-veins beneath. 

C. Flowers blue; perennial; involucre 16-20 mm. long; akene and its beak about 

as long as the pappus. W. E. L. pulchella (BLUE LETTUCE) 

CC. Flowers yellow, rarely purplish; annual or biennial; involucre 8-14 mm. long; 

akene and its beak about as long as the pappus. 

D. Heads 1 2-20-80 wered; akenes i -veined on each face. W. Cultivated for 

eating. L. sativa (GARDEN LETTUCE) 

DD. Heads 6- 12 -flowered; akenes several-veined on each face; plant 1-4 m. high. 

E. Leaves strictly entire. E. L. saglttifolia 

EE. Leaves except the upper ones sinuate-pinnatifid. E. 

L. canadensis (WILD LETTUCE) 

BB. Leaves prickly on the mid-veins beneath; flowers yellow; akene about equaling 
its beak. W. E. A bad weed of waste places. Sometimes called China Lettuce. 

L. scariola (PRICKLY LETTUCE) 


Stems leafy or scapelike. Corolla yellow. Pappus bristles capillary, 
many, usually soft. (Gk. krepis = a sandal. Application not clear.) 

A. Leaves glabrous, some of them pinnatifid; stem leafy; stem leaves clasping. W. E. 

AA. Not as above in all points. Too difficult for beginners. 


Perennial. Leaves sometimes all basal. Corolla white or yellow. Pap- 
pus of capillary bristles, scabrous. (Gk. hierax = a hawk ; it was supposed 
to better the vision of birds of prey.) 

A. Flowers white; involucre not distinctly imbricated. W. C. E. 

H. albiflorum (WHITE HAWKWEED) 
AA. Flowers yellow. Too difficult for beginners. 


A-. Not, or without. 

Acaulescent. Apparently stemless, 

the leaf-bearing stem being very 

short or subterranean. 
Acicular. Needle-shaped. 
Acuminate. Taper-pointed. 
Acute. Merely sharp-pointed, or end- 
ing in a point less than a right angle. 
Adnate. Grown together. 
Akene = Achene. A small, dry, hard, 

i-celled, i-seeded indehiscent fruit. 
Alpine. Belonging to high moun- 
tains above the limit of forests. 
Alternate (leaves, branches). Singly 

at the stem-nodes. 
Ament = Catkin. A deciduous scaly 

spike of flowers. 
Angiosperms. The great group of 

seed plants with ovules (and seeds) 

inclosed by an ovary. 
Annual. Of only one year's duration. 
Anther. The part of the stamen which 

contains the pollen. 
Anthesis. The opening of the flower. 
Apetalous. Without petals. 
Apiculate. Tipped with a short and 

abrupt point. 

Appressed. Lying close and flat 
Arborescent. Treelike in size or form. 
Arcuate. Bent or curved like a bow. 
Aril. An appendage growing at or 

about the hilum of a seed. 
Aristate = Awned. 
Aristulate. Diminutive of aristate. 
Articulate = Jointed. 
Ascending. Rising gradually upward. 
Auricles. Earlike appendages. 
Auriculate. With earlike appendages. 
Awl-shaped. Sharp-pointed from a 

broader base. 

Awn. A bristle-like appendage. 

Awned. With an awn. 

Axil. The upper angle between a leaf 

and the stem. 

Axillary. Occurring in an axil. 
Axis. The central line of any body; 

the organ around which others are 


Barbed. With usually reflexed rigid 
points or short bristles like the barb 
of a fishhook. 

Barbellate. Finely barbed. 

Basifixed. Attached by the base. 

Beaked. Ending in a long narrow tip. 

Bearded. With long or stiff hairs of 
any sort; awns of grasses are some- 
times called beards. 

Berry. A fruit pulpy or juicy through- 
out, as a currant or a grape. 

Bi-. Two or twice. 

Bidentate. 2-toothed. 

Biennial. Growing from seed one year, 
then blooming and dying the next. 

Bifid. 2-cleft to about the middle. 

Bilabiate = Labiate. 2-lipped. 

Bipinnate = 2-pinnate. Pinnate, then 
each part again pinnate. 

Bipinnatifid = 2-pinnatifid. Pinnatifid, 
and then the parts again pinnatifid. 

Biternate = 2-ternate. With 3 main 
divisions each with 3 leaflets. 

Bladdery. Thin and inflated. 

Bract. A very much reduced leaf, 
specially one subtending a pedicel. 

Bractlet. A bract on the pedicel. 

Bristle. A stiff sharp hair or any very 
slender body of similar appearance. 

Bulb. A leaf bud with fleshy scales, 
usually subterranean. 




Bulbiferous. Producing bulbs. 
Bulblet. A small bulb. 
Bulbous. Bulblike in form. 

Caducous. Dropping off very early as 

compared with other parts. 
Caespitose. Growing in tufts. 
Callus. A hard protuberance; in 

grasses the tough swelling at the 

base of the lemma. 
Calyx. The outer set of floral en- 
velopes; when there is but i it is 

considered to be calyx. 
Campanulate. Bell-shaped 
Canescent. Grayish white with fine 


Capillary. Hairlike in form. 
Capitate. Collected into a headlike 

cluster ; headlike in form. 
Capsule. A pod; any dry dehiscent 

Carinate. Keeled; furnished with a 

sharp ridge or projection on the 

lower side. 
Carpel. The pistil is composed of i or 

more modified leaves, each of which 

is a carpel. 

Carpous. Of or like a carpel. 
Caruncle = Strophiole. 
Catkin = Ament. 
Caudate. Tailed. 
Caudex. The persistent base of an 

otherwise annual herbaceous stem. 
Caulescent. Having an obvious leafy 


Cauline. Belonging to a stem 
Cernuous. Nodding. 
Chaff. Small scales or bracts on the 

receptacle of Compositaceae; the 

glumes of grasses, etc. 
Chaffy. Furnished with chaff, or of 

the texture of chaff. 
Chartaceous. With the texture of 

paper or parchment. 
Ciliate. The edge with a fringe of 


Cinereous. The color of ashes. 
Circinate. Rolled inward from the 

end, like some umbrella handles. 

Circumscissile. Opening by a trans- 
verse circular line of division. 

Clavate. Shaped like a baseball bat. 

Claw. The narrow or stalklike base 
of some petals. 

Cleft. Separated by a sharp indentation 
half way to the mid-vein or base, or 

Club-shaped = Clavate. 

Coalescence. The union of parts or 
organs of the same kind. 

Cohesion. The union of one organ 
with another of like nature. 

Column. The united stamens, as in 
Malvaceae; or the stamens and 
pistils united into one body, as in 

Commissure. The plane of union of 
the two carpels in the Umbellaceae. 

Compound. A pistil composed of 2 or 
more carpels; a leaf divided into 

Compressed. Flattened on two oppo- 
site sides. 

Cone = Strobilus. 

Congested. Crowded together. 

Connate. United or grown together 
from the first. 

Connective. The part of the anther 
connecting its two cells. 

Connivent. Converging, or brought 
close together. 

Contorted. Twisted together. 

Convoluted. Rolled up lengthwise. 

Cordate. Heart-shaped, with the 
notch basal. 

Coriaceous. Leathery in texture. 

Corm. A solid bulb. 

Corolla. The flowery envelope 
(usually showy) within the calyx. 

Corona = Crown. 

Corymb. A flat or convex flower 
cluster, with branches arising at 
different levels and blooming from 
the outside toward the center. 

Corymbose. Corymb-like. 

Costate. Ribbed. 

Cotyledons. The first leaves of the 



Creeping (stems). Growing flat on or 
beneath the ground and rooting 

Crenate. With rounded teeth. 

Crown. An appendage at the top of 
the claw of some petals. 

Crustaceous. Hard and brittle in tex- 
ture; crustlike. 

Cucullate. Hooded or hood-shaped. 

Cuneate = Cuneiform = Wedge-shaped. 

Cupule. A little cup; the cup of the 

Cuspidate. Tipped with a sharp and 
stiff point. 

Cymbiform. Boat-shaped. 

Cyme. Like a corymb, but blooming 
from the center outward. 

Cymose. Cyme-like. 

Deciduous. Applied to leaves which 
fall in autumn, and to a calyx and 
corolla which falls before fruit 

Decompound. Several times com- 

Decumbent. Reclined on the ground, 
but the summit tending to rise. 

Decurrent (leaves). With bladelike 
extensions on the stem beneath the 
insertion, as in thistles. 

Decussate. In pairs which are suc- 
cessively alternate with each other. 

Deflexed. Bent downwards. 

Dehiscence. The natural opening of 
an anther or pod or other vessel. 

Dehiscent. Opening naturally. 

Deltoid. Shaped like the Greek letter 

Dentate. Toothed. 

Denticulate. Diminutive of dentate. 

Depauperate. Below the natural size. 

Depressed. Flattened, or as if pressed 
down from above. 

Di-. Two, or twice. 

Diadelphous (stamens). United by 
the filaments into two sets. 

Dichotomous. 2-forked. 

Dicotyledonous. Having 2 cotyledons. 

Dicotyledons. Plants which have 2 

F. & R. EL. FL. l6 

Didymous. Twin. 

Didynamous (stamens). 2 longer than 
the others. 

Diffuse. Spreading widely and irregu- 

Digitate. Leaflets all borne on the 
apex of the petiole. 

Dimorphous. Of 2 forms. 

Dioecious = Dioicous. With stamens 
and pistils in separate flowers on 
different plants. 

Disk. The central region of a head 
of flowers, like the sunflower, as 
opposed to the ray or margin; a 
fleshy expansion of the receptacle 
of a flower. 

Dissected. Cut deeply into many 
lobes or divisions. 

Distichous. Two-ranked. 

Diurnal. Daily ; in 24 hours. 

Divaricate. Very widely divergent. 

Divided (leaves, etc.). Cut into divi- 
sions extending about to the base or 
the midrib. 

Dorsal. Pertaining to the back or 
outer surface of an organ. 

Drupaceous. Drupelike. 

Drupe. A stone fruit. 

Drupelet. Diminutive of drupe. 

Echinate. Armed with prickles. 
Elliptic = Elliptical. Oval or oblong, 

with the ends regularly rounded. 
Emarginate. Shallowly notched at 

the summit. 

Emersed. Raised out of water. 
Ensiform. Sword-shaped. 
Entire (foliar organs). The margin 

not at all toothed, notched, or 

Ephemeral. Lasting for a day or 


Epigynous. Upon the ovary. 
Equitant. Leaves which infold each 

other in two ranks, as in Iris. 
Erose. As if gnawed. 
Evergreen. Holding the leaves over 

winter or longer until new ones 




Excurrent. Projecting beyond the 
apex; or a tree trunk continued to 
the very top. 

Exserted. Protruding out of, as the 
stamens out of the corolla. 

Extrorse. Turned outward. 

Falcate. Curved like a hand sickle. 

Fascicle. A close cluster. 

Fascicled. Growing in a bundle or 

Fastigiate (branches). Close, parallel. 

Favose. Honeycombed. 

Fertile. Fruit-bearing; or pollen- 
bearing anthers. 

Filament. The stalk of a stamen; 
any slender thread-shaped append- 

Filiform. Thread-shaped. 

Fimbriate. Fringed. 

Flabelliform. Fan-shaped. 

Floccose. Composed of or bearing 
tufts of woolly or long and soft 

Foliaceous. Leaflike. 

Follicle. A simple pod, opening down 
the inner suture. 

Foveate. Deeply pitted. 

Foveolate. Diminutive of foveate. 

Free. Not united with any other 

Fringed. The margin beset with slen- 
der appendages, bristles, etc. 

Fruit. The seed-bearing structure of 
a plant. 

Fugacious. Soon falling off or perish- 

Fulvous. Tawny; dull yellow with 

Fusiform = Spindle-shaped. 

Galea. A hooded or helmet-shaped 
portion of some perianths. 

Gamopetalous = Monopetalous = Sym- 
petalous. Petals united into one 

Geminate. In pairs. 

Geniculate. Bent abruptly, like a 

Gibbous. More swollen at one place 
or on one side than the other. 

Glabrate. Becoming glabrous with 
age, or almost glabrous. 

Glabrous. Smooth, having no hairs, 
bristles, or other pubescence. 

Gland. A secreting surface or struc- 
ture; any protuberance or append- 
age having the appearance of such an 

Glaucous. Covered with a fine white 
powder that rubs off, like that on a 
fresh plum. 

Globose. Spherical or nearly so. 

Glochidiate (hairs or bristles). Barbed ; 
tipped with barbs, or with a double 
hooked point. 

Glomerate. Closely aggregated into a 
dense cluster. 

Glomerule. A dense headlike cluster. 

Glume. The chaff of grasses, in this 
book the outer husks or bracts of 
each spikelet. 

Gymnosperms. The great group of 
seed plants with ovules and seeds 
not inclosed in an ovary. 

Gynobase. An enlargement or pro- 
longation of the receptacle bearing 
the ovary. 

Gynoecium. The whole set of pistils. 

Habitat. Conditions under which a 
plant grows. 

Hastate. Like an arrowhead, but 
with the basal lobes pointing out- 
ward nearly at right angles. 

Hemi-. Half. 

Herb. A plant with no persistent 
woody stem above ground. 

Herbaceous. With the texture of 
common herbage; not woody nor 

Hermaphrodite (flower) = Perfect. 

Heterogamous. With 2 or more kinds 
of flowers as to their stamens and 

Hirsute. Hairy with stiffish or beard- 
like hairs. 

Hispid. Bristly ; beset with stiff hairs. 



Hispidulous. Diminutive of hispid. 
Hoary. Grayish white. 
Homogamous. A head or cluster with 

flowers all of one kind. 
Hooded = Hood-shaped = Cucullate. 
Hyaline. Transparent or nearly so. 
Hypogynous. Inserted under the 


Imbricate. Overlapping like shingles 
on a roof. 

Immersed. Wholly under water. 

Imperfect (flowers). Wanting either 
stamens or pistils. 

Incised. Cut rather deeply and irreg- 

Indehiscent. Not splitti-ng open. 

Indurated. Hardened. 

Inferior (ovary). Calyx grown fast to 
the ovary and thus apparently on it. 

Inflated. Turgid and bladdery. 

Inflexed. Bent inward. 

Inflorescence. The arrangement of 
flowers on the stem; the flower 
cluster as a whole. 

Infra-stipular. Below the stipules at 
base of petiole. 

Insertion. The place or the mode of 
attachment of an organ to its sup- 

Internode. The part of a stem be- 
tween two nodes. 

Interruptedly pinnate. Pinnate with 
small leaflets intermixed with larger 

Introrse. Turned or facing inward or 
toward the axis of the flower. 

Involucel. An involucre of the second 

Involucrate. With an involucre. 

Involucre. A whorl or set of bracts 
around a flower or umbel or head. 

Involute. Rolled inward from the 

Jointed. Composed of joints, or having 
joints in it. 

Keel. A projecting ridge on a surface, 

like the keel of a boat; the two an- 
terior petals in the Bean Family. 

Labiate = Bilabiate. 

Laciniate. Slashed ; cut into deep 
narrow lobes. 

Lanceolate. Lance-shaped. 

Lax. The opposite of crowded. 

Leaflet. One of the divisions or 
blades of a compound leaf. 

Lemma. The lower of the two bracts 
inclosing the flower in the grasses. 

Lenticular. Lens-shaped, both sides 

Ligulate. Furnished with a ligule. 

Ligule. The strap-shaped corolla in 
many Compositaceae ; the little 
membranous appendage at the sum- 
mit of the leaf sheaths of most 

Limb. The blade of a leaf, petal, etc. 

Linear. Narrow and flat, the margins 

Lip. The principal lobes of a 2-lipped 
corolla or calyx; the odd and pe- 
culiar petal in the Orchidaceae. 

Lobe. Any projection or division 
(especially a rounded one) of a leaf, 
etc., especially when not extending 
more than halfway to the mid-vein or 

Loculicidal (dehiscence). Splitting 
down through the middle of the 
back of each cell. 

Lunate. Crescent-shaped. 

Lyrate. Lyre-shaped; an obovate or 
spatulate pinnatifid leaf with the 
end lobe large and roundish and the 
lower lobes small. 

Marcescent. Withering without fall- 
ing off. 

Membranous. With the texture of a 
membrane; thin and more or less 

Midrib = Mid-vein. The middle or 
main rib of a leaf. 

Monadelphous. Stamens united by 
their filaments into one set. 



Monocotyledonous (embryo). Having 

only one cotyledon. 
Monocotyledons. The great group of 

plants having only i cotyledon. 
Monoecious = Monoicous. With sta- 
mens and pistils in separate flowers 

on the same plant. 
Monopetalous (flower) = Gamopeta- 

lous. With united petals. 
Mucronate. Tipped with an abrupt 

short point. 
Mucronulate. Diminutive of mucro- 


Multi-. Many. 
Muriculate. Rough with fine short hard 


Nectariferous. Nectar-bearing. 

Nerve = Vein. 

Node. The joints of a stem, from 

which the leaves arise. 
Nodose. Knotty or knobby. 
Nut. A hard and mostly one-seeded 

indehiscent fruit, as a chestnut, 

butternut, acorn. 
Nutlet. Diminutive of nut. 

Ob. Upside down. 

Obcompressed. Flattened the oppo- 
site of the usual way. 

Obcordate. Heart-shaped with small 
end basal. 

Oblanceolate. Lance-shaped with the 
tapering point basal. 

Oblong. Two to three times as long 
as wide, and more or less elliptic. 

Obovate. Inversely ovate, the broad 
end up. 

Obtuse. Blunt or round at the 

Ochroleucous. Yellowish white; dull 

Ocrea. A sheathing stipule. 

Odd-pinnate". Pinnate with an un- 
even number of leaflets. 

Offset. Short branch next the ground 
which takes root. 

Opposite. Applied to leaves and 
branches when an opposing pair 

occurs at each node; to stamens 
when directly in front of the petals. 

Orbicular. Circular or nearly so in 
general outline. 

Oval. Broadly elliptical. 

Ovate. Shaped like the section of an 
egg with the broader end basal. 

Ovoid. A solid with an ovate sec- 

Ovule. The body which becomes a 
seed after fertilization. 

Palate. A projection on the lower lip 
of a 2-lipped corolla closing the 

Palet. The inner husk of grasses; the 
chaff or bracts on the receptacle of 
many Compositaceae. 

Palmate. Applied to a leaf whose 
leaflets or divisions or main ribs all 
spread from the apex of the petiole, 
like a hand with outspread fingers. 

Palmately lobed, cleft, parted, di- 
vided, etc. The varying depths of 
division of a palmate leaf. 

Panicle (inflorescence). An open clus- 
ter like a raceme, but more or less 

Panicled = Paniculate. In panicles, 
or panicle-like. 

Papilionaceous. Butterfly-shaped; ap- 
plied to such a corolla as that of the 

Papilla (papillae). A little nipple- 
shaped protuberance. 

Papillose. Covered with papillae. 

Pappus. The modified calyx limb in 
Compositaceae, forming a crown of 
very various character at the sum- 
mit of the akene. 

Parietal = Lateral. Attached to the 
walls, as of the ovary. 

Parted. Separated into parts almost 
to base. 

Pectinate. Pinnatifid or pinnately 
divided into narrow and close divi- 
sions, like the teeth of a comb. 

Pedicel. The stalk of each particular 
flower of a cluster. 



Pediceled. With a pedicel. 
Peduncle. A flower stalk, whether of 

a single flower or of a flower cluster. 
Peduncled. With a peduncle. 
Peltate. Shield-shaped; applied to a 

leaf, whatever its shape, when the 

petiole arises from the under surface. 
Pendulous. Somewhat hanging or 

Penta-. 5. 

Perennial. Lasting from year to year. 
Perfect (flower). Having both sta- 
mens and pistils. 
Perfoliate. Applied to a leaf through 

whose base the stem appears to 

Perianth. The floral envelopes of the 

flower, especially when calyx and 

corolla cannot be distinguished. 
Pericarp. The wall of the ripened 

ovary, which in many cases is the 

wall of the fruit. 
Perigynium. The inflated sac which 

incloses the ovary in Carex. 
Perigynous (flower). Sepals and 

petals and stamens arising from the 

rim of a tube or cup surrounding the 

pistil or pistils. 
Persistent. Remaining beyond the 

period when such parts commonly 


Petal. A corolla leaf. 
Petiole. The leafstalk. 
Petioled = Petiolate. With a petiole. 
Petiolulate. With a petiolule. 
Petiolule. The stalk of a leaflet. 
Pilose. Hairy with soft slender hairs. 
Pinnate (leaf). Leaflets along the 

main axis of the leaf. 
Pinnately lobed, cleft, parted, divided, 

etc. The varying depths of division 

of a pinnately veined leaf. 
Pinnately -veined. With secondary 

veins arising from a mid-vein. 
Pinnatifid. Pinnately cleft. 
Pistil. The seed-bearing organ of the 

Pitted. Having small depressions or 

pits on the surface. 

Placenta. The surface of the ovary 
to which the ovules are attached. 

Plicate. Folded lengthwise into plaits. 

Plumose. Feathery; when any slen- 
der body is beset with hairs. 

Pluri-. Several, or many. 

Pod. Any sort of capsule. 

Poly-. Many. 

Polygamous. Having some perfect 
and some staminate and pistillate 
flowers on the same or on different 

Polymorphous. Of several forms. 

Polypetalous. With the petals dis- 

Polysepalous. When the sepals are 

Pome. A fleshy apple-like fruit, e.g., 
apple, pear, haw. 

Procumbent. Trailing on the ground. 

Produced. Extended or projecting 
farther than usual. 

Proliferous. A new branch arising 
from an older one, or one head or 
cluster of flowers from another. 

Prostrate. Lying flat on the ground. 

Pruinose. Covered with a powder 
resembling hoarfrost. 

Puberulent. Covered with almost im- 
perceptible fine and short down. 

Pubescence. Fine and soft hairs. 

Pubescent. With pubescence. 

Punctate. Dotted, either with minute 
holes or apparently so. 

Raceme. A flower cluster with one- 
flowered pedicels along the axis of 

Racemose. Bearing racemes; or 

Rachilla. The axis of a spikelet. 

Rachis. An axis bearing close-set 
organs; specially the axis of a 

Radiate. Furnished with ray flowers. 

Radical. Belonging to the root, or ap- 
parently coming from the root. 

Ray. The marginal flower of a head 
or cluster when different from the 



rest, especially when ligulate; the 
branch of an umbel. 

Receptacle. The more or less ex- 
panded or produced end of an axis 
which bears the organs of a flower 
or the collected flowers of a head. 

Recurved. Curved outward or back- 

Reflexed. Bent outward or back- 

Regular (flower). All the parts of 
each whorl similar. 

Reniform. Kidney-shaped. 

Repand. Wavy-margined. 

Retrorse. Directed back or downward. 

Retuse. The apex slightly indented. 

Revolute. Rolled backward, as the 
margins of many leaves. 

Rhizome =Rootstock. A subterranean 
or creeping rootlike stem. 

Rib = Vein. 

Ringent. Gaping. 

Rootstock = Rhizome. 

Rosulate (leaves). In a rosette, or 
basal whorl. 

Rotate. Wheel-shaped. 

Rudimentary. Imperfectly developed, 
or in early stage of development. 

Rugose. Wrinkled, roughened with 

Runcinate. Coarsely saw-toothed or 
cut, the pointed teeth turned 
toward the base of the leaf, as in 

Runner. A slender and prostrate 
branch rooting at the end or at the 

Sac = Sack. Any closed membrane, or 

a deep purse-shaped cavity. 
Saccate. Sac-shaped. 
Sagittate. Arrowhead-shaped. 
Salver-shaped = Salverform. With a 

border spreading at right angles to 

a slender tube. 
Samara. A wing fruit, e.g., maple, 

ash, elm. 
Scabrous. Rough or harsh to the 


Scale. A reduced leaflike body which 

is not green. 
Scape. A peduncle rising from the 

ground, naked or without ordinary 


Scapose. Scapelike; or with a scape. 
Scarious. Thin, dry, membranous, 

and not green. 
Scorpioid. Curved or circinate at the 

Scurf. Minute scales on the surface 

of many leaves. 
Scutellate. Saucer-shaped. 
Secund. One-sided, as where flowers, 

leaves, etc., are all turned to one 


Semi-. Half. 
Sepal. One of the leaves of which the 

calyx is composed. 
Septate. Divided by partitions. 
Septum (septa). A partition, as of a 

pod, etc. 

Sericeous. Clothed with satiny pu- 
Serrate. With margin cut into teeth 

pointing forward. 
Serrulate. Diminutive of serrate. 
Sessile. Without any stalk or petiole. 
Sheath. A tubular envelope, as the 

lower part of the leaf in grasses. 
Shrub. A woody perennial, smaller 

than a tree, usually with several 


Silique. The pod of the Cruciferaceae. 
Silky. Glossy with a coat of fine and 

soft, close-pressed, straight hairs. 
Silvery. Shining white or bluish gray, 

usually from a silky pubescence. 
Simple. Of one piece; the opposite 

of compound. 
Sinuate. Strongly wavy. 
Sinus. The cleft or depression be- 
tween two lobes. 
Spadix. A flashy spike. 
Spathe. A bract which sheaths an 

inflorescence, specially a spadix. 
Spatulate. Shaped like a spatula, or 

druggist's spoon. 
Spicate. Spikelike ; in a spike. 



Spike (inflorescence). The flowers 
sessile on an elongated axis. 

Spikelet. A small or a secondary 

Spindle-shaped. Tapering at both 
ends like a sweet potato. 

Spine. A sharp woody or rigid out- 

Spinescent. Tipped by or degenerat- 
ing into spines or thorns. 

Spinose. Thorny. 

Spur. Any projecting appendage of 
the flower. 

Squarrose. Said of scales, leaves, etc., 
when they spread widely from 
the axis on which they are thickly 

Stamen. The pollen-bearing organ. 

Staminodium (staminodia). Abortive 
stamens or other bodies in the posi- 
tion of stamens. 

Standard. The upper petal of a pa- 
pilionaceous corolla. 

Stellate. Starlike; several similar 
parts radiating from a common 

Sterile. Barren or imperfect. 

Stigma. The region of the pistil which 
receives the pollen. 

Stipe. The stalk-like base of a pistil. 

Stipitate. Furnished with a stipe. 

Stipules. The appendages on each 
side of the base of some leaf petioles. 

Stolon. Trailing or reclined and root- 
ing shoots. 

Stoloniferous. Producing stolons. 

Strap-shaped. Long, flat, and narrow. 

Striate. Marked with slender longi- 
tudinal grooves or channels. 

Strict. Close and narrow; straight 
and narrow. 

Strigose. Beset with appressed, rigid 
bristles or hairs. 

Strobilus = Strobile = Cone. A cone- 
ike or headlike fruit, as in hop and 

Strophiole. An excrescence or append- 
age at or about the hilum of a seed. 

Style. The beak-like prolongation of 

the pistil above the ovary, which 

bears the stigma. 
Stylopodium. An enlargement at the 

base of the style, found in Umbel- 

laceae and some other plants. 
Sub-. About, nearly, somewhat. 
Subulate. Awl-shaped. 
Succulent. Juicy or pulpy. 
Sucker. A shoot from subterranean 

Suffrutescent. Slightly shrubby or 

woody at the base only. 
Superior (ovary). The ovary free 

from the calyx to its base. 
Suture. The line of junction of con- 
tiguous parts that seem to have 

grown together. 

Sympetalous. With united petals. 
Syngenesious. With stamens united 

by their anthers. 

Taproot. A stout vertical root which 
continues the main axis of the plant. 

Tawny. Dull yellowish with a tinge 
of brown. 

Tendril. A thread-shaped process 
used for climbing. 

Terete. Circular in cross section. 

Ternate. In 3's. 

Tetra-. 4. 

Tetradynamous. With four stamens 
longer than the other two. 

Thorn = Spine. 

Throat. The orifice of a gamopeta- 
lous corolla or calyx; the region 
between the tube proper and the 

Thyrsus. A compact and pyramidal 

Tomentose. Clothed with matted 
woolly hairs. 

Tomentum. Matted woolly hairs. 

Toothed. Furnished with teeth of 
short projections of any sort on the 
margin; used especially when these 
are sharp, like saw teeth, but do not 
point forward. 

Torulose. Knobby; where a cylin- 
drical body is swollen at intervals. 



Tri-. 3. 

Trifid. 3 -cleft. 

Trigonous. 3-angled. 

Triquetrous. Sharply 3-angled; and 
specially with the sides concave. 

Truncate. Ending abruptly, as if cut 
off transversely. 

Tuber. A thickened portion of a sub- 
terranean stem or branch. 

Tubercle. A small excrescence. 

Tunicate. Invested with layers as an 

Turbinate. Top-shaped. 

Turgid. Swollen; thick as if swol- 

Twining. Ascending by coiling round 
a support, like the hop. 

Umbel. The umbrella-like form of 

Umbellate. In umbels. 
Umbellet. A secondary or partial 

Unarmed. Destitute of spines, 

prickles, and the like. 
Uncinate. Hook-shaped; hooked at 

the end. 

Undulate. Wavy or wavy-margined. 
Unequally pinnate = Odd- pinnate. 
Unguiculate. With a claw or narrow 

Uni-. i. 
Unisexual. Having only one kind of 

sex organs; applied also to flowers 

having only stamens or pistils. 
Urceolate. Urn-shaped. 

Utricle. A small thin-walled one- 
seeded fruit. 

Valvate. Opening by valves; in the 

bud, meeting by the edges without 

Valve. One of the pieces into which a 

dehiscent pod or any similar body 

Veins. The fibrovascular strands or 

ribs of a leaf or other organ. 
Venation. The veining of leaves, etc. 
Ventral. Belonging to the anterior or 

inner face of an organ; the opposite 

of dorsal. 
Versatile (anther). Attached near 

the middle and turning freely on its 


Verticillate = Whorled. 
Vesicle. . A little bladder. 
Villous. Shaggy with long and soft 


Vine. Any trailing or climbing stem. 
Virgate. Wand-shaped, as a long, 

straight slender twig. 
Viscid. Glutinous, sticky. 

Wedge-shaped. Broad above and 
tapering by straight lines to a nar- 
row base. 

Whorl. A circle of leaves or other 
organs at a node. 

Whorled. Arranged in a circle. 

Wing. Any membranous expansion. 

Woolly. Clothed with long and 
tangled soft hairs. 


Family names both common and scientific are in SMALL CAPITALS. Otherwise, scientific 
names are in roman and common names are in italics. 














85, 86 





















Barnyard Grass 




Aplopappus 221, 






































Bear Bush 


















Bear Grass 40, 54 











Bedstraw 211, 












































Alaska Cedar 










Bergamot Mint 195, 












Bermuda Grass 
















Artichoke 228, 




















Bindweed 83, 








A Imond 










Bird Beak 















108, 109 



Bitter Cress 






Bitter Herb 




Aster 221, 


















Atriplex 83 


Blackberry 131, 










A vena 
Awns 127, 130, 


Black-eyed Susan 
Black Haw 






Bladder Pod 














Baby's Breath 


Blade Grass 





















Balm 149, 





7, 34 











Antelope Brush 









Blue-bottle 235 
Blue Curls 194 

California Poppy 


Chicory 236, 


Blue-eyed Grass 66 





Blue Grass 45 





Bluejoint 49 





Blue Lips 202 





Bog Asphodel 54 





Bog Rosemary 172 





Boisduvalia 158 





Bolandra 119 





Boltonia 222 



Chrysopsis 221, 


Boneset 221 

Camomile 230, 


Chrysospleni um 












Boschniakia 209 

Canada Thistle 




Bouteloua 47 





Box Elder 148 





Boykinia 120 





Brasenia 95 





Brassica 112 





Bray a 108 





Brevoortia 55 





Briza 44 





Brome 46 





Bromus 46 





Brooklime 204 





Brookweed 176 





Broom 135 



Clover 116, 136, 


Broom-rape 209 



138, 139, 140, 



Carrot 167, 




Brown-weed 222 





Buckbean 180 








Cockle Bur 


Buck- Brush 150 





Buckthorn 149 










Buckwheat 80, 83 










Bud-brush 232 





Buffalo Bur 198 

Catch- fly 90, 91 



Buffalo-grass 44 





Bugbane 95, 98 





Bugleweed 196 



Comandra 77, 78 

Bugseed 84 





Bulrush 50 





Bunchberry 168 










Bunch-grass 48 



Cone Bearers 7 

, 29 

Bunch Redtop 45 





Bupleurum 165, 167 



Cone Plant 


flur C7oer 137 





Burdock 234 





Burnet 130 





Bur-reed 34 



Coolwort 120, 


fiuer awd ZJgps 201 



Copper Bush 


Buttercup 101, 102 










Butterfly Tongue 208 



Coral Root 69, 


Butter head 231 



Cord Grass 


Butter wort 210 









Cabbage 51, 110 

Chamaebatiari a 





Chamaecy pari s 




Cactus 155 








Corn Cockle 


Cakile 108 



Corn Salad 


Calamagrostis 39 



Corn Spurry 


Calamovilfa 39 






Chestnut Oak 




California Laurel 104 

Chickweed 92 

, 93 



California Lilac 150 



Cory 1 us 




Cotton Grass 


Dog-tooth Violet 





168 Fagopyrum 80 





Fairy Bells 63 

Couch Grass 


Douglas Fir 


Fairy Cheeses 151 





Fairy Paddle 51 

Cow Herb 




F all Dandelion 236 

Cow Parsnip 




False Asphodel 54 





False Buckwheat 83 





False Bugbane 95 

Crab Apple 


Drop-seed 3( 

), 40 

False Flax 114 





False Heather 222 

Cranberry 174, 175, 




False Mermaid 147 



Drummond Pink 







False Oat 42, 43 





False Solomon's Seal 63 

Cress 108, 109, 




Family Key 7-28 

112, 113, 




Farewell-to-Spring 159 





Fatsia 162 





Fennel 164, 165, 230 



Fescue 45, 46 





Festuca 45 





Fever-bush 168 

Cuckoo Flower 


Edible Thistle 


Feverfew 231 
Fiddle Neck 190 





Field Sorrel 81 



Egg Plant 


Figwort 200 






Currant 124, 




Filipendula 127 



Elder 148, 


Fir 30, 31 





Fire Crackers 55 





Fireweed 158 





Five-finger 126, 129 



Elephant Trunk 


Flag 51, 65 










Flax 114, 144, 145 










Fleabane 221-223 





Flixweed 112 





Floerkea 147 





Flowering Fungus 171 

Enchanter's Nightshade 


Flowering Grass 55 



English Ivy 


Fool's Huckleberry 172 

Daisy 222, 




Fool's Onion 58 





Forget-me-not 190 





Forsellesia 147 





Four-o'clock 85 










Foxglove 199 



Erigeron 221- 


Foxtail 38, 39 





Foxtail Grass 39 

Death Camas 




Fragaria 129 

Deer Cabbage 




Franseria 226 





Frasera 180 





Fraxinus 178 





Fringe Cup 122 

Devil's Club 




Fritillaria 59 






Dicotyledons 7 

, 70 







Gaillardia 229 





Galium 211 





Garrya 168 





Gastridium 39 





Gaultheria 173 





Gaura 157 





Gayophytum 161 





Gentian 179 

Dock 8( 

1, 81 



Gentiana 179 

Dodder 182. 







Evening Primrose 159, 











Geranium 143 

Dog Fennel 






Germander 192 

Helianthella 224 

Indian Paintbrush 205 

Geum 130 

Helianthus 227 

Indian Pipe 170 

Giant Cedar 29 

Heliotrope 188 


Gilia 183 

Heliotropium 188 

Indian Plum 134 

Ginger 79 

Hellebore 55 

Indian Reed 40 

Ginseng 162 

Helleborine 67 

Inula 224 


Hemicarpha 50 


Githopsis 216 

Hemieva 120 

Iris 65 

Glaux 176 

Hemitomes 170 

Isopyrum 97 

Glecoma 194 

Hemizonella 225 

Iva 225 

Glehnia 166 

Hemizonia 225 

Ivy 147. 162, 194, 199 

Globe-flower 95 

Hemlock 31, 165 

Globe Mallow 152 

Hemlock Parsley 164 

Jaumea 228 

Glossary 239-248 

Hemp 181 

Jerusalem Artichoke 228 

Glyceria 45 

tfento 193 

Johnson Grass 37 

Glycyrrhiza 136 

Heracleum 164 

Joint Grass 38 

Gnaphalium 224 

Herald-of-Summer 159 


Goat Chicory 236 

Heron's-bill 143 


Goat's Beard 127 

Hesperogenia 167 

Juncoides 52 

Godetia 159 

Heteranthera 51 

Juncus 52 

Golden Aster 221, 222 

Heterocodon 216 

June Grass 44 

Goldenrod 222 

Heterogaura 157 

Juniper 30 

Golden Saxifrage 119 

Heuchera 121 

Juniperus 30 

Gold Fields 229 

Hieracium 238 

Goldthread 97 

Hierochloe 38 

Kalmia 171 

Gooseberry 124, 125 

High-bush Cranberry 213 

Kelloggia 211 


Hippuris 162 

Kenilworth Ivy 199 

Goosefoot 83 

Hog Fennel 164, 165 

Key to the Families 7-28 


Holcus 41 

Kinnikinnick 174 

Goose Tansy 129 

Holodiscus 129 

Knotweed 81, 82 

Gonnania 118 

Holy-grass 38 


Gorse 135 

Homalocenchrus 38 

Kochia 84 

Grama Grass 47 

Honeysuckle 214 

Koeleria 44 



Kunzia 126 

Grape 150 

Hookera 58 


Hop 76 

Labrador Tea 172 


Hop-clover 139 

Lace Pod 115 

Gross of Parnassus 123 

Hop Sage 84 

Lactuca 238 

Gratiola 204 

Hordeum 49 

Ladies' Tresses 69 

Grayia 84 

Horehound 193, 196 

Lady's Mantle 126 

Greasewood 84 

Horkelia 129 

Lady's-slipper 67, 68 

Greek Valerian 184 

Hornwort 95 

Lady's Thumb 82 

Grindelia 223 



Gromwell 191 

Horse Mint 195 

Lamium 193 


Horse-radish 113 

Lapsana 235 

Ground Cherry 197 

Hound's Tongue 189 

Lappula 188 

Ground Ivy 194 

Howellia 217 

Larch 32 

Grove Lover 186 

Huckleberry 172, 175 

Larix 32 

Gum-weed 223 


Lark-spur 98, 99 

Gutierrezia 222 

Hulsea 229 

Lasthenia 228 

Gymnosperms 7, 29 

Humulus 76 

Lathyrus 142 

Hutchinsia 109 


Hackberry 76 

Hydastylus 66 

Laurel 104, 171 

#oir Gross 41, 42 



f/oir Sedoe 50 


Laurentia 217 


Hydrocotyle 165 

Lavauxia 158 

Hardhack 128 


Layia 225 

Harrimanella 171 

Hydrophyllum 187 


Haw 213 

Hymenopappus 229 

Ledum 172 

Hawk's-beard 238 



Hawkweed 238 

Hypericum 152 

Leibergia 166 

Hawthorn 134 

Hypochaeris 236 

Lemna 51 

tfozeZ 73 

Hypopitys 171 


tfeoJ-oZ/ 193 

Hyssop 194, 204 


Heather 171, 173, 222 

Leptaxis 119 


Ida May's Fire Crackers 55 

Leontodon 236 

Hedera 162 


Ixjonurus 193 

//edpe Hyssop 204 
tfedoe Mustard 111 

Ilysanthes 200 
Impatiens 148 

Lepidium 111 
Leptotaenia 165 

#ed0e ATett/e 195 

Imperata 37 

Lesquerella 114 

//edpe Parsley 164 

Incense Cedar 29 

Lettuce 238 

Hedysarum 141 

Indian Hemp 181 

Leucocrinum 55 

Helenium 229 

Indian Millet 41 

Lewisia 89 



Libocedrua 29 

Maple 148 

Mud Plantain 51 

Licorice 136, 211 


Mudwort 199 

Ligusticum 166 

Mare's Tail 162 

Muhlenbergia 39 

Lilac 150 

Marigold 96 

Mulberry 76 

Lilaea 35 

Mariposa Lily 60 


Lilaeopsis 165 

Marrubium 193 

Mullein 145, 201 


Marsh Elder 225 

Mullein Pink 92 

Lilium 58 

Marsh-locks 128 

Munroa 44 

Lily 58-62 

Matricaria 230 

Musk Flower 203 


Mayweed 230 

Mustard 107, 110-112, 

Lily-of-the-V alley 62 

Meadow Grass 44 

115, 116 


Meadow Parsnip 166 



Meadow-rue 102 

Myosotis 190 


Medic 137 

Myosurus 100 

Limnanthes 147 

Medicago 137 

Myrica 73 

Limnorchis 68 

Melampyrum 200 


Limosella 199 


Myriophyllum 162 


Melica 44 

Linaria 201 

Melic Grass 44 

Nabalus 237 

Linnaea 212 

Melilot 137, 138 


Linum 144 

Melilotus 137 

Naias 35 

Liparis 67 

Melissa 193 

Nama 185 

Listera 69 

Mentha 196 




Naumburgia 176 

Lithospermum 191 

Mentzelia 155 

Navarretia 183 

Lloydia 56 


Neckweed 205 


Menyanthes 180 

Needle Grass 40 

Lobelia 217 

Menziesia 172 

Nemophila 186 


Menzies Pink 91 

Nepeta 192 


Mertensia 191 

Nephrophyllidium 180 

Lobularia 109 

Mexican Hat 226 

Neslia 109 

Loco Weed 141 

Microcala 179 

Nettle 77 

Locust 135 

Micromeria 194 


Lolium 48 

Micropus 223 

Nicotiana 198 

Lomatium 164, 165 

Microseris 236 

Nievitas 189 

Lonicera 214 

Milfoil 162 

Nigger Thumb 226 

Loose-strife 156 

Milkweed 181, 182 

Nightshade 161, 197, 198 



Ninebark 128 


Milkwort 145 

Nipplewort 235 

Lotus 140 


Nit Grass 39 

Lousewort 208 

Mimulus 203 

Nitrophila 83 

Lovage 166 

Miner's Lettuce 88 

Nonesuch 137 

Ludwigia 157 

Mint 195, 196 

Nothocalais 236 

Luina 233 



Lungwort 191 

Mirabilis 85 

Nymphaea 95 


Mistletoe 78, 79 


Lupinus 137 


Lutkea 126 

Mitella 122 

Oak 75 

Lychnis 92 

Mollugo 86 

Oat-grass 41, 43 

Lycopersicum 197 

Monarda 195 

Oats 43 

Lycopus 196 

Moneses 169 

Ocean Spray 129 

Lygodesmia 237 

Moneywort 176 

Oenanthe 166 

Lysias 67 

Monkey Flower 203 


Lysichiton 51 

Monocotyledons 7, 34 





Lythrum 156 

Monotropa 170 

Olsynium 65 


Onagra 159 


Montia 88 


Madia 225, 226 


Onion 56, 58 

Madrona 172 


Ookow 58 

Madronella 195 


Opuntia 156 

Madwort 188 

Morus 76 

Orchard Grass 44 

Mahala Mats 150 

Mosquito-bills 177 

Orchid 67 


Moss Gross 39 


Malacothrix 236 

Motherwort 193 


Mallow 151, 152 

Mountain Ash 133 

Orchis 68 


Mountain Balm 149 

Oregon Grape 103 

Malva 151 

Mountain Mahogany 131 

Oreocarya 190 


Mountain Rice 40, 41 


Malvastrum 151 

Mountain Sorrel 80 

Orobanche 209 

Mamillaria 155 

Mouse-ear 93 

Orogenia 167 

Manna Grass 45 

Mouse-ear Cress 108 

Orthocarpus 207 

Manzanita 174 

Mousetail 100 

Oryzopsis 40 



Osmaronia 134 


Primula 176 

Ovary Plants 7, 34 

Pigeon-root 88 


Owl-clover 207 

Pigmy-weed 117 

Prune 135 


Pigweed 85 

Prunella 193 

Oxalis 144 


Prunus 135 

Ox-eye Daisy 231 

Pimpernel 200 

Pseudocymopterus 165 

Oxycoccus 174 


Pseudotsuga 30 

Oxvpolis 164 

Pine 32, 33 

Psilocarphus 224 

Oxyria 80 

Pineapple Weed 231 

Psoralea 140 

Oxytheca 80 

Pinedrops 170 

Pterospora 170 

Oyster Plant 237 


Pterostegia 79 

Pinesap 171 

Pteryxia 167 

Pachistima 147 

Pinguicula 210 

Ptilocalais 236 

Pachylophus 160 


Ptilona 237 

Paeonia 96 

Pink 92 

Puccinellia 45 

Paintbrush 205 

Pinus 32 

Pulsatilla 96 

Panax 162 

Piperia 68 

Purple Marsh-locks 128 

Panic-grass 38 

Pipsissewa 169 

Purple Mustard 110 

Panicum 38 

Piptocalyx 188 

Purple-root 88 

Papaver 105 

Piscaria 145 

Purple Star-grass 65 


Pitcher Plant 116 

Purslane 87, 157 

Parietaria 77 



Parnassia 123 


Pyramid Bush 128 

Parrya 108 
Parsley 164, 165 

Plagiobothrys 189 
Plains Mustard 107 

Pyrola 169 

Parsnip 164, 166, 167 


Pyrus 133 

Partridge Foot 126 

Plantago 210 

Pasania 75 

Plantain 36,51,210,211 

Quaking Grass 44 



Quercus 75 

Pasque Flower 96 

Platyspermum 109 

Pastinaca 164 

Platystemon 104 

Rabbit Brush 221 

Pea 142, 143 

Platystigma 104 

Radish 112 

Peach 134 

Pleuricospora 171 

Rafinesquia 237 


Pleuropogon 44 

Ragweed 226 

Pear 133 

Plum 134, 135 

Ragwort 233 

Pearlwort 93, 94 


Raillardella 233 

Pearly Everlasting 223 

Poa 45 

Rainiera 233 

Pectocarya 188 

Pogogyne 193 

Ramona 194 

Pedicularis 208 

Poison Ivy 147 


Pe-ik 227 

Poison Oak 147 

Ranunculus 101 

Pellitory 77 

Poke-berry 86 

Raphanus 112 

Peltiphyllum 119 


Raspberry 131, 132 

Penny cress 111 

Polanisia 116 

Rattlesnake Plantain 67 

Pennywort 165 


Rattlesnake Root 237 

Pentacaena 94 

Polemonium 184 

Rattleweed 141 

Pentstemon 202 

Polygala 145 

Razoumofskya 78 

Peony 96 


Red Ant-weed 207 

Peppergrass 111 


Red Maids 87 

Peppermint 196 

Polygonum 81 

Red-osier Dogwood 168 

Peramium 67 

Polypogon 39 

Redroot 149 

Peraphyllum 133 

Pond-lily 95 

Redtop 45 

Petalostemon 136 

Pondweed 35 

Redwood 29 

Petasites 233 


Reed 44 

Petrophytum 128 


Reed Grass 39 

Phacelia 186 



Phalaris 38 

Weather-glass 176 

Rhamnus 149 

Phellopterus 167 

Pop-corn Flower 189 

Rhinanthus 201 

Philadelphus 123 

Poplar 72, 73 

Rhododendron 173 

Philotria 36 

Poppy 105 

Rhus 147 

Phleum 41 


Rhynchospora 50 

Phlox 183 

Populus 72 

Rhysopterus 166 


Port Or ford Cedar 31 

Ribes 124 

Phoradendron 78 

Portulaca 87 

Rice Cut-grass 

Phragmites 44 
Phyllodoce 173 
Phyllospadix 35 


Potamogeton 35 
Potato 197 

Rice-root 59 
Robinia 135 

Physalis 197 


Rock Cranberry 175 

Physaria 114 

Potentilla 129 

Rock Cress 108, 115 

Physocarpus 128 

Powderhorn 93 

Rock Pink 87 

Physostegia 193 

Prairie Clover 1 :i 


Phytolacca 86 

Prickly Lettuce 2:<S 

Roripa 1 1 : < 


Primrose 158-160, 176 


Picea 32 









Spurless Orchid 67 



Service Berry 


Spurry 90 





Squash Berry 213 



Shepherd's Purse 





Shooting Star 


Squirrel-tail Grass 49 





Stachys 195 



Siberian Crab 







Stanleya 110 





Star Flower 177 

S pia 





Star-grass 65, 66 
Star Thistle 235 





Starwort 146 

Russian Thistle 




Statice 178 





Steironema 177 

Rye Grass 


Single Beauty 


Stellaria 92 



Stemless Evening 





Primrose 160 

Sagebrush 231, 




Stenanthium 54 





Stenophragma 108 





Stenophyllus 50 



Skunk Bush 


Stick Leaf 155 



Skunk Cabbage 







Stickseed 188 



Slough Grass 


Stinking Clover 116 





Stinking Mustard 116 





Stipa 40 

Salt Grass 




St. John's-wort 152 














201, 202 

Stonecrop 118 










Stramonium 198 

Sand Bur 




Strawberry 129 

Sand Grass 


Snow Plant 


Streptanthus 111 





Streptopus 64 

Sandwort . 




Stylocline 223 





Suaeda 84 





Subularia 109 





Sugar Bowls 100 





Sullivantia 119 





Sumac 147 



Solomon's Seal 






Sundew 117 










Sunflower 227-229 





Swamp Laurel 171 



Sow Thistle 


Sweet-after-Death 103 



Spanish Clover 


Sweet Alyssum 109 





Sweetbrier 132 

Saxifrage 119, 




Sweet Cicely 164-166 





Sweet Clover 138 



Spear Grass 


Sweet Flag 51 





Sweet Gale 73 










Sweet Vernal Grass 38 




204, 205 

Swertia 179 





Symphoricarpos 213 
Syntherisma 38 

Scotch Broom 




Synthyris 205 



Sphenosci adium 


Syringa 123 








Spike Rush 






Taeniopleurum 166 

Sea Basket-grass 




Talinum 87 

Sea Elite 




Tanacetum 231 



Spoon Cress 


Tansy 129, 231 





Tansy Mustard 111 





Taraxacum 236 





Taraxia 160 



Spring Beauty 


Tarweed 225, 226 

Sego Lily 








145, 146 Taxus 29 




145 ! Teasel 216 




Tuin Pod 114 


Tea Vine 194 

Twisted-stalk 64 

Water-nymph 35 

Tellima 122 

Tws* Flower 111 

Water Parsnip 167 

Tetradymia 233 

Typha 34 

Water Pennywort 165 

Teucrium 192 


Water Pepper 82 

Thalesia 209 

Water-Plantain 36 

Thalictrum 102 

Ulex 135 


Thaspium 166 



Thelypodium 1 10 

Ulmus 76 

Water Purslane 157 

Thermopsis 137 


Water Shield 95 

Thimbleberry 131 

Umbellularia 104 

Water Starwort 146 

Thistle 84, 234, 235 



Thlaspi 111 

Unifolium 62 


Thorn Apple 198 
Thorough wax 165, 167 

Uropappus 236 
Urtica 77 

Water Weed 36 

Thoroughwort 221 


Waterwort 153 

Thread Head 47 

Utricularia 210 


Three-awned Grass 39 

Wax Myrtle 73 

Thrift 178 


Wheat 47 

Thuja 29 

Vaccinium 175 

Whipplea 123 

Thysanocarpus 115 
Tiarella 120 

Vagnera 63 
Valerian 184 

Whispering Bells 186 
White- flowering Grass ~>l> 

Tickseed 224 

Valeriana 215 

JFWe Sage 84 

Tiger-lily 59 


Whitlow-grass 115 

Tillaea 117 

Valerianella 215 

Whorl-grass 44 

Tillaeastrum 117 


JFiW Ca&baoe 110 

Timothy 41 

Vancouveria 103 

JFiM Cherry 135 

Tissa 94 

Velvet Grass 41 

TFiW Cucumber 216 

Toadflax 201 

Velvet-leaf 151 

TFiW Ginoer 79 

Toad-lily 88 

Venus' Looking-glass 216 

IFiW Licorice 136 

Tobacco 198 

Veratrum 55 

TFiW flye 47 

Tobacco Root 215 

Verbascum 201 

JFitfou- 70-72 

Tocalote 235 

Verbena 192 


Tofieldia 54 


Willow-herb 158 

TomatiUo 197 

Vernal Grass 38 

Wine Bush 222 

Tomato 197 

Veronica 204 

TFi?i<er Cress 112 

Tonella 202 

Vervain 192 

Winter Fat 84 

Toothpick Plant 166 
Toothwort 114 

Vetch 141, 142 

Wintergreen 169, 170 


Touch-me-not 148, 149 

Viburnum 213 

Wolfbane 99 


Vicia 141 

Wood tfusfc 52 

Townsendia 222 

Vinegar Weed 194 

Wood Sorrel 144 

Tragopogon 237 

Vine Maple 148 


Trautvetteria 95 

Viola 153 

Woolly Sunflower 229 

Treacle Mustard 115 


Wormwood 232 

Trefoil 140 

Violet 60, 153-155 

Woundwort 195 

Trichostema 194 


Wyethia 227 

Trientalis 177 

Virgin Bower 100 

Trifolium 138 


Xanthium 226 

Triglochin 35 

Vitis 150 

Xerophyllum 54 

Trillium 64 

Trisetum 42 

Wahoo 147 

Yard Grass 47 

Triticum 47 

Wall-flower 115, 116 

Farrow* 230 

Trollius 95 

Wapato 36 

Yellow Pond-lily 95 

Tsuga 31 

Wart Cress 111 

FeMou> flattJe 201 

Tule 50 

Washingtonia 164-166 

Yerba Santa 186 

Tumbleweed 85 

Water Celery 166 


Tumbling Mustard 111 
Turkey Mullein 145 

Water Cress 113 
Water Hemlock 165 


Turnip 112 

Water Horehound 196 

Turtlehead 200 

Water-leaf 187 


Twayblade 69 



Turin-berry 214 

Water-lily 95 

Zizia 166 

Twin-flower 212 



Twin-leaf 63 

Water Milfoil 162 







APR 27 1 

MAR 11 195! 

3 Mr' 5; 

APR 15 1964